World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Iris florentina

Article Id: WHEBN0048009275
Reproduction Date:

Title: Iris florentina  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Hybrid name, Iris (plant), List of culinary herbs and spices, Poisonous plants, Fleur-de-lis
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Iris florentina

Iris florentina
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
Order: Asparagales
Family: Iridaceae
Subfamily: Iridoideae
Tribe: Irideae
Genus: Iris
Subgenus: Iris
Species: Iris florentina
Binomial name
Iris florentina

Iris filifolia 'Florentina' [1]

Iris florentina is a species in the genus Iris, it is also in the subgenus of Iris. It is a rhizomatous perennial, from southern Europe, mainly Italy (including the city of Florence) and France. It has a thick, violet scented rhizome, sword-like, green or grey-green leaves, that are semi-evergreen, a tall branched stem, many flowers that are white and tinged, or flushed with blue, or pale blue, or lavender in spring or summer. It also has a white and yellow beard. It is classed by iris societies as a tall bearded iris. It is now classified as Iris germanica nothovar. florentina, a variety of Iris germanica. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions almost worldwide. It is also grown to produce orris-root, a scented substance used in perfumes, soaps, tooth cleanser, clothes washing powder. Medicinally it was also used as an expectorant and decongestant. It is made from the rhizomes of Iris florentina, Iris germanica and Iris pallida.


  • Description 1
    • Biochemistry 1.1
  • Taxonomy 2
  • Distribution and habitat 3
    • Range 3.1
    • Habitat 3.2
  • Conservation 4
  • Cultivation 5
    • Propagation 5.1
    • Hybrids and Cultivars 5.2
  • Toxicity 6
  • Uses 7
  • Culture 8
  • References 9
  • Other sources 10
  • External links 11


Iris florentina has a thick,[2][3][4] or stout rhizome.[5][6][7] Which is short,[4] fleshy, horizontal,[8] and has a strong,[9] violet scent.[6] The rhizomes spread across the surface of the ground,[1][10][11] to form clumps of plants.[11][12] This habit can often create a dense network of fibrous roots, that can crowd out other plants.[3]

It has basal (rising up from the rhizome),[11][13] ensiform (sword-shaped),[8][14][15] light green,[6][16] pale green,[8] or grey-green leaves.[10][11][17] They are semi-evergreen,[1][11][12] or evergreen (in mild winters).[10][18] :24 The leaves can grow up to between 30–70 cm (12–28 in) long,[8][10] and between 2.5–4 cm (1–2 in)wide.[5][11] They are shorter than the stem.[8][14][17]

It has a straight,[7] stem or peduncle, that can grow up to between 38–100 cm (15–39 in) tall.[6][19] :63[20] It may reach up to 75–100 cm (30–39 in) after about 3 years.[15] Although it may reach 121 cm (48 in), (in ideal conditions).[1][21] The stems have 2 - 4 branches.[5][8][22] The branches reduce in size as you go up the stem,[8] starting from the middle.[4] The branches can be long, when compared to Iris albicans (another white flowered iris),[22][23]

The stem has 1-2, (scarious) membranous or sub-scarious, spathes (leaves of the flower bud).[24] At flowering time, the spathes become brown and papery,[3][17][25] or fully scarious.[24] They can be up to 40–80 cm (16–31 in) long.[5] 1.5-2 in long The lower spathes are green and leaf-like.[8]

It has a short pedicel (or flower stalk), and green perianth tube, that is 3.2 cm long,[5][8] it is covered normally by the spathes.[17]

The stem (and the many branches) hold between 4 to 7 flowers.[10][17][19]:121 at terminal ends.[25][26] Sometimes in pairs.[7][14][26] The fragrant flowers,[17][19]:121[23] smell of violets,[2] appear in spring,[16][20][25] or early summer,[11][15][21] or mid-summer,[6][7] between late April and May,[2][8][18] :22 or between March and May.[27]

The large flowers,[7][16][26] are up to 25 cm (10 in) in diameter (or across).[21] They come in white,[17][28]:142[29] (sometimes described as 'dead white,[2]) or greyish white,[8][16] or bluish white,[19]:121[21][26] or very pale lavender.[11][15] They are slightly tinged, or flushed with blue,[8][20][25] or pale blue,[2] or lavender.[6][12][18]:22 They are especially tinted when in bud.[22] The flowers are often confused with Iris albicans (which also has white flowers).[23][25]

