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James Hood

James A. Hood
Plaque commemorating Hood at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama
Born (1942-11-10)November 10, 1942
Gadsden, Alabama, United States
Died January 17, 2013(2013-01-17) (aged 70)
Gadsden, Alabama, United States
Education University of Alabama
Wayne State University
Michigan State University
Occupation Civil rights activist; chairman of public safety services
Known for Among first African Americans to register at the University of Alabama

James Alexander Hood (November 10, 1942 – January 17, 2013) was one of the first Stand in the Schoolhouse Door".[1]

On June 11, 1963, in a ceremonial demonstration, Wallace stood in front of the university's Foster Auditorium. Hood arrived to pay his fees, accompanied by Vivian Malone and U.S. Deputy Attorney General Nicholas Katzenbach. Wallace intended to keep true to his promise of upholding segregation in the state and stopping "integration at the schoolhouse door".[2] As Malone and Hood waited in a car, Deputy Attorney General Katzenbach and a small team of federal marshals confronted Wallace to demand that Malone and Hood be allowed entry by order of the state court and for Wallace to step aside. Wallace had not only refused the order, but he interrupted Katzenbach; in front of the crowds of media crews surrounding him, Wallace delivered a short, symbolic speech concerning state sovereignty, claiming that "The unwelcomed, unwanted, unwarranted and force-induced intrusion upon the campus of the University of Alabama... of the might of the Central Government offers frightful example of the oppression of the rights, privileges and sovereignty of this State by officers of the Federal Government." [3]

After seeing that Wallace would not step aside, Katzenbach called upon the assistance of President John F. Kennedy to force Wallace to permit the black students' entry into the university.[4] President Kennedy federalized the Alabama National Guard later the same day, which put them under the command of the President, rather than the Governor of Alabama. Guardsmen escorted Hood and Malone back to the auditorium, where Wallace moved aside at the request of General Henry Graham. Hood and Malone then entered the building, albeit through another door.[5] Hood left the university after only two months but returned in 1995 to begin earning his doctorate degree.[6] On May 17, 1997 he received his Ph.D. in interdisciplinary studies.[7]

According to Wallace's secretary , Wallace's action was intended to avoid a more violent demonstration by the


  1. ^ Blaustein, Albert P. (1991), Civil Rights and African Americans: A Documentary History,  
  2. ^ Elliot, Debbie. Wallace in the Schoolhouse Door. NPR. June 11, 2003. Accessed June 12, 2013.
  3. ^ "Alabama Department of Archives and History, Governor George C. Wallace's School House Door Speech". Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Culpepper, Clark (1993), The Schoolhouse Door, Oxford University Press, p. 227.
  5. ^ Palmer, Michael E. (2003-06-08). "Alabama segregation date approaches".  
  6. ^ "Civil rights pioneer Vivian Jones dies". USA Today.  
  7. ^ "James Hood, who integrated University of Alabama, dies at 70". The Washington Post. 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2013-02-02. 
  8. ^ Bragg, Rick (1998-09-17). "Quietly, Alabama Troopers Escort Wallace for Last Time". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  9. ^ Leff, Mark (1998-09-10). "Wallace symbolized segregation, reconciliation". CNN. Retrieved 2007-11-23. 
  10. ^ "James Hood dies; defied segregation at U. of Ala.".  
  11. ^ Trounson, Rebecca (January 19, 2013). "James A. Hood dies at 70; fought segregation at University of Alabama".  

References

See also

Hood also received a bachelor's degree from Michigan's Wayne State University and a master's degree from Michigan State University. He later moved to Wisconsin, where he worked at the Madison Area Technical College for 26 years. He retired in 2002 as chairman of public safety services in charge of police and fire training.[10] He then moved back to Gadsden, Alabama, the city in which he was born, where he died at home on January 17, 2013 at the age of 70.[11]

[9] as Wallace had publicly apologized for his actions.[8]

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