World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Larry Sanger

Article Id: WHEBN0025426557
Reproduction Date:

Title: Larry Sanger  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Nupedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2001, Wikisource, Wikipedia Signpost/2005-12-26/In the news
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Larry Sanger

Larry Sanger
Sanger in July 2006
Born Lawrence Mark Sanger
(1968-07-16) July 16, 1968
Bellevue, Washington, U.S.
Alma mater Reed College (BA)
Ohio State University (MA, PhD)
Occupation Internet Project Developer
Website
LarrySanger.org

Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger (born July 16, 1968[1]) is an American Internet project developer, co-founder of WorldHeritage, and the founder of Citizendium.[2][3][4] He grew up in Anchorage, Alaska.[3] From an early age he has been interested in philosophy.[5] Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from Reed College in 1991 and a Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000.[6] Most of his philosophical work has focused on epistemology, the theory of knowledge.[5]

He has been involved with various [9] and founding editor-in-chief of Citizendium.[10] From his position at Nupedia, he assembled the process for article development.[11] Sanger proposed implementing a wiki, which led directly to the creation of WorldHeritage.[12] Initially WorldHeritage was a complementary project for Nupedia.[12] He was WorldHeritage's early community leader[13] and established many of its original policies.[14]

Sanger left WorldHeritage in 2002, and has since been critical of the project.[15][16] He states that, despite its merits, WorldHeritage lacks credibility due to, among other things, a lack of respect for expertise.[17] In October 2006, Sanger started a somewhat similar encyclopedia to WorldHeritage, Citizendium.[18] The size of Citizendium's audience is much smaller than WorldHeritage's.[18] The site has fewer than 100 contributors.[19]

Sanger has taught philosophy at Ohio State University[5] and was an early strategist for the expert-authored Encyclopedia of Earth.[20] He has worked on developing educational projects for individuals behind WatchKnowLearn.[21] He has designed a web-based reading program named Reading Bear which aims to teach children how to read.[22]

Early life and education

Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington. When he was seven years old, the family moved to Anchorage, Alaska.[3][23] His father was a marine biologist and his mother cared for the children.[24] At an early age, he was interested in philosophical topics.[5][25]

He graduated from high school in 1986 and went off to Reed College, majoring in philosophy.[25] In college he became interested in the Internet and its publishing abilities.[5] He set up a listserver as a medium for students and tutors to meet up for "expert tutoring" and "to act as a forum for discussion of tutorials, tutorial methods, and the possibility and merits of a voluntary, free network of individual tutors and students finding each other via the Internet for education outside the traditional university setting."[26] He started and moderated a philosophy discussion list, the Association for Systematic Philosophy.[27] Sanger wrote in 1994 a manifesto for the discussion group:

The history of philosophy is full of disagreement and confusion. One reaction by philosophers to this state of things is to doubt whether the truth about philosophy can ever be known, or whether there is any such thing as the truth about philosophy. But there is another reaction: one may set out to think more carefully and methodically than one's intellectual forebears.[23]

Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy from Reed College in 1991, a Master of Arts from Ohio State University in 1995, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000.[6] Beginning in 1998 he ran a website called "Sanger's Review of Y2K News Reports", a resource for those concerned about the year 2000 problem, such as managers of computer systems.[12]

Philosophy

In 2007, Sanger examined the possibilities for [28]

In 2007, Sanger wrote an essay for the Edge stating in part:

As it turns out, our many Web 2.0 revolutionaries have been so thoroughly seized with the successes of strong collaboration that they are resistant to recognizing some hard truths. As wonderful as it might be that the hegemony of professionals over knowledge is lessening, there is a downside: our grasp of and respect for reliable information suffers. With the rejection of professionalism has come a widespread rejection of expertise—of the proper role in society of people who make it their life's work to know stuff. This, I maintain, is not a positive development; but it is also not a necessary one. We can imagine a Web 2.0 with experts. We can imagine an Internet that is still egalitarian, but which is more open and welcoming to specialists. The new politics of knowledge that I advocate would place experts at the head of the table, but—unlike the old order—gives the general public a place at the table as well.[29]

In 2008, Sanger was at Oxford University to debate the proposition that "the internet is the future of knowledge." Sanger agreed that today's wikis and blogs are fundamentally changing the way knowledge is created and distributed.[30]

In 2010, Sanger wrote an article for Educause stating in part:

