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James Stockdale

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Subject: Ross Perot presidential campaign, 1992, United States presidential election in Indiana, 1992, United States presidential election in Missouri, 1992, United States presidential election, 1992, United States presidential election in Colorado, 1992
Collection: 1923 Births, 2005 Deaths, American Aviators, American Military Personnel of the Vietnam War, American Prisoners of War, American Test Pilots, American Torture Victims, Aviators from Illinois, Burials at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery, Deaths from Alzheimer's Disease, Independent Politicians in the United States, Infectious Disease Deaths in Illinois, Monmouth College Alumni, People from Knox County, Illinois, Presidents of the Citadel, the Military College of South Carolina, Presidents of the Naval War College, Recipients of the Air Medal, Recipients of the Bronze Star Medal, Recipients of the Distinguished Flying Cross (United States), Recipients of the Legion of Merit, Recipients of the Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Recipients of the Purple Heart Medal, Recipients of the Silver Star, Shot-Down Aviators, United States Naval Academy Alumni, United States Naval Aviators, United States Navy Admirals, United States Navy Medal of Honor Recipients, United States Vice-Presidential Candidates, 1992, Vietnam War Prisoners of War, Vietnam War Recipients of the Medal of Honor
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James Stockdale

James Stockdale
Formal portrait of Rear Admiral James B. Stockdale in full dress white uniform
Birth name James Bond Stockdale
Born (1923-12-23)December 23, 1923
Abingdon, Illinois, U.S.
Died July 5, 2005(2005-07-05) (aged 81)
Coronado, California, U.S.
Buried at U.S. Naval Academy Cemetery
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1947-1979
Rank Vice Admiral
Battles/wars Vietnam War
Awards Medal of Honor
Navy Distinguished Service Medal (3)
Silver Star Medal (4)
Legion of Merit with Combat "V"
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
Bronze Star (2) with Combat "V"
Purple Heart Medal (2)
Combat Action Ribbon
Air Medal with Numeral 10 device
Prisoner of War Medal
Spouse(s) Sybil Stockdale
Other work

USS Stockdale is named in his honor.

U.S. Vice Presidential candidate (1992)

James Bond Stockdale (December 23, 1923 – July 5, 2005) was an American and United States Navy vice admiral. He is one of the most decorated Navy officers who had been awarded the Medal of Honor in the Vietnam War where he was a prisoner of war for over seven years.

Stockdale was the highest-ranking naval officer held as a prisoner in North Vietnam. He had led aerial attacks from the carrier USS Ticonderoga (CVA-14) during the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Incident. On his next deployment, while Commander of Carrier Air Wing 16 aboard the carrier USS Oriskany (CV-34), he was shot down in North Vietnam on September 9, 1965.

During the late 1970s, he served as President of the Naval War College. Stockdale was candidate for Vice President of the United States in the 1992 presidential election, on Ross Perot's independent ticket.


  • Early life and education 1
  • U.S. Navy career 2
    • Vietnam War 2.1
      • Gulf of Tonkin Incident 2.1.1
      • Prisoner of war 2.1.2
    • Return to the United States 2.2
    • Civilian academic work and writings 2.3
      • Vice-Presidential candidacy 2.3.1
  • Later life and death 3
  • Legacy 4
  • Electoral history 5
  • Medal of Honor citation 6
  • Writings by James Stockdale 7
  • See also 8
  • Notes 9
  • References 10
    • Online references 10.1
    • Written references 10.2

Early life and education

Stockdale was born in Abingdon, Illinois on December 23, 1923, the son of Mabel Edith (née Bond) and Vernon Beard Stockdale.[1] Following a brief period at Monmouth College, he entered the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland in June 1943.

U.S. Navy career

On June 5, 1946 he graduated from the Navy Academy with the Class of 1947 due to the reduced schedule still in effect from World War II. Academically he ranked 130th among 821 graduates in his class.[2]His first assignment was assistant gunnery officer aboard the destroyer minesweeper USS Carmick (DMS-33) from June to October 1946. He next served aboard the USS Thompson (DMS-38) from October 1946 to February 1947, the USS Charles H. Roan (DD-853) from February 1947 to July 1948, and the USS Deming (PCS-1392) from July 1948 to June 1949.

