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Labiodental approximant

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Title: Labiodental approximant  
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Subject: Voiced labiodental fricative, List of consonants, Voiced bilabial fricative, Labio-velar approximant, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects
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Labiodental approximant

Labiodental approximant
IPA number 150
Entity (decimal) ʋ
Unicode (hex) U+028B
X-SAMPA P or v\
Kirshenbaum r
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)

The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is similar to an English w pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter vee. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʋ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\.


  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • Bibliography 5


Features of the labiodental approximant:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[1] ոսկի [ʋɔski] 'gold'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hawa [ha:ʋa] 'wind' Predominant in the Urmia dialects. For some speakers, [v] is used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
Danish Standard[2] véd [ʋe̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ] 'know(s)' Also described as a short plosive [b̪̆]; rarely realized as a fricative [v] instead.[3] See Danish phonology
Dutch Netherlandic wang [ʋɑŋ] 'cheek' In southern dialects of the Netherlands realised as bilabial [β̞]. See Dutch phonology
English red [ʋe̞d̥] 'red' Mostly idiosyncratic but somewhat dialectal[4] (especially in London and South East England). See English phonology and R-labialization
Faroese[5] ða [ˈɹøːʋa] 'speech' Word-initial and intervocalic allophone of /v/. In the first case, it is in a free variation with a fricative [v].[5] See Faroese phonology
Finnish vauva [ˈʋɑuʋːɑ] 'baby' See Finnish phonology
German Standard was [ʋas] 'what' Some speakers, especially in the South. See German phonology
Swiss Corresponds to /v/ in Standard German[6]
Guaraní avañe'ẽ [ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ] 'Guaraní language' Contrasts with /w/ and /ɰ/
Hawaiian wikiwiki [ʋikiʋiki] 'fast' May also be realized as [w] or [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi रुण [ʋəruɳ] 'Varuna' See Hindustani phonology
Italian Northern dialects[7] raro [ˈʋäːʋo] 'rare' Some speakers, especially in Parma. May also be uvular, either a fricative [ʁ] or a trill [ʀ].[7]
Marathi जन [ʋə(d)zən] 'weight' See Marathi phonology
Miyako[8] [ʋ̩tɑ] 'thick' May be syllabic.
Norwegian Standard Eastern[9][10] venn [ʋɛ̝nː] 'friend' Sometimes realized as a fricative [v].[10][11] See Norwegian phonology
Nsenga ŵanthu [ʋaⁿtʰu] 'people'
Portuguese Some speakers[12] louvo [ˈloːʋu] 'I praise' Very rare intervocalic allophone of /v/ in unstressed syllables. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਵਾਲ [ʋäːl] 'hair'
Serbo-Croatian цврчак / cvrčak [t͡sʋř̩ːt͡ʃak] 'cricket' May also be realized as [v], depending on dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[13] veter [ˈʋéːtər] 'wind' Also described as fricative [v].[14][15] See Slovene phonology
Swedish vän [ʋɛn] 'friend' Some speakers. See Swedish phonology
Tamil வாய் [ʋɑj] 'mouth' See Tamil phonology
Turkish ev [e̞ʋ] 'house' See Turkish phonology
West Frisian wêr [ʋɛːr] 'where'

See also


  1. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
  2. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  3. ^ Basbøll (2005:27 and 66)
  4. ^ Foulkes & Docherty (1999:?)
  5. ^ a b Árnason (2011:115)
  6. ^ Schmid, Stephan (2010), Segmental features of Swiss German ethnolects, retrieved 2015-04-27 
  7. ^ a b Canepari (1999), pp. 98–101.
  8. ^ Thomas Pellard, Why it is important to study the Ryukyuan languages (presentation)
  9. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:22 and 25)
  10. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  11. ^ Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  12. ^ Principais Fenómenos de Variação Registados nas Transcrições das Amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (Portuguese)
  13. ^ Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999:136)
  14. ^ Priestley (2002:394)
  15. ^ Greenberg (2006:18)


  • Árnason, Kristján (2011). The Phonology of Icelandic and Faroese. Oxford University Press.  
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard J., eds. (1999), Urban Voices, Arnold 
  • Greenberg, Mark L. (2006), A Short Reference Grammar of Standard Slovene, Kansas: University of Kansas 
  • Priestley, T.M.S. (2002), "Slovene", in  
  • Šuštaršič, Rastislav; Komar, Smiljana; Petek, Bojan (1999), "Slovene", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 135–139,  
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo,  
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