In the last several years, many observers of education and learning have been stunned by the abundance of information online, the ever-faster findability of answers, and the productivity of online 'crowds,' which have created information resources like WorldHeritage and YouTube. The enormous scope of these developments has surprised me too, despite the fact that they are more or less what many of us had hoped for and deliberately tried to bring into being. These sudden, revolutionary developments demand analysis: How is this latest information explosion changing the way we live? Is the relationship between society and individual changing? More to the point for this article, how is the Internet revolution changing education?[31]

Nupedia and WorldHeritage

The Bomis staff, summer 2000
The Bomis staff in the summer of 2000. Sanger is second from the left in the front row seated.

Nupedia's logo

Nupedia was a Web-based encyclopedia whose articles, written by volunteer contributors possessing relevant subject matter expertise and reviewed by editors prior to publication, would be licensed as free content.[11][32] It was co-founded by Jimmy Wales and underwritten by Bomis, with Sanger hired as editor-in-chief.[33][34] In February 2000, Sanger began to oversee Nupedia.[24] He developed a review process for articles and recruited editors.[11] Articles were reviewed through Nupedia's e-mail system before being posted on the site.[35] With Wales and Sanger frustrated at the slow progress of Nupedia,[36] in January 2001, Sanger proposed a wiki be created to spur article development, and the result of this proposal was WorldHeritage,[12][37] officially launched on January 15, 2001.[38][39] It was initially intended as a collaborative wiki for the public to write entries that would then be fed into the Nupedia review process of expertise,[12] but the majority of Nupedia's experts wanted little to do with this project.[12] Originally, Bomis planned to make WorldHeritage profitable.[40]

Shortly after a blank wiki was set up Sanger wrote the initial pages and promoted the site.[41] To the surprise of Sanger and Wales, within a few days of launching, WorldHeritage had outgrown Nupedia, and a small community of editors gathered.[12] By virtue of his position with Nupedia, Sanger ran the project, and formulated much of the original policy, including "Ignore all rules", "", and "Verifiability".[14] WorldHeritage quickly took off, but just months after it was launched, things started to go off the rails, Sanger says, and by the summer of 2001 the new online community was being "overrun" by what he described as "trolls" and "anarchist-types", who were "opposed to the idea that anyone should have any kind of authority that others do not".[42] Sanger responded by proposing a stronger emphasis for expert editors, individuals with the authority to resolve disputes and enforce the rules.[42]

Tired of endless content battles and feeling he had a lack of support from Wales, Sanger eventually left the project.[42] Sanger was the only paid editor of WorldHeritage,[7] a status he held from January 15, 2001, until March 1, 2002. In early 2002 Bomis announced plans to sell advertising on WorldHeritage in part to pay for Sanger's job, but the project was against any commercialization.[43] Sanger worked on and promoted both the Nupedia and WorldHeritage projects until Bomis discontinued funding for his position in February 2002 after the collapse in Internet advertising spending;[44][45] Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as chief organizer of WorldHeritage on March 1.[44] Sanger's stated reason for ending his participation in WorldHeritage and Nupedia as a volunteer was that he could not do justice to the task as a part-time volunteer.[44] Nupedia shut down in 2003,[46] shortly after WorldHeritage's second anniversary.[35]

Origins of WorldHeritage

A screenshot of WorldHeritage's main page on 28 September 2002.

Wales started to play down Sanger's role in the founding of the project in 2005, a few years after Sanger left WorldHeritage.[47][48][49] In light of Wales' view, Sanger posted on his personal webpage several links which supported his role as a co-founder.[13] Sanger was identified as a co-founder of WorldHeritage at least as early as September 2001.[50] Wales identified himself in August 2002 as "co-founder" of WorldHeritage.[51][52] Sanger said "While I was organizing WorldHeritage, Wales was in the background and focused on Bomis.com."[53] Wales stated in 2005 that he had initially heard of the wiki concept in 2001 not from Sanger, but instead from Jeremy Rosenfeld.[53] Wales stated in October 2001 that it was "Larry (who) had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project."[45]

