Indians of Iowa

Indians of Iowa include numerous Native American tribes which have lived in the state of Iowa historically and prehistorically:[1][2][3]

Chewerean-Siouan speaking tribes from the prehistoric period

The Chewerean tribes are probably descendant from the prehistoric Oneota, and appear to have been interconnected. At the time of contact with European explorers, their range covered most of Iowa. The Ho-Chunk ranged primarily east of the Mississippi in southern Wisconsin, the Ioway/Baxoje ranged in northern Iowa, the Otoe in central and southern Iowa, and the Missouria in far southern Iowa.[4][5][6]

Dakotan-Siouan speakers from the prehistoric period

The Dakota pushed southward into much of Iowa in the 18th and 19th century, and were commonly seen by settlers.[3] In 1840, the translator Isaac Galland noted several Sioux groups in or near Iowa, including Wahpekute, North Sisseton, South Sisseton, East Wahpetonwan, West Wahpetonwan, Yankton, and Mdewakantonwan.[7]

Dhegihan-Siouan speaking tribes which arrived in the late prehistoric period

The Dhegiha lived near the Missouri in the very Late Prehistoric and historic periods; they appear to have migrated to the region from the south or southeast, their origin location is debated.[8][9]

Other Siouan-language-speaking tibes of the late prehistoric period

These may be descendants of Late Prehistoric Mill Creek cultures whose range extended into northwest Iowa.[2]

Caddoan-speaking tribes of the late prehistoric period


These may be descendants of Late Prehistoric Central Plains Tradition cultures that lived in southwest Iowa, especially around the Glenwood area. The Pawnee (Panis) are shown in southwest Iowa in a 1798 map, although they ranged primarily to the west.[2]

Algonquian speakers from the early historical period

The encroachment of Europeans and long-term conflict among Algonquian and Iroquian tribes in the east pushed many eastern tribes into the Midwest. The Meskwaki have maintained a presence in Iowa, even after official removal in 1846, ultimately establishing a recognized Settlement.[1][3]

Iroquoian speakers from the early historical period

Again, the encroachment of Europeans and long-term conflict between Algonquian and Iroquian tribes in the east pushed these tribes into the Midwest.[1][3]

Moved into Iowa in the historical period

Forced relocation of tribes in the 19th century led to eastern tribes living in and near Iowa.[1] Potawatomi Chief Sauganash founded the village that eventually grew into Council Bluffs.[11]

Others

Federally recognized Indian settlements in Iowa

Notable Indians who lived in Iowa

References

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