Stockdale was accepted for flight training in June 1949 and reported to Naval Air Station Pensacola in Florida. He was designated a Naval Aviator at Naval Air Station Corpus Christi in Texas, in September 1950. He was next assigned for additional training at Naval Air Station Norfolk in Virginia from October 1950 to January 1951. In January 1954, he was accepted into the United States Naval Test Pilot School at the Naval Air Station Patuxent River base in Southern Maryland and completed his training in July 1954. It was there that he tutored U.S. Marine Corps aviator John Glenn in math and physics. He was a test pilot until January 1957.

In 1959, the U.S. Navy sent Stockdale to Stanford University where he received a master's degree in international relations and comparative Marxist thought. Stockdale preferred the life of a fighter pilot over academia, but later credited Stoic philosophy with helping him cope as a prisoner of war.

Vietnam War

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

Stockdale exiting his A-4 fighter-bomber weeks before becoming a POW.

On 2 August 1964, while on a DESOTO patrol in the Tonkin Gulf, the destroyer USS Maddox (DD-731) engaged 3 North Vietnamese Navy P-4 torpedo boats from the 135th Torpedo Squadron.[3] After fighting a running gun and torpedo battle, in which the Maddox fired over 280 5-inch (130 mm) shells, and the torpedo boats expended their 6 torpedoes (all misses) and hundreds of rounds of 14.5mm machinegun fire; the combatants broke contact. As the torpedo boats turned for their North Vietnamese coastline, four F-8 Crusader fighter aircraft from USS Ticonderoga (CV-14) arrived, and immediately attacked the retreating torpedo boats.[4]

Stockdale (commander VF-51 (Fighter Squadron 51)), with Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Richard Hastings attacked torpedo boats T-333 and T-336, while Commander R. F. Mohrhardt and Lieutenant Commander C. E. Southwick attacked torpedo boat T-339. The four F-8 pilots reported scoring no hits with their Zuni rockets, but reported hits on all three torpedo boats with their 20mm cannon.[5]

Two nights later, on 4 August 1964, Stockdale was overhead during the second reported attack in the Tonkin Gulf. Unlike the first event, which was an actual sea battle, no Vietnamese forces were, however, believed to have been involved in the second engagement. In the early 1990s, he recounted: "[I] had the best seat in the house to watch that event, and our destroyers were just shooting at phantom targets—there were no PT boats there.... There was nothing there but black water and American fire power." Stockdale said his superiors ordered him to keep quiet about the details of that night.

The next morning, on 5 August 1964, President Johnson ordered bombing raids on North Vietnamese military targets which he announced were retaliation for the alleged incident of 4 August. When Stockdale was awoken in the early morning and was told he was to lead these attacks he responded: "Retaliation for what?" Later, while a prisoner of war, he was concerned that he would be forced to reveal this secret about the Vietnam War.

Prisoner of war

On 9 September 1965, while flying from USS Oriskany on a mission over North Vietnam, Stockdale ejected from his Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, which had been struck by enemy fire and completely disabled. He parachuted into a small village, where he was severely beaten and taken prisoner.

Stockdale was held as a prisoner of war in the propaganda. When they covered his head with a hat, he beat himself with a stool until his face was swollen beyond recognition. When Stockdale was discovered with information that could implicate his friends' "black activities", he slit his wrists so they could not torture him into confession.[6]

Early in Stockdale's captivity, his wife, Paris Peace Talks.

Stockdale was one of eleven prisoners known as the "Jeremiah Denton; Harry Jenkins; Sam Johnson; James Mulligan; Howard Rutledge; Robert Shumaker; Ronald Storz; and Nels Tanner. These individuals had been leaders of resistance activities while in captivity and thus were separated from other captives and placed in solitary confinement. "Alcatraz" was a special facility in a courtyard behind the North Vietnamese Ministry of National Defense, located about one mile away from Hoa Lo Prison. In Alcatraz, each of the prisoners was kept in an individual windowless and concrete cell measuring 3 by 9 feet (0.91 by 2.74 m) with a light bulb kept on around the clock, and they were locked in leg irons each night.[7][8][9][10][11] Of the eleven, Storz died in captivity there in 1970.