The critical concept of marrying the three fundamental elements of WorldHeritage, namely an encyclopedia, a wiki, and essentially unrestricted editorial access to the public, first took form when Sanger met up with an old friend, Ben Kovitz.[7][9] This meeting occurred at a dinner on January 2, 2001, and it was here that Sanger was first introduced to the functionality of wiki software. Kovitz was a computer programmer and a regular on Ward Cunningham's wiki.[7][9] Sanger thought a wiki would be a good platform to use and decided to present the idea to Jimmy Wales, at that time the head of Bomis.[54][55] Sanger initially proposed the wiki concept to Wales and suggested it be applied to Nupedia and, after some initial skepticism, Wales agreed to try it.[55][56]

It was Jimmy Wales, along with other people, who came up with the broader idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia that would accept contributions from ordinary people and it was Wales who invested in it.[43] Sanger came up with the name "WorldHeritage", which he later said was "a silly name for what was at first a very silly project".[43][57] Sanger first conceived of the wiki-based encyclopedia project only as a means to hopefully accelerate Nupedia's slow growth.[58] During WorldHeritage's critical first year of growth, Sanger spearheaded and guided the following that gathered around this nucleus.[58] Through this early period, he served as WorldHeritage's "chief organizer",[59] a position which has not been filled since his departure from WorldHeritage.[13][43][60] Sanger is also credited with creating and enforcing many of the policies and strategy that made WorldHeritage possible during its first formative year.[14][61] By the end of the year in 2001, the site had about 15,000 articles and upwards of 350 WorldHeritagens.[55]

Post-WorldHeritage

Since Sanger parted ways with WorldHeritage in 2002, he has been critical of its accuracy, among other things.[15] In December 2004, Sanger wrote a critical article for the website Kuro5hin, in which he stated that WorldHeritage is not perceived as credible among librarians, teachers, and academics when it does not have a formal review process and it is "anti-elitist."[16][17] In September 2009, Sanger mentioned one reason for distancing himself from WorldHeritage: "I thought that the project would never have the amount of credibility it could have if it were not somehow more open and welcoming to experts."[45] He pointed out "The other problem was the community had essentially been taken over by trolls to a great extent. That was a real problem, and Jimmy Wales absolutely refused to do anything about it."[45] Wales responded by stating, "I think very highly of Larry Sanger, and think that it is unfortunate that this silly debate has tended to overshadow his work."[45]

Sanger, a philosophy instructor,[62] began work as a lecturer at The Ohio State University, where he taught philosophy until June 2005.[5] His professional interests are epistemology (in particular), early modern philosophy, and ethics.[5][25]

In December 2005, [64][65] The Digital Universe encyclopedia has recruited recognized experts to write articles, and to check user-submitted articles for accuracy.[20] The first step in this effort was the expert-authored and edited Encyclopedia of Earth,[20] an electronic reference about the Earth.[66]

The question of accuracy over WorldHeritage article content spurred Sanger to unveil plans for a new encyclopedia called Citizendium, short for "citizens' compendium".[67] At the Wizards of OS conference in September 2006, Sanger announced Citizendium as a fork of WorldHeritage. The objectives of the fork were to address various perceived flaws in the WorldHeritage system. The main differences would be no anonymous editing: every author/editor would have to be identified by his/her real name, no "top-down" hierarchy of editors: it would aspire to be a "real encyclopedia."[68]

Citizendium

A screenshot of Citizendium's homepage on 2 January 2010.

On March 25, 2007, Citizendium officially launched.[69] In early 2007, Sanger announced he would not head Citizendium indefinitely.[70] Two weeks after the launch of Citizendium, Sanger criticized WorldHeritage, stating the latter was "broken beyond repair," and had a range of problems "from serious management problems, to an often dysfunctional community, to frequently unreliable content, and to a whole series of scandals."[71][72] Citizendium has a form of peer-review, in which the site's content is subject to "gentle expert oversight."[73][74][75]

Citizendium offers more than 16,000 articles, of which 159 have been expert reviewed.[76] Citizendium was criticized in 2009 as a failed effort because of its slow growth.[77] Larry Sanger said in November 2011 that the project collected enough donations to keep the server running "for several months" and "people are still writing articles for it."[78] Ars Technica reporter Timothy B. Lee said in 2011 that Citizendium was unlikely to succeed on the scale of WorldHeritage.[18] Lee noted that Citizendium's late start was a disadvantage, and that Citizendium's growth was also hindered by an "unwieldy editing model".[18] The number of Citizendium contributors is fewer than 100, and the number of edits per day is about "a dozen or so", according to Winthrop University's Dean of Library Services.[19]

