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King of Nepal

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Title: King of Nepal  
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Subject: President of Nepal, July 2007, Order of the Star of Nepal, Kingdom of Nepal, Nepalese monarchy
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King of Nepal

Mahārājdhirāja of Nepal
Former Monarchy
Royal Coat of arms
(before 2006)
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
First monarch Mahārājdhirāja Prithvi Narayan Shah
Last monarch Mahārājdhirāja Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Style His Royal Majesty
Official residence Narayanhity Royal Palace, Kathmandu, Nepal
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy began September 25, 1768
Monarchy ended May 28, 2008
Current pretender(s) Mahārājdhirāja Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
Royal Standard of the King of Nepal

The King of Nepal was Nepal's head of state and monarch from 1768 to 2008. He served as the head of the Nepalese monarchy — Shah Dynasty. The King was addressed as His Royal Majesty.


The Kingdom of Nepal was founded on 25 September 1768 by a Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha king who succeeded in unifying the kingdoms of Kathmandu, Patan and Bhaktapur into a single state under his Shah dynasty. The Kingdom suffered a major defeat in the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814–16) against the British East India Company. The Treaty of Sugauli was signed in 1816, ceding large parts of the Nepali territories of Terai and Sikkim, (nearly one third of the country), to the British, in exchange for Nepalese autonomy. From 1846 until 1951, the country was de facto ruled by the hereditary Prime Ministers from the Rana dynasty, reducing the role of the Shah monarch to that of a figurehead. The Kingdom of Nepal was an absolute monarchy for most of its history. In November 1990, after the Jana Andolan movement, the new Constitution was adopted and the country became a constitutional monarchy. On 13 February 1996, the Nepalese Civil War was launched by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), with the aim of overthrowing the kingdom and establishing a 'People's Republic'. On 1 June 2001, Crown Prince Dipendra went on a shooting spree and murdered his father, King Birendra, his mother Queen Aishwarya, and several other members of the royal family. Afterwards, he shot himself.[1][2] Immediately after the massacre, Dipendra was proclaimed king while in a coma, but he died on 4 June 2001, after a three-day reign.[3] His uncle, Prince Gyanendra, was appointed regent for the three days, then ascended the throne himself after Dipendra died. On 1 February 2005, as the security situation deteriorated in the civil war, King Gyanendra declared a state of emergency, suspended the Constitution and assumed direct control over the country.[4] On 24 April 2006, after the Loktantra Andolan movement, the king agreed to give up absolute power and to reinstate the dissolved House of Representatives.[5][6] On 21 November 2006, the Civil War ended with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Accord.[7] On 15 January 2007, the King was suspended from exercising his duties by the newly formed interim legislature. Finally, on 28 May 2008, the kingdom was officially abolished by the Constituent Assembly and Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal was declared.[8] The subnational monarchies in Mustang, Bajhang, Salyan, and Jajarkot were also abolished in October 2008.[9]



Kings of Nepal (1768–2008)

Reign start
Reign end
Prithvi Narayan Shah
(1723-01-07)7 January 1723[10] – 11 January 1775(1775-01-11) (aged 52) 25 September 1768 11 January 1775 Son of Nara Bhupal Shah Shah Prithvi Narayan Shah of Nepal
Pratap Singh Shah
(1751-04-16)16 April 1751 – 17 November 1777(1777-11-17) (aged 26) 11 January 1775 17 November 1777 Son of Prithvi Narayan Shah Shah Pratap Singh Shah of Nepal
Rana Bahadur Shah
(1775-05-25)25 May 1775 – 25 April 1806(1806-04-25) (aged 30) 17 November 1777 8 March 1799
Son of Pratap Singh Shah Shah Rana Bahadur Shah of Nepal
Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah
(1797-10-19)19 October 1797 – 20 November 1816(1816-11-20) (aged 19) 8 March 1799 20 November 1816 Son of Rana Bahadur Shah Shah Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah of Nepal
Rajendra Bikram Shah
(1813-12-03)3 December 1813 – 10 July 1881(1881-07-10) (aged 67) 20 November 1816 12 May 1847
Son of Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah Shah Rajendra Bikram Shah of Nepal
Surendra Bikram Shah
(1829-10-20)20 October 1829 – 17 May 1881(1881-05-17) (aged 51) 12 May 1847 17 May 1881 Son of Rajendra Bikram Shah Shah Surendra Bikram Shah of Nepal
Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah
(1875-08-18)18 August 1875 – 11 December 1911(1911-12-11) (aged 36) 17 May 1881 11 December 1911 Grandson of Surendra Bikram Shah Shah Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(1st reign)
(1906-06-30)30 June 1906 – 13 March 1955(1955-03-13) (aged 48) 11 December 1911 7 November 1950
(went into exile)
Son of Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah Shah Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1st reign)
(1947-07-07) 7 July 1947 7 November 1950 7 January 1951
(stepped down)
Grandson of Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah Shah Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal
Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
(2nd reign)
(1906-06-30)30 June 1906 – 13 March 1955(1955-03-13) (aged 48) 7 January 1951 13 March 1955 Son of Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah Shah Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal
Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1920-06-11)11 June 1920 – 31 January 1972(1972-01-31) (aged 51) 14 March 1955 31 January 1972 Son of Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah Shah Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal
Birendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1945-12-28)28 December 1945 – 1 June 2001(2001-06-01) (aged 55) 31 January 1972 1 June 2001
Son of Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Shah Birendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal
Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah
(1971-06-27)27 June 1971 – 4 June 2001(2001-06-04) (aged 29) 1 June 2001 4 June 2001 Son of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Shah Dipendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal
Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah
(2nd reign)
(1947-07-07) 7 July 1947 4 June 2001 28 May 2008
Son of Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah Shah Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah of Nepal


Prithvi Narayan Shah was the first ruler of "unified" Nepal. However, prior to 1768, the modern-day Nepal consisted of various small kingdoms, among which Shah Kings continued to rule in a few of them (notably in Gorkha). So the actual history of the Shah dynasty dates much before Prithvi Narayan Shah.[11]

See also


  1. ^ Rahul Bedi; Alex Spillius (8 June 2001). "Massacre witness blames Crown Prince". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 May 2008. 
  2. ^ "Nepal survivors blame prince". BBC News. 7 June 2001. Retrieved 31 May 2009. 
  3. ^ "Nepal mourns slain king". BBC News. 2 June 2001. Retrieved 31 May 2009. 
  4. ^ Staff writer (2005-02-01). "Nepal's king declares emergency". BBC News. 
  5. ^ Sengupta, Somini (25 April 2006). "In a Retreat, Nepal's King Says He Will Reinstate Parliament". The New York Times. 
  6. ^ "Full text: King Gyanendra's speech". BBC. 24 April 2006. 
  7. ^ "Peace deal ends Nepal's civil war". BBC News. 21 November 2006. Retrieved 22 November 2006. 
  8. ^ Nepal votes to abolish monarchy
  9. ^ Abolishment of subnational monarchies
  10. ^ Accordingly Royal Ark, he was born on 25 December 1722
  11. ^ "The History of Nepal". 

External links

  • Royal Court of Nepal
  • Nepal at Royal Ark
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