Like other irises, it has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals), known as the 'standards'.[26][28]:17 The deflexed,[8][26] or drooping falls,[1][4] are obovate,[17] or cuneate (wedge) shaped.[5][20] They are 7.6–9 cm (3–4 in) long and 3.8 cm (1 in) wide.[5] There is some greenish-yellow veining on the haft, (section of the petal near the stem),[10][23] and in the centre of the falls,[3] there is a narrow fillet of white cilias (called a beard) with deep yellow tips,[8][17][26] bright yellow,[5][20] or orange yellow.[10] The standards are erect,[1][4][8] oboval,[20] and narrower than the falls.[17] The hafts of the standards, have a small white beard.[24][28]:142

It has style branches,[4] that are toothed and 3.8 cm long, with a deltoid crests.[5] It has an oblong shaped and pearl coloured stigma.[8]

After the iris has flowered, between July and August,[17] it produces a fusiform (spindle shaped),[17] trigonal, or oblong seed capsule.[8] It is longer than the seed capsule of Iris germanica.[8] The capsule is loculicidal (has chambers),[11] with 3 cells,[26] that hold dark brown,[17] or brown seeds.[4] The seeds are normally lined up like rolls of coins.[4]


In 1973, a chemical study was carried out on Iris florentina, it found isoflavone glycosides.[30]

In 2013, a study listed all the naturally occurring xanthones. It mentioned that Arisawa and Morita have isolated tetraoxygenated xanthone glycoside 2-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5-methoxy-1,3,6-trihydroxyxanthone from Iris florentina.[31]

In 2014, a study was carried out on the essential oil of Iris florentina. It found several compounds including decanoic acid, ethanon, α-Iron, trans-2,6-γ-Iron, lauric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, 9,12 oktadecadienoic acid and hexanedioic acid bis ester.[32]

In 2015, a study was carried out on the antioxidant and anticholinesterase potential of the iris.[33]

As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes, this can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings.[28]:18 It has a count of 2n=44, meaning it is a tetraploid.[10][34]


Painted illustration of Iris florentina by Sydenham Edwards for Curtis's Botanical Magazine in 1803

It has the common names of 'Florentine Iris',[1][11][14] 'Florentine Flag' (in the US),[8] 'Glaive lily',[1][12] 'White German Iris',[3] and 'White Flower De Luce',[7]

It is sometimes known as orris root, which also comes from the rhizomes of Iris germanica and Iris pallida.[7]

The French call it commonly as 'la flambe blanche' (the white torch of the garden).[18] :20[35]

It is known in Malta as 'Fjurduliz abjad',[27] in Danish as 'violrod', in France as 'Iris de florence', in German as 'florentinsche schwertlilie', in Spanish (and Portuguese) as 'lirio blanco' or 'lirio de Florencia'.[36]

The Latin specific epithet florentina refers to a 'Latinised' word meaning ‘from Florence’.[11][18]:22[37]

It was first collected Italy, and then introduced to N. Europe in about 1500.[38][39] It has been cultivated for centuries in Europe.[3]

It was first published and described by Carl Linnaeus, in Systema Naturae Edition 10, Issue2 on page863 on 7 June 1759, as Iris florentina.[40][41] It was thought to be similar to Iris germanica, but with white flowers.[23]

In 1796, Iris officinalis Salisb. was published by Salisb in Prodr. Stirp. Chap. Allerton Vol.43.[42] But this was later classed as Iris florentina.

In 1910, William Rickatson Dykes in The Gardeners' Chronicle of September 17 in 1910,[23] felt that Iris florentina was not a wild species but had hybrid origin,[17] or form of Iris germanica.[19]:121

In his book, 'The Iris' in 1981, Brian Mathew, re-classified the iris as Iris germanica 'Florentina'.[23][25][39]

This later became Iris germanica nothovar. florentina.