Contrast to WorldHeritage

Building on Sanger's experience from other collaborative encyclopedias,[7] Citizendium represented an effort to establish a scholarly and credible online encyclopedia[70][79] which aimed to bring more accountability and academic quality to articles.[10][80]

Citizendium is wiki-based, and several aspects set it apart from WorldHeritage.[81] Prospective contributors on Citizendium are required to sign in using real names in contrast to WorldHeritage users who may remain anonymous.[82][83] WorldHeritage editors often debate over policy, but Citizendium editors agree to follow the rules that are on the site.[81] WorldHeritage invites anyone to contribute while Sanger set up a system in which experts work alongside other editors on the wiki.[81] The size of Citizendium's audience is much smaller than WorldHeritage's and the likelihood of Citizendium overtaking WorldHeritage appears fairly remote.[18]

Post-Citizendium

In early 2009, Sanger effectively ceased to edit Citizendium, although an announcement confirming this was not made until July 30, 2009, on the Citizendium-l mailinglist.[84] On September 22, 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief of Citizendium but said, at the time, that he was still willing to offer advice and would continue to support the goals of the project.[85]

In April 2010 Sanger sent a letter to the FBI detailing his concern that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography in its pedophilia and lolicon categories later clarified as "obscene visual representations of the abuse of children".[86][87] Sanger said that he felt it was his civic duty to report the images.[88] Sanger told FoxNews.com that, in 2012, he worked with NetSpark to get them to donate or heavily discount its pornographic image filtering technology for use by WorldHeritage.[89] NetSpark attempted to contact the Wikimedia Foundation in July/August 2012, but received no response at that time.[89] In December 2010, commenting to WikiLeaks, Sanger said: "I consider you enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people."[90]

He has worked at the WatchKnowLearn project, a non-profit organization which focuses on educating young children using educational videos and other media on the web.[78] Sanger was the executive director of the system.[22] It is a non-profit funded by grants, philanthropists, and the Community Foundation of Northwest Mississippi.[91] Sanger headed the development of WatchKnowLearn from 2008 to 2010.[92] It has of repository of educational videos for kindergarten to the 12th grade.[93] In February 2013, it ranked as the No. 1 search result among educational videos on Google's search engine, with page views surmounting 6 million each month.[94] In 2010 and 2011, he continued working on developing a web-based reading-tutorial application for beginning readers which was launched as Reading Bear in 2012.[21][22] It uses the principles of phonics, using multimedia presentations such as videos, PowerPoint presentations, and ebooks.[21] In addition to aiming to teach children to pronounce words, it aims to teach the meaning and context of each word.[21]

Personal life

Sanger moved to San Diego, California, in February 2000 when he was first hired by Wales to develop Nupedia.[95] He was married in Las Vegas, Nevada, in December 2001.[96] In January 2002 he returned to Columbus, Ohio,[23] where he currently resides with his wife and two children.[16]

Selected writings

A partial list of academic work, essays, and presentations Sanger has written:[97]

Academic work
  • Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification – doctoral thesis.
  • Descartes' methods and their theoretical background – bachelor thesis.
Essays
  • How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read (PDF). LarrySanger.org, December, 2010.
  • Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age. Educause Review, April 2010.
  • The Fate of Expertise after WorldHeritage (PDF). Episteme – Edinburgh University Press, February 2009.
  • Who Says We Know: On The New Politics of Knowledge. Edge Foundation – Edge Reality Club, April 2007.
  • Will (Probably) SucceedCitizendiumWhy the . Citizendium, March 2007.
  • Humanity's Coming Enlightenment. (Archived) Edge Foundation – World Question Center, 2007.
  • Toward a New Compendium of Knowledge. Citizendium, September 2006.
Presentations
  • What Strong Collaboration Means for Scholarly Publishing. Keynote at the Annual Meeting of Society for Scholarly Publishing, San Francisco, CA, June 7, 2007.
  • How to Think about Strong Collaboration among Professionals. Keynote at the Handelsblatt IT Congress, Bonn, Germany, January 30, 2007.
  • Why Make Room for Experts in Web 2.0?. Opening keynote at the SVForum, The Business of New Media, Santa Clara, CA, October 25, 2006.

