World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Irving Janis

Irving Lester Janis (May 26, 1918 – November 15, 1990) was a research psychologist at Yale University and a professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley most famous for his theory of "groupthink" which described the systematic errors made by groups when making collective decisions.[1][2] A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Janis as the 79th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[3]


  • Early years 1
  • Career 2
  • Personal life 3
  • Selected books 4
  • References 5

Early years

Irving Janis was born on May 26, 1918 in Buffalo, New York.[2] He received a bachelor of science degree from the University of Chicago in 1939, then received a doctorate from Columbia University.[4]


During the Second World War, Janis was drafted into the U.S. Army, where he carried out studies of military morale.[4] In 1947, Janis became a faculty member of the Yale University Psychology Department, where he remained for nearly forty years.[4] He collaborated with Carl Hovland on his studies of attitude change, including the sleeper effect.

During his career, Janis studied decisionmaking in areas such as dieting and smoking. This work described how people respond to threats, as well as what conditions give rise to irrational complacency, apathy, hopelessness, rigidity, and panic.

Janis also made important contributions to the study of group dynamics. He did extensive work in the area of “groupthink,” which describes the tendency of some groups to try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without sufficiently testing, analyzing, and evaluating their ideas. His work suggested that pressures for conformity restrict the thinking of the group, bias its analysis, promote simplistic and stereotyped thinking, and stifle individual creative and independent thought.[4]

Janis wrote or co-wrote more than a dozen books, including Psychological Stress (1958), Victims of Groupthink (1972), Decision Making (1977), Groupthink (1982), and Crucial Decisions (1989).[1][4]

In 1967 Janis was awarded the Socio-Psychological Prize by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.[5] In 1981, he received the Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award of the American Psychological Association. In 1991, he won the Distinguished Scientist Award from the Society of Experimental Social Psychology.[1][2]

He retired from Yale University in 1985, and in 1986 was appointed Adjunct Professor of Psychology Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley.[4]

Personal life

Janis was married to Marjorie Janis, with whom he had two daughters. He died of lung cancer on November 15, 1990 in Santa Rosa, California.[1]

Selected books

  • Janis, Irving L. (1958). Psychological stress; psychoanalytic and behavioral studies of surgical patients. New York: Wiley.  
  • Janis, Irving L. (1959). Personality and persuasibility. New Haven: Yale University Press.  
  • Janis, Irving L. (1969). Personality: dynamics, development, and assessment. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.  
  • Janis, Irving L. (1972). Victims of groupthink; a psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin.  
  • Janis, Irving L.; Mann, Leon (1977). Decision making: a psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. New York: Free Press.  
  • Wheeler, Daniel D.; Janis, Irving L. (1980). A practical guide for making decisions. New York: Free Press.  
  • Janis, Irving L. (1982). Counseling on personal decisions: theory and research on short-term helping relationships. New Haven: Yale University Press.  
  • Janis, Irving L. (1982). Groupthink: psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  
  • Janis, Irving L. (1982). Stress, attitudes, and decisions: selected papers. New York: Praeger.  
  • Janis, Irving L. (1989). Crucial decisions: leadership in policymaking and crisis management. New York: Free Press.  


  1. ^ a b c d "'"Irving Janis Dies at 72; Coined 'Group Think.  
  2. ^ a b c Smith, M. Brewster; Mann, Leon (June 1992). "Irving L. Janis (1918-1990): Obituary".  
  3. ^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology 6 (2): 139–152.  
  4. ^ a b c d e f Nemeth, Charlan;  
  5. ^ History & Archives: AAAS Prize for Behavioral Science Research
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.