In a business book by James C. Collins called Good to Great, Collins writes about a conversation he had with Stockdale regarding his coping strategy during his period in the Vietnamese POW camp.[12]

I never lost faith in the end of the story, I never doubted not only that I would get out, but also that I would prevail in the end and turn the experience into the defining event of my life, which, in retrospect, I would not trade.[13]

When Collins asked who didn't make it out of Vietnam, Stockdale replied:

Oh, that's easy, the optimists. Oh, they were the ones who said, 'We're going to be out by Christmas.' And Christmas would come, and Christmas would go. Then they'd say, 'We're going to be out by Easter.' And Easter would come, and Easter would go. And then Thanksgiving, and then it would be Christmas again. And they died of a broken heart.[13]

Stockdale then added:

This is a very important lesson. You must never confuse faith that you will prevail in the end—which you can never afford to lose—with the discipline to confront the most brutal facts of your current reality, whatever they might be.[13]

Witnessing this philosophy of duality, Collins went on to describe it as the Stockdale Paradox.

Return to the United States

President Gerald Ford presents the Medal of Honor to Stockdale at the White House on 4 March 1976.

Stockdale was released as a prisoner of war on February 12, 1973 during Operation Homecoming. His shoulders had been wrenched from their sockets, his leg shattered by angry villagers and a torturer, and his back broken.

On March 4, 1976, Stockdale received the Medal of Honor. Stockdale filed charges against two other officers (Marine Corps Lieutenant Colonel Edison W. Miller and Navy Captain Walter E. "Gene" Wilber) who, he felt, had given aid and comfort to the enemy. However, the Navy Department under the leadership of then-Secretary of the Navy John Warner took no action and retired these men "in the best interests of the Navy."[14][15]

Debilitated by his captivity and mistreatment, Stockdale could not stand upright and could barely walk upon his return to the United States, which prevented his return to active flying status. In deference to his previous service, the Navy kept him on active duty, steadily promoting him over the next few years before he retired as a vice admiral. He completed his career by serving as President of the Naval War College from October 13, 1977, until August 22, 1979.[16]

Civilian academic work and writings

Stockdale as president of the Naval War College in 1979

After his retirement in 1979, he became the President of The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina. His tenure there was short and stormy as he found himself at odds with the college's board as well as most of its administration, by proposing changes to the college's military system and other facets of the college, including the curbing of student hazing. He left The Citadel to become a fellow of the Hoover Institution at Stanford University in 1981. During his twelve-year tenure at the Hoover Institute, Admiral Stockdale wrote and lectured extensively. His primary focus was ancient stoicism and the Roman slave-turned-philosopher Epictetus, whose lessons captured in The Enchiridion Stockdale credited with providing him strength during his ordeals as a prisoner in the Hanoi Hilton. Between 1981 and 1988 Admiral Stockdale also served as chair of the White House Fellows under the Reagan administration.

In 1984 Admiral Stockdale and his wife Sybil co-authored In Love and War: the Story of a Family's Ordeal and Sacrifice During the Vietnam War which was published by Harper and Row. It recounts Stockdale's experiences while in Vietnam and in alternating chapters also tells the story of Mrs. Stockdale's early involvement in the League of American Families of POW's/MIA's which she helped to found and served as its first chairperson. Their story was later made into an NBC television movie under the name In Love and War starring James Woods and Jane Alexander.

Stockdale was a member of the board of directors of the Rockford Institute, and was a frequent contributor to Chronicles: A magazine of American Culture.[17]

Vice-Presidential candidacy

Stockdale came to know businessman and presidential candidate

Military offices
Preceded by
Huntington Hardisty
President of the Naval War College
October 13, 1977 – August 22, 1979
Succeeded by
Edward F. Welch, Jr.

  • Joseph Gerard Brennan, FOUNDATIONS OF MORAL OBLIGATION: The Stockdale Course, Presidio Press, Novato, California (1994) ISBN 0-89141-528-9

The following book is based on the series of lectures delivered for the course in moral philosophy established at the Naval War College by Admiral Stockdale in 1978, when Stockdale was president of the college. The course was designed by Stockdale and Professor Joseph Brennan, who continued to teach it after Stockdale retired from the Navy. The Foreword was written by Stockdale.