References

  1. ^ Jennifer Joline Anderson (2011). WorldHeritage: The Company and Its Founders (1 ed.). Abdo Group. p. 20.  
  2. ^ Morris, Kevin (13 February 2013). "WorldHeritage cofounder Larry Sanger on his next revolution". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Chillingworth, Mark (November 27, 2006). "Expert edition".  
  4. ^ Anderson, Nate (November 21, 2007). "Larry Sanger says "tipping point" approaching for expert-guided Citizendium wiki". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Roush, Wade (January 2005). "Larry Sanger's Knowledge Free-for-All".  
  6. ^ a b Sanger, Larry. "Larry Sanger – Education". larraysanger.org. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Sidener, Jonathan (September 23, 2006). "WorldHeritage co-founder looks to add accountability, end anarchy".  
  8. ^ Nauffts, Mitch (March 27, 2007). "5 Questions For...: Larry Sanger, Founder, Citizendium". Philanthropy News Digest (Foundation Center). Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  9. ^ a b c Moody, Glyn (July 13, 2006). "This time, it'll be a WorldHeritage written by experts". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2007-03-25. Larry Sanger seems to have a thing about free online encyclopedias. Although his main claim to fame is as the co-founder, along with Jimmy Wales, of WorldHeritage, that is just one of several projects to produce large-scale, systematic stores of human knowledge he has been involved in. [Wales] saw that I was essentially looking for employment online and he was looking for someone to lead Nupedia... Career: 1992–1996, 1997–1998 Graduate teaching associate, OSU; 2000–2002 Editor-in-chief, Nupedia; Co-founder and 'chief organiser,' WorldHeritage. 
  10. ^ a b LeClaire, Jennifer (March 27, 2007). "WorldHeritage Cofounder Launches Citizendium". NewsFactor Network. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  11. ^ a b c Gouthro, Liane (March 10, 2000). "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia".  
  12. ^ a b c d e f g  
  13. ^ a b c  
  14. ^ a b c  
  15. ^ a b "WorldHeritage founder sets up rival". Australian IT. October 19, 2006. Retrieved 2014-08-04. 
  16. ^ a b c Pink, Daniel H (March 2005). "The Book Stops Here".  
  17. ^ a b Sanger, Larry (December 31, 2004). "Why WorldHeritage Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism".  
  18. ^ a b c d e Lee, Timothy B. (October 27, 2011). "Citizendium turns five, but the WorldHeritage fork is dead in the water". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 
  19. ^ a b Mark Y. Herring (2014). Are Libraries Obsolete?: An Argument for Relevance in the Digital Age (1 ed.).  
  20. ^ a b c Terdiman, Daniel (December 19, 2005). "'"WorldHeritage alternative aims to be 'PBS of the Web.  
  21. ^ a b c d Sawers, Paul (November 2, 2011). "WorldHeritage co-founder launches Reading Bear, an online phonics tutorial for kids". The Next Web, Inc. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  22. ^ a b c Kelley, Michael. "Web-based reading program targets young learners". Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. 
  23. ^ a b c Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive".  
  24. ^ a b Lydgate, Chris (June 2010). "Deconstructing WorldHeritage". Reed Magazine. Retrieved 2013-11-01. 
  25. ^ a b c Boraas, Alan (September 2, 2006). "Hometown kid an Internet revolutionary".  
  26. ^ Sanger, Larry (August 30, 1995). "Tutor-L: Higher education outside the universities". scout.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  27. ^ Sanger, Larry (March 22, 1994). "Association for Systematic Philosophy". George Mason University. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  28. ^ Sanger, Larry (June 2007). "Education 2.0".  
  29. ^ Sanger, Larry (2007). "WHO SAYS WE KNOW: On the New Politics of Knowledge".  
  30. ^ Keen, Andrew (June 2, 2008). "Andrew Keen on New Media".  
  31. ^ Sanger, Larry (April 15, 2010). "Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age".  
  32. ^ "Nupedia.com Editorial Policy Guidelines, Overview: Assignment". Nupedia.com. May 2000. 
  33. ^ Williams, Sam (April 27, 2004). "Everyone is an editor".  
  34. ^ Sidener, Jonathan (December 6, 2004). "Everyone's Encyclopedia".  
  35. ^ a b Lanxon, Nate (June 5, 2008). "The greatest defunct Web sites and dotcom disasters".  
  36. ^ Betz, Lindsay (June 1, 2007). "WorldHeritage formed by former Buckeye". The Lantern ( 
  37. ^ Sanger, Larry (August 19, 2012). "On the moral bankruptcy of WorldHeritage’s anonymous administration". Larry Sanger. Retrieved November 1, 2013. 
  38. ^ Walker, Leslie (September 9, 2004). "Spreading knowledge, the Wiki way". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  39. ^ Long, Tony (January 15, 2008). Worse"and"Enter WorldHeritage, for Better .  
  40. ^ Finkelstein, Seth (2008-09-25). "Read me first: WorldHeritage isn't about human potential, whatever Wales says". London:  
  41. ^ Terdiman, Daniel (December 21, 2005). "WorldHeritage founder modifies his bio".  
  42. ^ a b c Waters, Richard (November 10, 2006). "WorldHeritage stand-off in search for online truth". Financial Times. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  43. ^ a b c d Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and WorldHeritage: A Memoir".  
     • Sanger, Larry (April 19, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and WorldHeritage, Part II".
     
