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Jabalpur

Jabalpur
जबलपुर
Metropolis
Nickname(s): Marble City, Sanskaardhaani
Jabalpur is located in Madhya Pradesh
Jabalpur
Location of Jabalpur in India
Coordinates:
Country India
State Madhya Pradesh
District Jabalpur
Government
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body Jabalpur Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Swati Godbole
 • District collector Collector Jabalpur
 • Municipal commissioner Commissioner
Area
 • Metropolis 367 km2 (142 sq mi)
Elevation 412 m (1,352 ft)
Population (2011)[1][2]
 • Rank 37th
 • Density 478/km2 (1,240/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,081,677
 • Metro 1,267,564
 • Agglomeration Rank 40th
Demonym(s) Jabalpurians, Jabalpuriya, Jabalpurites
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 482001 to 4820xx
Telephone code +91-761
Vehicle registration MP-20
Sex ratio 929 /
Average Literacy Rate 89.13%
Official language Hindi
Website .in.nic.jabalpurwww
.org.jmcjabalpurwww

Jabalpur (Hindi: जबलपुर) is a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. According to the 2011 census, it is the third-largest urban agglomeration in Madhya Pradesh and the country's 26th-largest urban agglomeration.[2]

Jabalpur is the administrative headquarters of Jabalpur district (the second-most-populous district in Madhya Pradesh) and the Jabalpur division. Historically, a center of the Kalchuri and Gond dynasties, the city developed a syncretic culture influenced by intermittent Mughal and Maratha rule. During the early nineteenth century, it was annexed by British India as Jubbulpore and incorporated as a cantonment town. Since Indian independence there have been demands for a separate state of Mahakoshal, with Jabalpur its capital. The High Court of Madhya Pradesh is located here.

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Gond rulers 2.1
    • Maratha 2.2
    • The British Raj and the 1857 rebellion 2.3
    • Late 19th century 2.4
    • Gandhi era 2.5
    • After independence 2.6
  • Demographics 3
  • Civic administration 4
  • Arts and culture 5
  • Geography 6
  • Topography 7
  • Climate 8
  • Economy 9
    • Agriculture 9.1
    • Ordnance factories 9.2
    • Defence organisations 9.3
  • Division headquarters 10
  • Industry 11
  • Transportation 12
    • Air 12.1
    • Rail 12.2
    • Road 12.3
  • Telecommunications 13
  • Media 14
    • Newspapers 14.1
    • Radio 14.2
  • Tourism 15
  • Sports 16
  • Food 17
    • Malls and hypermarkets 17.1
  • Jabalpur Cantonment 18
  • Education 19
  • Notable residents 20
  • See also 21
  • References 22
  • External links 23

Etymology

The city's name is derived from the legendary sage Jaabaali, who is mentioned in the Ramayana, and may refer to Jaabaali's tapasya-bhoomi (place of penance). According to Bhedaghat folklore, a small cave on the bank of the Narmada River was Jaabaali's ashram. Variations of the name include Jabalipuram and Jubbulgarh, and under British rule the city was known as Jubbulpore. In 2006, the Jabalpur Municipal Corporation renamed the city Jabalipuram.[3]

History

Mythology describes three asura (evil spirits) in the Jabalpur region who were defeated by Shiva.[4] In Rupnath, 84 kilometres (52 mi) north of the city, Ashokan relics dating to 300 BCE have been found as evidence of the Maurya Empire (322 to 185 BCE).[4] When the empire fell, Jabalpur became a city-state before it was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE). Local rulers, including the Bodhis and the Senas, followed before the region became a vassal state of the Gupta Empire (320 to 550).[4]

From 675 to 800, the region was ruled by Bamraj Dev of the Kalachuri dynasty from Karanbel. The best known Kalachuri ruler was Yuvraj Dev I (reigned 915 to 945), who married Nohla Devi (a princess of the Chalukya dynasty). One of the Kalachuri amatya (ministers) was Golok Simha Kayastha, who was instrumental in founding the Chausath Yogini Temple near Bhedaghat. His descendants include Bhoj Simha, adviser to Sangramsahi (reigned 1491–1543); Adhar Simha, adviser to Rani Durgavati (reigned 1550–1564) and Beohar Raghuvir Sinha, jagirdar of Jabalpur until 1947.

Gond rulers

Painting of a soldier preparing for battle
Rani Durgavati preparing for the battle of Narrai; fresco by Beohar Rammanohar Sinha in Jabalpur's Shaheed-Smarak

The Gond king, Madan of Mandla, (reigned 1138 to 1157 CE) built a small Durgavati hilltop fort at Madan Mahal, an area in Jabalpur. In the 1500s, the Gond king, Sangram (whose son married Rani Durgavati) held Singaurgarh fort in Sangrampur (near Garha, Jabalpur).

