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Kallur archaeological site

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Kallur archaeological site

Kallur archaeological site
Village
Kallur archaeological site
Kallur archaeological site

Coordinates: 16°8′23.54″N 77°12′17.47″E / 16.1398722°N 77.2048528°E / 16.1398722; 77.2048528Coordinates: 16°8′23.54″N 77°12′17.47″E / 16.1398722°N 77.2048528°E / 16.1398722; 77.2048528

Country  India
State Karnataka
District Raichur district
Taluk Manvi
Languages
 • Official Kannada
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 08538
Vehicle registration KA-36

Kallur is an archaeological site located in the Manvi taluk of Raichur district in the state of Karnataka, India.[1] The site came into prominence with the discovery of antennae swords in the 1930s, which was the first instance of the Copper Hoard culture being discovered in South India.[1] The earliest finding here has been dated to the Neolithic period.

Geography

The word Kallur is formed from two Kannada words: kallu which means "stone" and ooru which means "town". The number of granite hillocks that surround Kallur, may have given the place its name.[1] Some of the hillocks that are present here are Yammigudda, Pirbannur, Agsargudda, Kampangudda and Polannagudda.

Excavation history

The site was first excavated in 1939–40 by M. Khwaja Ahmed of the Archaeological Department of Hyderabad state. It was later explored by F. Raymond Allchin in 1952.[2]

Findings

Swords

Villagers living around Kallur discovered three antennaed swords under a boulder on Pirbannur hillock in the 1930s. The swords were made of cast copper with the longest sword being 38 12 inches (98 cm) in length and the shortest sword being 26 34 inches (68 cm) in length. The antennae of these swords was about 6–7 cm in length.[2] These swords are similar to the ones found in the sites of Copper Hoard culture in North India, like Fatehgarh, and hence provide the first instance of such a site being found in South India.[1][3] Robert von Heine-Geldern postulated that these swords were influenced by the Koban culture, but the Indian archaeologist, B. B. Lal disagreed.[4][5]

Paintings

On the Yammigudda hillock; buffaloes, miniature bulls and a man have been found painted over a rock face. Russet-coated painted ware have also been found here.[1]

Objects

Other objects found here include cores of chert, jasper and chalcedony, stone axes, red ware, shell bangles and beads of semi precious stones. Presence of iron ore and quartzite provide the evidence that iron smelting in a crude form was performed here. Coins of the Satavahana period have also been found here.[1]

Notes

References

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