  • Edwin E. Moise, Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War UNC Press North Carolina 1996 ISBN 0-8078-2300-7

Apart from the works written by Stockdale himself, the following work refers extensively to Stockdale's involvement in the Tonkin Gulf:

Written references

  • James Stockdale at Find a Grave
  • Interview with Jim Lehrer on 1992 Vice-Presidential debate
  • Hoover Institution Biography
  • obituary for StockdaleWashington Post July 6, 2005
  • Holmes, Steven A. (July 6, 2005). "James Stockdale, Perot's Running Mate in '92, Dies at 81". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  • report on Stockdale's death July 2005The Guardian
  • Admiral Stockdale's Personal Webpage
  • Memorial Service for Admiral James B. Stockdale
  • Naval Academy Tribute to Stockdale
  • United States Navy Announces the Death of Retired Vice Adm. James B. Stockdale
  • Mahler, Jonathan (December 25, 2005). "The Prisoner". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  • Naval War College: Past presidents
  • Oil Portrait of James B. Stockdale by Margaret Holland Sargent
  • "Son of Navy POW Recounts Father's Heroism in Vietnam".  

Online references


  1. ^ The candidates - James T. Havel - Google Books. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  2. ^ Register of Alumni, United States Naval Academy, 1991.
  3. ^ Moise, p. 78
  4. ^ Moise, p. 82
  5. ^ Moise, p. 83
  6. ^ a b "Medal of Honor citations". Vietnam War (M – Z).  
  7. ^ Adams, Lorraine (1992-03-11). "Perot's Interim Partner Spent 7½ Years As Pow"], The Dallas Morning News, March 11, 1992. Retrieved on 2008-07-02 from "He was one of the Alcatraz Gang - a group of 11 prisoners of war who were separated because they were leaders of the prisoners' resistance."
  8. ^ Rochester, Stuart; and Kiley, Frederick. "Honor Bound: American Prisoners of War in Southeast Asia, 1961–1973", 2007, Naval Institute Press, ISBN 1-59114-738-7, via Google Books, p. 326. Accessed July 8, 2008.
  9. ^ Stockdale, James B. "George Coker for Beach Schools", letter to The Virginian-Pilot, March 26, 1996.
  10. ^ Johnston, Laurie (December 18, 1974). "Notes on People, Mao Meets Mobutu in China".   Dec 18, 1974
  11. ^ Kimberlin, Joanne (2008-11-11). "Our POWs: Locked up for 6 years, he unlocked a spirit inside". The Virginian Pilot (Landmark Communications). pp. 12–13. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  12. ^ Collins, Jim (date unknown). The Stockdale Paradox. Retrieved on 2008-07-02 from
  13. ^ a b c "The Stockdale Paradox". VenChar. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ The Nation, "The Rockford File," October 26, 1992 (Volume 255).
  18. ^ "The Political Fray". CNN. 
  19. ^ a b c "James Stockdale Interview". Debating Our Destiny.  
  20. ^ Schudel, Matt (2011-11-10). "Hal Bruno, former ABC News political director, dies at 83".  
  21. ^ Weber, Bruce (2011-11-09). "Hal Bruno, Director of Election Coverage at ABC, Dies at 83".  
  22. ^ "Admiral Stockdale official website". Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  23. ^ "Welcome to Navy Forces Online Public Sites". 2010-04-09. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  24. ^ "Vice Admiral James B. Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership". 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  25. ^ "About the Stockdale Center". Retrieved 2014-03-12. 
  26. ^ "New Rink Named The Admiral James & Sybil Stockdale Arena".  


See also

  • Stockdale on Stoicism I: The Stoic Warrior's Triad
  • Stockdale on Stoicism II: Master of My Fate
Other writings
  • Taiwan and the Sino-Soviet Dispute, Stanford, California, 1962.
  • The Ethics of Citizenship, University of Texas at Dallas, 1981, Andrew R. Cecil lectures on moral values in a free society featured Stockdale and other speakers.
  • James Bond Stockdale Speaks on the "Melting Experience: Grow or Die", Hoover Institution, Stanford, 1981 speech to the graduating class of John Carroll University in Cleveland, Ohio.
  • A Vietnam Experience: Ten Years of Reflection, Hoover Institution, Stanford, 1984, ISBN 0-8179-8151-9.
  • In Love and War: The Story of a Family's Ordeal and Sacrifice During the Vietnam Years, Harper & Row, New York, 1984, ISBN 0-06-015318-0.
  • In Love and War: The Story of a Family's Ordeal and Sacrifice During the Vietnam Years, Naval Institute Press, reprint 1990, Annapolis, Maryland, ISBN 0-87021-308-3.
  • Courage Under Fire: Testing Epictetus's Doctrines in a Laboratory of Human Behavior, Hoover Institution, Stanford, 1993, ISBN 0-8179-3692-0.
  • Thoughts of a Philosophical Fighter Pilot, Hoover Institution, Stanford, 1995 ISBN 0-8179-9391-6.