In 1564, during the reign of Veer Narayan (Sangram's grandson), Abdul Majeed Harawi (viceroy of Kara-Manikpur in the Mughal Empire) conquered Jabalpur and its surrounds. However, the Mughal supremacy in Jabalpur was more nominal than real.

In 1698, the Gond king, Hriday (reigned 1652 to 1704) moved his court to the Mandla fort. He secured water sources and built irrigation structures. The last Gondi ruler was Nizam (reigned 1753 to 1780). After Nizam, the Gondi kingdom fell to the Maratha.

Maratha

The Maratha rulers of Sagar, Madhya Pradesh came to power in about 1781. Around 1798, the Maratha Peshwa (governor) gave the Nerbuddah valley to the Bhonsle kings of Nagpur, who ruled the area until 1818 when it was taken by the British East India Company after the Battle of Sitabuldi.

The British Raj and the 1857 rebellion

Under the British Raj, the name Jabbalgarh became Jubbulpore and the town was made the capital of the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories (part of the North-Western Provinces governed by the Agra Presidency.) Jabalpur was known for Thuggee murders, which were combated by William Henry Sleeman (later appointed chief commissioner at Jubbulpore and then British Resident at Lucknow). On 16 June 1857, in the cantonment of Jubbulpore, Gadadhar Tiwari opened fire on the British, sparking a rebellion. The four month long 1857 movement was led by the Gond king, Shankar and the prince, Raghunath. Both were arrested and imprisoned.

Late 19th century

In 1861, the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories became part of the new Central Provinces and in 1903, the Central Provinces and Berar. In the early 1900s, Jubbulpore became the headquarters of a brigade of the Fifth Division of the Southern Army. A gun carriage factory was established in Jabalpur in 1904.

Gandhi era

Gandhi, shirtless, with another man
Rajendra Sinha helping Mahatma Gandhi on the staircase of the Beohar Palace in Jabalpur

Mahatma Gandhi's longest stay in Jubbulpore was in 1933 at the Beohar palace of Rajendra Simha. Gandhi was accompanied by Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel, Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Ravishankar Shukla, Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari, Khurshed Nariman, Abul Kalam Azad, Jamnalal Bajaj, Syed Mahmud and Mahadev Desai.

Many freedom fighters joined Gandhi's three-S (Swadeshi, Swaraj and satyagraha) movements. Those from Jubbulpore included Rajendra Sinha, Ravishankar Shukla, Sunderlal Tapasvi, Thakur Laxman Singh Chauhan, Seth Govind Das, Harihar Vyas, Maheshdatt Mishra, Deviprasad Shukla, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, Hukumchand Narad, Makhanlal Chaturvedi, Balmukund Tripathi, Dwarka Prasad Mishra, Kunjilal Dubey, Narsinghdas Agrawal, Rameshwarprasad Guru, Bhawaniprasad Tiwari, Kashiprasad Pandey, Nathuram Vyas, Chidambaram Pillai, Sawaimal Jain, Satyendra Mishra, Sitaram Jadhav and Mulayamchand Jain.

In 1939, the Tripuri Congress session was chaired by Subhas Chandra Bose. The Swaraj movement was begun under the direction of Lokmanya Tilak. A Congress session was held at Vishnudatt Shukla Nagar at TilwaraGhat (near Jubbulpore) in 1939, when Subhas Chandra Bose was elected the Congress President over Gandhi's objections.

After independence

Group of men behind a small table
Rajendra Sinha (right), R. S. Shukla (centre) and L. S. Chauhan (left) immersing Gandhi's ashes in Tilwara Ghat, near Jabalpur

Gandhi's remains were brought to the city after his death. On 12 February 1948, the urn containing his ashes was immersed in the Narmada River at Tilwara Ghat by Ravishankar Shukla, Rajendra Sinha, Seth Govind Das and others.

In 1950, the Central Provinces and Berar became the state of Madhya Pradesh, and Shukla became the first chief minister of a congress led government. In 1956, Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh state. Jubbulpore became Jabalpur and Bhopal became the state capital.