  44. ^ a b c Sanger, Larry (March 1, 2002). "My resignation—Larry Sanger".  
  45. ^ a b c d e Ferraro, Nicole (October 9, 2009). "WorldHeritage Co-Founder Speaks Out Against Jimmy Wales".  
  46. ^ Youngwood, Susan (April 1, 2007). "WorldHeritage: What do they know; when do they know it, and when can we trust it?". Vermont Sunday Magazine ( 
  47. ^ Mitchell, Dan (December 24, 2005). "Insider Editing at WorldHeritage". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  48. ^ Hansen, Evan (December 19, 2005). "WorldHeritage Founder Edits Own Bio".  
  49. ^ Finkelstein, Seth (February 12, 2009). "What's in a name? Everything, when you're talking wiki value". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
  50. ^ Meyers, Peter (September 20, 2001). "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  51. ^ Wales, Jimmy (August 6, 2002). "3apes open content web directory".  
  52. ^ "WorldHeritage boss challenged over claims made in Hot Press".  
  53. ^ a b NewsAssignment.net (May 3, 2007). "Assignment Zero First Take: Wiki Innovators Rethink Openness".  
  54. ^ "Ben Kovitz".  
  55. ^ a b c Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive".   Over tacos that night, Sanger explained his concerns about Nupedia's lack of progress, the root cause of which was its serial editorial system. As Nupedia was then structured, no stage of the editorial process could proceed before the previous stage was completed. Kovitz brought up the wiki and sketched out "wiki magic," the mysterious process by which communities with common interests work to improve wiki pages by incremental contributions. If it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz said, it could work for any online collaborative project. The wiki could break the Nupedia bottleneck by permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project. With Kovitz in tow, Sanger rushed back to his apartment and called Wales to share the idea. Over the next few days he wrote a formal proposal for Wales and started a page on Cunningham's wiki called "WorldHeritage."
  56. ^ "WorldHeritage".  
  57. ^ Sidener, Jonathan (October 9, 2006). "WorldHeritage family feud rooted in San Diego".  
  58. ^ a b O'Toole, Jason (May 7, 2009). "Citizen Sanger".  
  59. ^ "Larry Sanger on co-founding WorldHeritage and how online education could change the world". Retrieved 2012-12-28. At first I resigned as Chief Organizer of WorldHeritage – that was my title, by the way. I was never called 'Editor'. 
  60. ^ Singer, Michael (January 16, 2002). "Free Encyclopedia Project Celebrates Year One".  
  61. ^ Tally, Steve (March 20, 2006). "WorldHeritage co-founder to speak on campus".  
  62. ^ Aviv, Rachel (January 10, 2006). "Mondo WorldHeritage".  
  63. ^ Terdiman, Daniel (January 6, 2006). "WorldHeritage's co-founder eyes a Digital Universe".  
  64. ^ "'"Digital Universe Seeks to Become Free 'PBS of the Web.  
  65. ^ "Contributor: Lawrence Sanger".  
  66. ^ "About the EoE".  
  67. ^ Niccolai, James (September 26, 2006). "WorldHeritage to fight vandals in Germany".  
  68. ^ "Next WorldHeritage, take a right". WorldHeritage, Citizendium, and the politics of knowledge: An interview with Larry Sanger (Dossier Open Source). Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  69. ^  
  70. ^ a b Anderson, Nate (February 25, 2007). "Citizendium: building a better WorldHeritage". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  71. ^ Thomson, Iain (April 13, 2007). "WorldHeritage 'broken beyond repair' says co-founder". iTnews. Retrieved 2011-12-18. 