Writings by James Stockdale

Stockdale's official Medal of Honor citation reads:

Medal of Honor citation

  • Clinton/Gore (D), 43.0% (370 Electoral Votes)
  • Bush/Quayle (R), 37.7% (168 Electoral Votes)
  • Perot/Stockdale (I), 18.9% (0 Electoral Votes)
1992 election for U.S. President/Vice President - popular vote share

Electoral history

A luxury suite at the Loews Annapolis Hotel, where Perot announced his candidacy, was named in Stockdale's honor.

Stockdale's naval experiences and his leadership decisions while senior Naval officer in prison in North Vietnam are an integral part of every Midshipman's educational experience at Annapolis.

In October 2014, Airbase Arizona of the Commemorative Air Force placed on display a restored Grumman AF-2S Guardian (BuNo 126731) flown by VADM Stockdale early in his Navy career with his name on the canopy rail and all markings as they were when he flew the aircraft in the 1950s.

The Admiral James & Sybil Stockdale Arena at South Kent School was named after Stockdale and his wife in April 2014.[26]

Stockdale Center, the student center at Monmouth College in Monmouth, Illinois, which he attended prior to transferring to the Naval Academy, was dedicated in his honor in 1989.[25]

The U.S. Navy has named a number of structures after Stockdale, including the Arleigh Burke–class guided missile destroyer USS Stockdale (DDG-106), christened on May 10, 2008.[23] At the Naval Air Station North Island in Coronado, California, the main gate (inaugurated on August 30, 2007) and the headquarters building for the Pacific Fleet's Survival, Evasion, Resistance and Escape (SERE) school were both named in his honor. In July 2008, a statue of him was erected in front of Luce Hall at the U.S. Naval Academy; the hall which houses the Vice Admiral James B. Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership.[24]


Stockdale retired to Coronado, California, as he slowly succumbed to Alzheimer's disease.[22] He died from the illness on July 5, 2005. Stockdale's funeral service was held at the Naval Academy Chapel and he was buried at the United States Naval Academy Cemetery.

Sailors carry Stockdale's casket during his funeral service at the U.S. Naval Academy Chapel in 2005.

Later life and death

Perot and Stockdale received 19 percent of the vote in the 1992 presidential election, one of the best showings by an independent ticket in U.S. electoral history, although they did not carry any states.

It was terribly frustrating because I remember I started with, "Who am I? Why am I here?" and I never got back to that because there was never an opportunity for me to explain my life to people. It was so different from Quayle and Gore. The four years in solitary confinement in Vietnam, seven-and-a-half years in prisons, drop the first bomb that started the ... American bombing raid in the North Vietnam. We blew the oil storage tanks of them off the map. And I never—I couldn't approach—I don't say it just to brag, but, I mean, my sensitivities are completely different.

As his introduction to the large segment of American voters who had not previously heard of him, the debate was disastrous for Stockdale. He was portrayed in the media as elderly and confused, and his reputation never recovered. In a 1999 interview with Jim Lehrer, Stockdale explained that the statements were intended as an introduction of himself and his personal history to the television audience:[19]

However, his unfocused style for the rest of the debate (including asking the moderator to repeat one question because he didn't have his hearing aid turned on) made him appear confused and almost disoriented. An unflattering recreation of the moment on Saturday Night Live later that week, with Phil Hartman as Stockdale, cemented a public perception of Stockdale as slow-witted. He was also often parodied for his repeated use of the term "gridlock" to describe slow governmental policy.

Stockdale notably opened the debate by saying, "Who am I? Why am I here?", when responding to a request for an opening statement from debate moderator, Hal Bruno, the political director of ABC News.[20] Bruno had asked Stockdale, "Admiral Stockdale, your opening statement, please, sir?", leading to the now famous response.[21] Initially, the rhetorical questions drew applause from the audience, seeming to be a good-natured acknowledgment of his relatively unknown status and lack of traditional qualifications.

Perot eventually re-entered the race in the fall of 1992, with Stockdale still in place as the vice-presidential nominee. Stockdale was not informed that he would be participating in the October 13 vice-presidential debate held in Al Gore and Dan Quayle, and did not discuss any political issues with Perot beforehand.[19]

[19] Perot intended to replace Stockdale with another candidate, but did not do so before he dropped out of the race in July 1992.[18]

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