World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Iroquoian languages

Iroquois
Geographic
distribution:
eastern North America
Linguistic classification: One of the world's primary language families
Subdivisions:
ISO 639-2 / 5: iro
Glottolog: iroq1247[1]
}
Pre-European contact distribution of the Iroquoian languages.

The Iroquoian languages are a First Nation and Native American language family. They are known for their general lack of labial consonants. Iroquoian languages are polysynthetic and head-marking.[2]

Today, all surviving Iroquoian languages except Cherokee and Mohawk are severely endangered, with only a few elderly speakers remaining.[3]

Contents

  • Family division 1
  • External relations 2
  • Iroquois linguistics and language revitalization 3
  • See also 4
  • Notes 5
  • Bibliography 6
  • Further reading 7

Family division

Southern Iroquoian
Cherokee
Northern Iroquoian
Lakes Iroquoian
Five Nations and Susquehannock
Seneca–Onondaga
Seneca–Cayuga
Seneca (severely endangered)
Cayuga (severely endangered)
Onondaga
Onondaga (severely endangered)
Mohawk–Oneida
Oneida (severely endangered)
Mohawk
Susquehannock
Susquehannock (†)
Huronian
Wyandot (HuronPetun) (†)
Wenrohronon (†)
Neutral (†)
Erie (†)
Tuscarora–Nottoway
Tuscarora (nearly extinct)
Nottoway (†)
Unclear
Laurentian (†)

Scholars are finding that what has been called the Laurentian language appears to be more than one dialect or language.

In 1649 the tribes constituting the Huron and Petun confederations were displaced by war parties from Five Nations villages (Mithun 1985). Many of the survivors went on to form the Wyandot tribe. Ethnographic and linguistic field work with the Wyandot (Barbeau 1960) yielded enough documentation to be able to make some characterizations of the Huron and Petun languages.

The languages of the tribes that constituted the Wenrohronon, Neutral and the Erie confederations were very poorly documented. These groups were called Atiwandaronk meaning 'they who understand the language' by the Huron, and thus are historically grouped with them.

The group known as the Meherrin were neighbors to the Tuscarora and the Nottoway (Binford 1967) and may have spoken an Iroquoian language. There is not enough data to determine this with certainty.

External relations

Attempts to link the Iroquoian, Siouan, and Caddoan languages in a Macro-Siouan family are suggestive but remain unproven (Mithun 1999:305).

Iroquois linguistics and language revitalization

As of 2012, a program in Iroquois linguistics, the Certificate in Iroquois Linguistics for Language Learners, offered at the Syracuse University, is designed for students and language teachers working in language revitalization.[4][5]

Six Nations Polytechnic in Ohsweken, Ontario offers Ogwehoweh language Diploma and Degree Programs in Mohawk or Cayuga.[6]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Iroquoian".  
  2. ^ Mithun, Marianne. "Grammaticalization and Polysynthesis: Iroquoian" (PDF). Retrieved June 8, 2015. 
  3. ^ "Iroquoian Languages". www.languagegeek.com. Retrieved 2015-08-09. 
  4. ^ "Certificate in Iroquois Linguistics for Language Learners". University College. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  5. ^ Gale Courey Toensing (2012-09-02). "Iroquois Linguistics Certificate at Syracuse University Comes at Important Time for Native Languages". Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 2012-09-06. 
  6. ^ Six Nations Polytechnic

Bibliography

  • Barbeau, C. Marius (1960), Huron-Wyandot Traditional Narratives in Translations and Native Texts, National Museum of Canada Bulletin 47; Anthropological Series 165, [Ottawa]: Canada Dept. of Northern Affairs and National Resources, . 
  • Binford, Lewis R. (1967), "An Ethnohistory of the Nottoway, Meherrin and Weanock Indians of Southeastern Virginia", Ethnohistory (Ethnohistory, Vol. 14, No. 3/4) 14 (3/4): 103–218,  .
  • Chilton, Elizabeth (2004), "Social Complexity in New England: AD 1000–1600", in . 
  • Goddard, Ives, ed. (1996), Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 17: Languages, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, . 
  • Lounsbury, Floyd G. (1978), "Iroquoian Languages", in Trigger, Bruce G., Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 15: Northeast, Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, pp. 334–43 [unified volume Bibliography, pp. 807–90], . 
  • . 
  • Mithun, Marianne (1985), "Untangling the Huron and the Iroquois", International Journal of American Linguistics 51 (4): 504–7,  .
  • Mithun, Marianne (1999), The Languages of Native North America, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, . 
  • Rudes, Blair A. (1993), "Iroquoian Vowels", Anthropological Linguistics 37 (1): 16–69 .

Further reading

  • Driver, Harold E. 1969. Indians of North America. 2nd edition. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226164670
  • Ruttenber, Edward Manning. 1992 [1872]. History of the Indian tribes of Hudson's River. Hope Farm Press.
  • Snow, Dean R. 1994. The Iroquois. Blackwell Publishers. Peoples of America. ISBN 9781557862259
  • Snow, Dean R.; Gehring, Charles T; Starna, William A. 1996. In Mohawk country: early narratives about a native people. Syracuse University Press. An anthology of primary sources from 1634-1810.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.