It was verified by United States Department of Agriculture and the Agricultural Research Service on 19 October 1994, then updated on 12 September 2005, as Iris germanica L. nothovar. florentina Dykes.[41]

It is listed in the Encyclopedia of Life as Iris germanica var. florentina.[43]

Iris florentina is an accepted name by the RHS,[1] it was given the Award of Garden Merit in 1994.[9][11][12]

Distribution and habitat

It is native to central,[5] and southern Europe.[2][10][18]:24


It is found in Italy,[20][28]:142[44] (including Tuscany,[22]) France,[4][38] and the Mediterranean islands,[19]:121[28]:142 (including Malta).[27]

Botanist Desfontaines found it in Algiers, where it is grown with Iris germanica near graves.[8]

It has been naturalised in many other countries, from the Mediterranean,[2] (including west Africa and southern Spain,[19]:121) to India,[10] and Iran.[7] In Russia, it grows in the south of western Siberia. Outside of Russia, it is found in Kazakhstan, Mongolia and China.[17]

In many regions of the world, especially in Italy, it is cultivated for commercial use.[7][13]


It grows on sunny mountain slopes,[7] on steppes, sandy or rocky dry slopes.[17]

It naturalises along roadsides, field margins, olive groves, abandoned vineyards and other cultivated sites.[3]


All the stations in the other countries where it has become naturalized for centuries, it is gone, or they are declining.[10] Not protected by law and not listed in the flora section of the National Red Data book (1989)[27]


It is hardy,[8] to between USDA Zone 3 and Zone 9,[11] or between 5 to 8.[21] It is also hardy to Zone H2 (in Europe),[25] between -15 to-20oC (5 to -4oF).[45] It has been tested for hardiness in Russia, in the botanical gardens of; Barnaul, Novosibirsk, St. Petersburg and Ufa.[17] In the winter, it requires protection from moisture (in Russia).[17] It can be cultivated well throughout Europe and N America, except in the warm moist climates of Florida and Gulf Coast.[6]

It prefers to grow in moist, well drained soils,[1][11][21] in loam.[1][16] It can tolerate sandy soils,[16] or any common garden soil.[14][20] It also tolerates most soil pH levels of, and will tolerate very alkali or acid soils.[1][11][16]

It prefers a situation in full sun,[1][16][21] to light shade.[11]

It will suffer from rhizome viruses in waterlogged soil.[1][17]

It can be grown in mixed flower borders,[1][16] rock gardens,[17] and beside the edges of shrubberies.[20] It can be a cut flower for displays.[16]

It is deer and rabbit resistant,[16] but can suffer from leaf spot,[1] Iris borer,[16] thrips,[1] slug and snails.[1][10][15] Aphids Aphis newtoni and Dysaphis tulipae can also be found on the plant.[46]

The irises are planted shallow, leaving the tops of the rhizomes exposed,[21] to the sun. They are not mulched, as this could cause rotting to the rhizomes.[15] They can be fertilized in early spring, and again in late summer,[16] with a general fertilizer or bone meal.[15] The foliage can be cut back in the autumn, after the flowers have faded.[1][15]


Iris florentina can only be propagated by division,[14][17][20] of the rhizomes,[7] after flowering,[21][22] up to six weeks after flowering,[11] and in the autumn.[1][8]

They should be divided every 3 to 4 years,[16][21] when large clumps.[11]

The old woody-like centre, should be removed,[15][21] along with any damaged sections.[2] The rhizomes are then left exposed, to allow the cuts to callus, then the foliage is trimmed,[2] (to reduce water loss). Then the new rhizome sections can be re-planted, in new situations and at a shallow depth.[15]

Hybrids and Cultivars

It has a few cultivars including; 'Alba',[38] 'Blue Zua',[39] 'Bluzugraf',[39] 'Elizabeth Huntington',[39] 'Elsie Crouch Diltz',[39] 'Firmament',[39] 'Florentina purpurea',[39] 'Gambetta',[38] 'Janet Barnes',[39] 'New Orleans' (which has light grey flowers),[44] 'Queen Emma',[38] 'Silver King',[38] and 'Zua'.[39]

There are a few crosses: 'Altar Candles', 'Tan Crown', 'Vendor'.[39]


An 1897 botanical image from Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen

Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves), if mistakenly ingested, it can cause stomach pains and vomiting.[10][12][16] Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction.[47]

It was noted by G.R Winter (in 1948, J Periodont 19:108) that allergic manifestations can be caused by the use of a dentifrice (teeth cleaner) containing orris root powder.[48]


The violet scented rhizome has many uses including, a perfume,[14] for mixing with hair powder,[8][14] powder used for washing clothes, hair, and teeth,[49] used as a fresh scent for linen, a base for dry shampoos, base for tooth powders, in face-packs, as a fixative in pot-pourri.[6]

It was used medicinally as an expectorant (clearance of mucus from the airways) and decongestant.[44][49] It was also formerly used for treating wounds and chest infections.[3] It was also administered for the cure of dropsy.[50] It was also used sometimes for bronchitis, coughs and sore throat, for colic and for congection of the liver.[13] It is rarely used medicinally nowadays.[6] It has been chewed as a breath freshener, carved into rosary beads, and given to babies as a teething aid.[49]

It is still used in cosmetics,[15] perfumes, soaps and sweets. Also used for maturing Chianti wine.[11][22]


Iris florentina is considered one of the irises (with Iris pseudacorus) that inspired the fleur-de-lys (or fleur-de-luce) of heraldry,[6][7][15] which was the symbol of the city of Florence for centuries,[7][10] and is on the coat of arms of the city.