Demographics

In the 2011 India census, the Jabalpur city (the area covered by the municipal corporation) recorded a population of 1,081,677.[1] The Jabalpur metropolitan area (urban agglomeration) recorded a population of 1,267,564.[2]

Civic administration

In 2011, Jabalpur covered an area of 53 square kilometres (20 sq mi). The Jabalpur municipal corporation, the JMC, is charged with governance of the city's civic and infrastructural assets. The corporation has two wings: deliberative and executive. The head of the executive wing is a municipal commissioner who is responsible for the corporation's day-to-day operation and assists the deliberative wing in the decision-making process. The JMC council has one elected representative (corporator) from each ward. Council elections, by popular vote, are held every five years. A corporator from the majority party is selected as mayor.

Jabalpur contributes one member to the Lok Sabha; its current member is Rakesh Singh of the Bharatiya Janata Party. The city sends eight members to the State Legislative Assembly: four from the city (Jabalpur Purba, Jabalpur Uttar, Jabalpur Cantonment and Jabalpur Paschim) and four from rural areas of the district. Jabalpur is divided into eight zones, each consisting of several wards.

Arts and culture

See caption
Calligraphic manuscript of the preamble of the Constitution of India, decorated in 1948–49 by Rammanohar Sinha

Jabalpur has been called Sanskaar Dhani (the cultural capital of Madhya Pradesh) by Vinayak Narhari Bhave; Bhopal is Raj Dhani (the state's political capital) and Indore is Vanijya Dhani (its commercial capital). Cultural figures associated with the city include Makhanlal Chaturvedi, Harishankar Parsai, Rajendra Simha, Subhadrakumari Chauhan, Kavi Indra Bahadur Khare, Seth Govind Das, Roopkumar Soni, Alakhnandan Sinha, Gyanranjan Shrivastava, Rehman, Prem Nath, Krishna Raj Kapoor, Arjun Rampal, Jaya Bachchan, Aadesh Shrivastava and Raghubir Yadav.

The Narmada River, Gondi rule and the Kalachuri and Maratha dynasties made Jabalpur a Hindu-dominated area, although Mughal rule attracted a sizeable Muslim population. The city's Hindu-Muslim riots during the 1960s shook the confidence of Muslims in secular India.[5]

Jabalpur's culture is related to the agricultural population of the city and surrounding area. Food and clothing change with the harvest and season. The city has sizable Marwari, Bengali, Malayali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Kannadiga, Marathi and Punjabi people populations. The Navratri and Dusshera festivals are celebrated by residents and visitors from throughout the state.

Geography

India's central point is in the Jabalpur district. The city has an average elevation of 411 metres (1,348 feet).

Topography

Jabalpur's hills, with their variety of minerals, draw geologists and archaeologists. The city is surrounded by low, rocky, barren hillocks. Its primary reservoirs (Khandari and Pariyat) are northeast of the city, and water is also drawn from the Narmada River by the public-health department.

The main crops grown in the region are wheat, rice, pulses, oilseeds and maize. Bargi Dam, on the Narmada, is used for irrigation, water and power generation. Jabalpur is surrounded by several lakes and water tanks. The area is rich in limestone, refractory clay, bauxite, iron ore, manganese and other deposits, and there is some mineral-related industry in the area.

Climate

Jabalpur
Climate chart ()
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
19
 
 
24
8
 
 
16
 
 
28
11
 
 
16
 
 
34
16
 
 
5
 
 
39
21
 
 
11
 
 
42
26
 
 
169
 
 
38
26
 
 
382
 
 
31
24
 
 
458
 
 
29
23
 
 
188
 
 
31
23
 
 
39
 
 
32
19
 
 
12
 
 
29
12
 
 
11
 
 
25
9
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: IMD

Jabalpur has a humid subtropical climate typical of north-central India (Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh). Summer begins in late March, lasting until June. May is the hottest month, with the average temperature exceeding 45 °C (113 °F). Summer is followed by the southwest monsoon, which lasts until early October and produces 35 inches (889 mm) of rain from July to September. Average annual precipitation is nearly 55 in (1386 mm). Winter begins in late November, and lasts until early March. January is the coldest month, with an average daily temperature near 15 °C (59 °F).