  72. ^ Lyman, Jay (September 20, 2006). "WorldHeritage Co-Founder Planning New Expert-Authored Site". ECT News Network. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  73. ^ Heater, Brian (January 26, 2007). "Q&A With Citizendium Creator Dr. Larry Sanger". AppScout.com. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  74. ^ "Use with caution: The perils of WorldHeritage". CNN. Associated Press. November 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-04. 
  75. ^ McCarthy, Caroline (January 23, 2007). "Citizendium: WorldHeritage co-founder Sanger's WorldHeritage rival".  
  76. ^ Gross, Melanie (May 21, 2012). "WorldHeritage down? Try these alternatives". gHacks Technology News. Retrieved 2013-10-19. 
  77. ^ Foley, Stephen (February 3, 2009). "So is WorldHeritage cracking up?". The Independent. Retrieved 2013-10-25. 
  78. ^ a b Sawers, Paul (November 19, 2011). "Larry Sanger on co-founding WorldHeritage and how online education could change the world".  
  79. ^ Dawson, Christopher (February 23, 2007). "Citizendium seeks to be the WorldHeritage you can cite".  
  80. ^ Tiwari, Neha (April 5, 2007). "WorldHeritage today, Citizendium tomorrow".  
  81. ^ a b c Cohen, Jason Z (March 3, 2008). "Citizendium's Larry Sanger: Experts Make It Better". LinuxInsider (ECT News Network). Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  82. ^ Lombardi, Candace (March 26, 2007). "WorldHeritage rival makes its debut".  
  83. ^ Read, Brock (April 5, 2007). "Citizendium's Creator in His Own Words".  
  84. ^ Sanger, Larry (July 30, 2009). "[Citizendium-l] My recent absence". Citizendium. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  85. ^ Sanger, Larry (September 22, 2010). "Citizendium Charter Ratified".  
  86. ^ "Wikimedia pornography row deepens as Wales cedes rights". BBC News. May 10, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  87. ^ Metz, Cade (May 9, 2010). "Jimbo Wales exiles 'porn' from Wikiland". The Register. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  88. ^ Farrell, Nick (April 29, 2010). "WorldHeritage denies child abuse allegations: Co-founder grassed the outfit to the FBI". The Inquirer. Retrieved 2010-10-09. 
  89. ^ a b Chiaramonte, Perry (September 10, 2012). "Exclusive: WorldHeritage ignores solution to rampant porn problem". FoxNews.com. Retrieved 2013-11-19. 
  90. ^ Gordon Crovitz, L (December 6, 2010). "Julian Assange, Information Anarchist". The Wall Street Journal ( 
  91. ^ Lei, Owen (October 28, 2011). "'"CEO hits road to spread word about non-profit 'YouTube for teachers. King Broadcasting Company. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  92. ^ "WatchKnowLearn". EPIC 2020. November 2, 2011. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  93. ^ Tomaszewski, Jason (2013). "Site Review: Watch-Know-Learn". Education World. Retrieved 2013-11-13. 
  94. ^ Lee Long, Robert (February 16, 2013). "WatchKnowLearn.org No. 1". Desoto Times Tribune. Retrieved 2013-11-09. 
  95. ^ Joseph Michael Reagle (2010). Good Faith Collaboration: The Culture of WorldHeritage (1 ed.).  
  96. ^ Jennifer Joline Anderson (2011). WorldHeritage: The Company and Its Founders (1 ed.). Abdo Group. p. 74.  
  97. ^ Sanger, Larry. "Larry Sanger". larrysanger.org. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 

External links

  • Larry Sanger on Twitter
  • Larry Sanger on Facebook
  • Larry Sanger's channel on YouTube
  • Larry Sanger – Sanger's personal website.
  • User:Larry Sanger – Sanger's account on the English WorldHeritage.
  • User:Larry Sanger/Origins of WorldHeritage – An essay discussing the origins of WorldHeritage.
  • Larry Sanger - SISCTI 34 – Sanger spoke at Monterrey, Mexico during the SISCTI 34 conference.
  • Video interview: Larry Sanger talks about WorldHeritage and his plans with Citizendium – Mostly in English, with a German introduction and subtitles.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.