A legend of the city, tells that on St. Reparata's Day in the year 405, the Goths had the city of Florence under siege, and the city defences were failing. Suddenly, St. Reparata appeared in the midst of the fighting, holding a blood-red banner emblazoned with a white iris. This changed the battle and lifted the spirits of the Florentines, which lead then to be victorious. In gratitude (to St Reparata), the city adopted the symbol for its coat of arms,[49] from the 11th Century onwards.[51] After the battle, in which the Guelfs (or Guelphs,) routed the Ghibellines in the late thirteenth century,[49] which ended in 1250.[51] or 1267.[52] The colours were then reversed, and the red lily (or red giglio,[51]) on a field of white, which became the symbol of Florence.[49][51][53]

During the Middle Ages and the Renaissance period, ‘Iris green' (or 'Verdelis' and 'Vert d'iris'),[8] was a rare, paint pigment colour used by manuscript illuminators and painters.[49][54] It was made from the juice of the fresh flowers of Iris florentine and/or Iris germanica.[8][54][55] The bluish or purplish petal juice was steeped (soaked) in boiling water, then combined and thickened with alum.[49][54] It then produces a clear green paint. It was used in the 14th and 15th centuries. It can not be distinguished from 'sap green' (or 'verte de vessie' or 'verde di vesica') a paint juice derived from Buckthorn berries.[54]

On the triptych painting, "Adorazione dei Pastori" by painter Hugo van der Goes (in 1475 or 1476), it has images of Iris florentina and Iris pallida.[19]:20[52] It is in the Botticelli room of the Uffizi Gallery.[52]