Climate data for Jabalpur
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
28.8
(83.8)
34.3
(93.7)
38.7
(101.7)
40.4
(104.7)
36.2
(97.2)
30.3
(86.5)
28.2
(82.8)
30.9
(87.6)
32.4
(90.3)
29.7
(85.5)
25.5
(77.9)
31.66
(88.98)
Average low °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
11.4
(52.5)
16.2
(61.2)
21.2
(70.2)
24.4
(75.9)
24.1
(75.4)
22.6
(72.7)
21.9
(71.4)
21.1
(70)
18.1
(64.6)
13.9
(57)
9.6
(49.3)
17.75
(63.96)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 4
(0.16)
3
(0.12)
1
(0.04)
3
(0.12)
11
(0.43)
136
(5.35)
279
(10.98)
360
(14.17)
185
(7.28)
52
(2.05)
21
(0.83)
7
(0.28)
1,062
(41.81)
Average precipitation days 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.3 1.8 8.6 15.9 18.3 8.6 3.1 1.4 0.6 60.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 288.3 274.4 288.3 306.0 325.5 210.0 105.4 80.6 180.0 269.7 273.0 282.1 2,883.3
Source: HKO

Economy

Agriculture

The Narmada River, draining the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges, has developed an agrarian economy in the district. The river originates in the northeastern Satpura Range and flows west between the ranges towards the Arabian Sea. The Narmada basin's alluvial soil produces sorghum, wheat, rice and millet in the villages around Jabalpur.

Commercial crops include pulses, oilseeds, cotton, sugar cane and medicinal crops. During the early 20th century the region became a center of the beedi industry, when brothers Mohanlal and Hargovindas Patel discovered that tendu leaves were good for making beedies.

Ordnance factories

Low, wide, brown truck
VFJ and other ordnance factories are the main employers and contributors to Jabalpur's economy.

Defence Security Corps, responsible for guarding the ordnance factories. These organisations alone employ over 100,000 people.

Defence organisations

In addition to the ordnance factories, army formations and organisations include HQ Madhya Bharat Area, the Canteen Stores Department.

Division headquarters

Jabalpur is a division headquarters for eight districts: Jabalpur, Seoni, Mandla, Chhindwara, Narsinghpur, Katni, Dindori and Balaghat. The district, which was reconstituted on 25 May 1998, has four tehsils: Jabalpur, Sihora, Patan and Kundam. The city is the headquarters of the Madhya Pradesh State Electricity Board, the Homeguards and other state and central-government offices.

Industry

Major industries in Jabalpur are garment manufacturing, IT, education, electrical goods, limestone products, building materials, glassware, telephone parts, furniture, foodstuffs, steel structures, cement, tobacco products, industrial-safety goods, mechanical engineering and cinema.

Transportation

Air

Long, low building with cars parked outside
Airport terminal building

The 310-acre (130 ha) Jabalpur Airport (JLR), also known as Dumna Airport, is about 20 kilometres (12 mi) from the city centre and services Air India, SpiceJet and Ventura Airconnect. Daily service is available to New Delhi, Mumbai, Bhopal and Indore, and nonstop service to Mumbai and New Delhi was introduced by SpiceJet on 7 September 2012. The airline offers daily service to Hyderabad, Benglauru, Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi. Jabalpur Airport serves visitors to Kanha National Park, Bandhavgarh National Park, Pench National Park, Khajuraho and Bhedaghat.

Airline Destinations
SpiceJet Delhi, Mumbai, Hubli, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Chennai
Air India Delhi
Ventura Airconnect Umaria, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior, Nagpur

Rail

Modern locomotive at a station
WDP4B 40042 at Jabalpur

Jabalpur, headquarters of the West Central Railway, has direct service to Amravati, Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Nagpur, Surat, Pune, Patna, Ludhiana, Jammu, Vasco-Da-Gama, Coimbatore, Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior, Agra, Jaipur, Varanasi, Kanpur, Vadodara, Bhubhaneshwar, Lucknow, Puri and Raipur. As part of Project Unigauge, conversion of narrow-gauge track in the Gondia-Nainpur-Jabalpur corridor to broad gauge has begun; this will facilitate access to areas of southern India. The line from Gondia to Balaghat has been converted to broad gauge.

Jabalpur is the terminus of Indian Railways train number 1: the Satpura Express, re-numbered Train No. 10001 in the five-digit numbering system. In addition to the Jabalpur Main Station, the city's Madan Mahal Station serves inner-city passengers and the Kachhpura goods shed transports heavy freight and iron ore to port cities. A Jabalpur metro rail project is proposed for the metropolitan area.

Road

Jabalpur is connected by road to Varanasi, Nagpur, Bhopal, Jaipur, Raipur, Allahabad, Hyderabad and Bangalore. India's longest national highway, National Highway 7, runs through the city and National Highway 12 to Jaipur originates in Jabalpur. Many roads are being upgraded to four-lane highways. Bus service is available to cities in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh, with direct service to Indore, Nagpur, Bhopal, Varanasi, Raipur, Bilaspur, Gondia, Wardha, Durg, Akola, Bhilai, Amravati, Chandrapur and Allahabad.

Telecommunications

Jabalpur is covered by a network of optical fibre cables. There are four landline companies and eight mobile-phone companies.

