World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Islam in Mozambique

Article Id: WHEBN0007129245
Reproduction Date:

Title: Islam in Mozambique  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Islam by country, Religion in Mozambique, Islam in Africa, Islam in Algeria, Islam in Angola
Collection: Islam by Country, Islam in Africa, Islam in Mozambique, Religion in Mozambique
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Islam in Mozambique

Islam in Mozambique is the religion of approximately 17.9% of the total population.[3] The vast majority of Mozambican Muslims are Sunni belonging to Shafi school of jurisprudence, although some Ismaili Shiite Muslims are also registered. The Muslims consists primarily of indigenous Mozambicans, citizens of South Asian (Indian and Pakistani) descent, and a very small number of North African and Middle Eastern immigrants.


  • Pre-colonial history 1
  • Colonial history 2
  • Modern Mozambique 3
  • Prominent Mozambican Muslims 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • External links 8

Pre-colonial history

Mozambique has long historic ties with the Ibadi Muslims from Oman along the shores of Eastern Africa.

The arrival of the Arab trade in Mozambique dates to the fourth Hijri century when Muslims established small emirates on the coast of East Africa. Links between Islam and the chiefly clans in Mozambique have existed since the eighth century, when Islam made inroads into the northern Mozambican coast and became associated with the Shirazi ruling elites.[1]

Since the founding of the Kilwa Sultanate in the 10th CE century by Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi, Islam had become a major religion in the region. The former port city of Sofala, which became famous for its trade in ivory, timber, slaves, gold (by way of Great Zimbabwe) and Iron with the Islamic Middle East and India, was one of the most important trading centers on the Mozambique coast.[2] Sofala [4] and much of the rest of coastal Mozambique was part of the Kilwa Sultanate from Arab arrival (believed to be the 12th century) until the Portuguese conquest in 1505.

During the subsequent period of the Omani Al Bu Said dynasty, Muslim merchants expanded their trading zones south along the coast. It is believed that nearly all of the cities' inhabitants were Muslim before the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century.

Colonial history

Islam faced serious challenges in Mozambique during the colonial era. During the Estado Novo period (1926–1974), Roman Catholicism became the dominant religion following a formal alliance (Concordat) between the Church and the government. Only with the start of the War of Liberation did the state lower its opposition to Islam and try to coopt the religion, in order to avoid an alliance between Muslims and the dissident liberation movement.

Modern Mozambique

A mosque in Mozambique

Since the end of the socialist period (1989 onwards), Muslims have been able to proselytise freely and build new mosques. Muslims have also made their way into the parliament. Several Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

Rather than relying on the culturally loaded notions of a "chief" of régulo, the FRELIMO government has preferred to use the term "traditional authorities" to indicate a group of chiefs and their entourage of subordinate chiefs and healers. Realizing the social importance of this group, FRELIMO gradually reinstated "traditional authority."[1]

While the Muslim leadership in northern Mozambique seems to have recovered the "traditional" side of their authority and power with legal reforms, they are still largely associated with chiefship and African culture rather than Islam. Because of this they are barely able to access benefits or gain socio-political influence through Islamic platforms or organizations. This situation has been the source of their continual frustration and resistance to the alleged racial and cultural discrimination perpetrated by FRELIMO allied with southern Wahhabis, Afro-Indians, and Indians.[1]

Whereas Sudan, for instance, has made sharia the law of the land, Mozambique has made attempts to recognize both traditional and religious marriages.[3]

Prominent Mozambican Muslims

  • Amade Camal, MP from Nampula Province
  • Shaykh Aminuddin Mohamad, head of the Islamic Council

See also


  1. ^ a b c Bonate, Liazzat J. K. Bonate (Spring 2007). "Islam and Chiefship in Northern Mozambique" (PDF). ISIM Review, issue 1, volume 19, p. 56-57. Retrieved 2014-06-10. 
  2. ^ "Sofala - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  3. ^ Martin, Richard C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World. Macmillan Reference USA.  


  • Liazzat Bonate, « Dispute over Islamic funeral rites in Mozambique. A Demolidora dos Prazeres by Shaykh Aminuddin Mohamad », LFM. Social sciences & missions, no.17, Dec.2005, pp. 41–59
  • Liazzat Bonate, « Matriliny, Islam and Gender in Northern Mozambique », Journal of Religion in Africa, vol.36, no.2, pp. 2006, pp. 139–166
  • Lorenzo, Macagno, Outros muçulmanos : Islão e narrativas coloniais, Lisbon (Portugal) : Imprensa de Ciências Sociais, 2006
  • Eric Morier-Genoud, « L’islam au Mozambique après l’indépendance. Histoire d’une montée en puissance », L’Afrique Politique 2002, Paris: Karthala, 2002, pp. 123–146
  • Eric Morier-Genoud, « The 1996 ‘Muslim holiday’ affair. Religious competition and state mediation in contemporary Mozambique », Journal of Southern African Studies, Oxford, vol.26, n°3, Sept. 2000, pp.409–427.
  • Eric Morier-Genoud, “A Prospect of Secularization? Muslims and Political Power in Mozambique Today”, Journal for Islamic Studies (Cape Town), no. 27, 2007, pp. 233–266
  • Eric Morier-Genoud, “Demain la sécularisation? Les musulmans et le pouvoir au Mozambique aujourd’hui”, in R. Otayek & B. Soares (ed.), Etat et société en Afrique. De l'islamisme à l'islam mondain? (Paris: Karthala, 2009), pp. 353–383

External links

  • Sofala in the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  • 2009 Mozambique International Religious Freedom Report
  • Religion in Mozambique
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.