The white flowers of Iris florentina are also used church decoration,[18]:20 and planted around graves in the city of Florence, as a token of respect to the deceased.[35][56]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Iris Florentina". Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ruth D. WrenschThe Essence of Herbs, p. 213, at Google Books
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Neil Fletcher Mediterranean Wildflowers, p. 52, at Google Books
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Iris florentina" (PDF). Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Richard Lynch and Henry Ewbank The Book of the Iris (1904), p. 148, at Google Books
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j McVicar, Jekka (2006) [1997]. Jekka's Complete Herb Book (Revised ed.). Bookmark Ltd.  
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "Florentine Iris". Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y John Sims Curtis's Botanical Magazine, Or, Flower-garden, Volume 18 (1803), p. 95, at Google Books
  9. ^ a b Christopher Brickell (Editor)RHS Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers (5th Edition, 2010), p. 611, at Google Books
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Chapitre I Les Iris Rhizomateux (partie 1)". Retrieved 18 September 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s "Iris germanica Florentina". 31 May 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f "Iris florentina". Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  13. ^ a b c John LustThe Herb Book: The Most Complete Catalog of Herbs Ever Published (2009), p. 292, at Google Books
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h Caledonian Horticultural Society, EdinburghCaledonian Horticultural Society, Edinburgh, p. 245, at Google Books
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Stefan Buczacki The Herb Bible: The definitive guide to choosing and growing herbs, p. 223, at Google Books
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Iris florentina". Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Bearded Irises (IRIS) Sem. Kasatikovye". Retrieved 5 September 2015. 
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Walter Stager Tall Bearded Iris (Fleur-de-Lis): What, When, Where, and How to Plant and subsequent plant (1917) at Google Books
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h Cassidy, George E.; Linnegar, Sidney (1987). Growing Irises (Revised ed.). Bromley: Christopher Helm.  
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j William Robinson Hardy Flowers (1878), p. 149, at Google Books
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Iris". 13 February 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  22. ^ a b c d e f Stebbings, Geoff (1997). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Irises. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. p. 22.  
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Mathew, Brian (1981). The Iris. 
  24. ^ a b c British Iris Society (1997) A Guide to Species Irises: Their Identification and Cultivation, p. 33, at Google Books
  25. ^ a b c d e f g James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey (Editors) The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification (2011) , p. 340, at Google Books
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h The Dispensatory of the United States of America (1865), p. 486, at Google Books
  27. ^ a b c d "Iris florentina". Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f Austin, Claire (2005). Irises; A Garden Encyclopedia. Timber Press.  
  29. ^ Thomas Gaskell Tuti (Editor)Flora Europaea, Volume 5, p. 89, at Google Books
  30. ^ Tsukida, Kiyoshi; Saiki, Kayoko; Ito, Masayoshi (September 1973). "New isoflavone glycosides from Iris florentina". Phytochemistry 12 (9): 2318–2319.  
  31. ^ Negi, J. S.; Bisht, V. K.; Singh, P.; Rawat, M. S. M.; Joshi, G. P. (4 April 2013). "Naturally Occurring Xanthones: Chemistry and Biology". Journal of Applied Chemistry.  
  32. ^ Kara, Nimet; Baydar, Hasan (2014). "Scent Components In Essential Oil, Resinoids And Absolute Of Iris (Iris florentina L.)". Anadolu Journal of Agricultural Sciences 29 (1).  
  33. ^ Ullaha, Farhat; Ayaza, Muhammad; Sadiqa, Abdul; Hussaina, Abid; Ahmada, Sajjad; Imrana, Muhammad; Zeba, Anwar (21 April 2015). "Phenolic, flavonoid contents, anticholinesterase and antioxidant evaluation of Iris germanica var; florentina". Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural Product Letters.  
  34. ^ Twardovska, M.O.; Andreev, I.O.; Kunakh, V.A. "Karyotypes of species of the genus Iris from the flora of Ukraine". Vascular Plants: Taxonomy, Geography and Floristics.  
  35. ^ a b Jennifer HelveyIrises: Vincent Van Gogh in the Garden, p. 29, at Google Books
  36. ^ John H. Wiersema and Blanca LeónWorld Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, Second Edition, p. 370, at Google Books
  37. ^ D. Gledhill The Names of Plants, p. 176, at Google Books
  38. ^ a b c d e f Sand, Austin W.W. (July 1926). Cornell Memoir, 100 Study of Pogoniris Varieties. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bob, Pries (12 December 2014). "(SPEC) Iris florentina L.". (American Iris Society). Retrieved 1 October 2015. 
  40. ^ "Iridaceae Iris florentina L.". (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  41. ^ a b "Taxon: Iris florentina L.". ( 
  42. ^ "Iridaceae Iris officinalis Salisb.". (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  43. ^ "Iris germanica var. florentina". Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  44. ^ a b c "Annals of Horticulture and Year book of Information on Practical Gardening for 1847". Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  45. ^ "Plant Hardiness". Retrieved 3 August 2015. 
  46. ^ R. L. Blackman, Victor F. Eastop Aphids on the World's Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs, p. 553, at Google Books
  47. ^ David G Spoerke and Susan C. SmolinskeToxicity of Houseplants, p. 236, at Google Books
  48. ^ D. Jesse Wagstaff International Poisonous Plants Checklist: An Evidence-Based Reference, p. 207, at Google Books
  49. ^ a b c d e f g h O'Sullivan, Joanne (21 April 2011). "Consider the iris, A look at Florence's best-known symbol". Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  50. ^ John Stephenson and James Morss ChurchilMedical Botany, Or, Illustrations and Descriptions of the medicinal, Volume 1 (1831), p. 217, at Google Books
  51. ^ a b c d Hogerbrugge, Liesbeth (16 August 2013). "The history of the Giglio of Florence". Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  52. ^ a b c Detterer, Gabriele (14 April 2002). "As the Irises in the field". Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  53. ^ "The Florentine Iris, History of a symbol". 25 May 2015. Retrieved 3 October 2015. 
  54. ^ a b c d Daniel V. Thompson The Materials and Techniques of Medieval Painting (2012), p. 171, at Google Books
  55. ^ "Report of the 1st International Symposium on Iris - Florence". 14 May 1963. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  56. ^ Sir Joseph Paxton (Editor)Paxton's Magazine of Botany, and Register of Flowering Plants, Volume 1 , p. 83, at Google Books

Other sources

  • Bailey, L. H. 1957. Manual of cultivated plants, revised ed. 271. ["of questionable application"].
  • Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR).
  • Duke, J. A. et al. 2002. CRC Handbook of medicinal herbs.
  • Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea. [doubtedly the basionym of I. ×germanica var. florentina].

External links

  • Data related to Iris florentina at Wikispecies

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.