Media

Several television news channels have branches in the city.[6]

Newspapers

National and local newspapers are published in Jabalpur in Hindi and English:

Newspaper Language Founded
NaiDunia Hindi
Patrika Hindi
Nava Bharat Hindi 1937
Deshbandhu Hindi
Haribhoomi Hindi
The Times of India English
Hindustan Times English
Hindustan Hindi
The Hitavada English 1911
Business Standard English, Hindi
Dainik Bhaskar Hindi 1958

Radio

Radio stations in Jabalpur include:

Name Frequency (MHz) Tagline
Red FM 93.5 Bajaate raho
MY FM 94.3 Jiyo Dil se!
Radio Mirchi 98.3 Its Hot!
Radio Dhamaal 106.4 Dhinchak
Akashvani 102.9
Gyan Vani 105.6

Akashvani Jabalpur broadcasts on 801 kHz AM with a 200 kW transmitter.

Tourism

Rope-way in Jabalpur

Attractions in Jabalpur include:

Marble-Art
  • Chounshath Yogni-Shiva Parvati Temple - Ancient sculpture
  • Osho Ashram Supatal, where Rajneesh was enlightened

Attractions within 200 kilometres (120 mi) include:

Sports

The Wright Town Stadium and Rani Tal Stadium are in the city. Snooker was invented in Jabalpur. Billiards was a popular activity amongst British army officers stationed in India (who derived it from the Indian game carrom), and variations on traditional billiard games were devised.

One variation added coloured balls to the reds and black used for pyramid and life pool; this became snooker. It is generally accepted that Colonel Sir Neville Chamberlain (no relation to the World War II prime minister) conceived the game in the British Army officer's mess in Jubbulpore, India in 1875.[8]

Food

Khoye ki Jalebi, a food popular in Madhya Pradesh, was reportedly invented by Harprasad Badkul in 1889 in his Badkul Halwai shop near the Kamaniya Gate.[9] It is said that his early experiments to create a jalebi from khoya failed until he added tekhur, which may be eaten by fasting people avoiding grain, as a stabiliser.

Malls and hypermarkets

Mall Location
South Avenue Mall and Multiplex Narmada Road
Samdariya Mall and Multiplex Civic Centre
Dixit Pride mall Napier Town
Big Bazaar Narmada Road
Westside Civic Centre
Max Fashion Narmada Road
Reliance Trends Civic Centre
Vishal Mega Mart Wright Town

Jabalpur Cantonment

The Jabalpur Cantonment is one of the largest in India.[10]

Education

Modern building against a blue sky with clouds
Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur

Jabalpur became a center of higher education by the end of the 19th century, with institutions established by local citizens (such as the Hitkarini Sabha,[11] founded in 1868) and the British (such as Robertson College, which began as a school in Sagar in 1836 and moved to Jabalpur in 1873).[12] Jabalpur Engineering College was the first technical institution in central India established by the British. Scholars, authors and politicians such as Ravishankar Shukla, Rajneesh, Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh have emerged from the Hitakarini institutions. The Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design and Manufacturing, Jabalpur (IIITD&M) was founded in 2005.

Notable residents

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Jabalpur district" (PDF). 2011 Census of India. Retrieved 20 October 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011; Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. p. 3. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  3. ^ "Now, Indore to become Indur, Bhopal Bhojpal". The Times of India. 18 December 2006. 
  4. ^ a b c Jabalpur City Guide. Goodearth Publications, 2008 p8. ISBN 8187780738, 9788187780731.
  5. ^ Enginneer, Asghar Ali. "Islam and Muslims in India: Problems of Identity and Existence". http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~rtavakol/engineer. Rutgers University. Retrieved 19 September 2015. 
  6. ^ "Jabalpur Media". Mapsofindia.com. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  7. ^ "Jabalpur". Jabalpur Tourism Promotion Council. Jabalpur Tourism Promotion Council. Retrieved 19 April 2014. 
  8. ^ "The History of Snooker". Titansports.co.uk. Archived from the original on 17 December 2002. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  9. ^ Siddhantacharya Phulachandra Shastri, Parwar Jain Samaj ka Itihas, 1990, Jabalpur, p. 418
  10. ^ "Jabalpur Cantonment Board". Jabalpur Cantonment Board. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  11. ^ Allen's Indian mail and register of intelligence for British and foreign India Published 1870
  12. ^ Madhya Pradesh Through the Ages, edited by Shiri Ram Bakshi, S.R. Bakshi And O.P. Ralhan, p. 20

External links

  • Official website
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