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Lincoln Ellsworth

Lincoln Ellsworth
Lincoln Ellsworth
Born May 12, 1880 (1880-05-12)
Chicago, Illinois
Died May 26, 1951(1951-05-26) (aged 71)
New York City, New York
Nationality United States
Occupation exploration
Parent(s) James Ellsworth
Eva Frances Butler

Lincoln Ellsworth (May 12, 1880 – May 26, 1951) was a polar explorer from the United States and a major benefactor of the American Museum of Natural History.

Contents

  • Biography 1
  • Honors 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Biography

He was born on May 12, 1880 to James Ellsworth and Eva Frances Butler in Chicago, Illinois. He also lived in Hudson, Ohio as a child and attended Western Reserve Academy.

Lincoln Ellsworth's father, James, a wealthy coal man from the United States, spent US$100,000 to fund Roald Amundsen's 1925 attempt to fly from Svalbard to the North Pole. Two Dornier Wal flying boats, the N24 and N25, attempted to reach the North Pole on May 21. When one airplane lost power both made forced landings and, as a result, became separated. It took 3 days for the crews to regroup and 7 take off attempts before they were able to return N25 to the air 28 days later.

In early March 1926, under the headline "Across the Pole by Dirigible," the Umberto Nobile, in a flight from Svalbard to Alaska. On May 12, the Geographic North Pole was sighted. This was the first undisputed sighting of the area.

Ellsworth made four expeditions to Antarctica between 1933 and 1939, using as his aircraft transporter and base a former Norwegian herring boat that he named Wyatt Earp after his hero.[2]

On November 23, 1935, Ellsworth discovered the Ellsworth Mountains of Antarctica when he made a trans-Antarctic flight from Dundee Island to the Ross Ice Shelf. He gave the descriptive name Sentinel Range, which was later named for the northern half of the Ellsworth Mountains. During the flight, his aircraft ran out of fuel, forcing a landing near the Little America camp established by Richard Byrd. Because of a faulty radio, he and his pilot, Herbert Hollick-Kenyon, were unable to notify authorities about the landing. The two men were declared missing, and the British research ship Discovery sailed from New Zealand on a search mission. The two men were discovered January 16, 1936, after almost two months alone at Little America.[3] They returned to New York City on April 6, and their support ship, the MS Wyatt Earp, arrived separately two weeks later.[4]

Mount Ellsworth and Lake Ellsworth, both in Antarctica, are also named after him.

Honors

In 1927, the Kermit Roosevelt; Carl Rungius; Stewart Edward White; Orville Wright.[5] The Boy Scout's Book of True Adventure, Fourteen Honorary Scouts, includes an essay "The First Crossing of the Polar Sea" by Lincoln Ellsworth.[6] The United States Postal Service once produced a stamp with his picture. To this day, the high school teams in Hudson, Ohio, are named "The Explorers" after Ellsworth.

In 1928, Ellsworth was awarded a Congressional Gold Medal that honored both his 1925 and 1926 polar flights. Eight years later in 1936 he was awarded a second medal, for "his claims on behalf of the United States of approximately 350,000 square miles in Antarctica and for his 2,500-mile aerial survey of the heart of Antarctica."[7] He thus became one of only four people to be awarded two Congressional Gold Medals. The Antarctic base Ellsworth Station was named after him. In 1937 he was awarded the Patron's Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society for his improvements in the technique of polar aerial navigation. [8]

The Hall of Lincoln Ellsworth at the American Museum of Natural History is dedicated to his Arctic and Antarctic voyages.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Beekman H. Pool (2002). Polar Extremes: The World of Lincoln Ellsworth. University of Alaska Press. 
  2. ^ "Wyatt Earp"HMAS . Sea Power Centre Australia. Retrieved September 16, 2008. 
  3. ^ "Ellsworth and Kenyon Found Safe: Missing Men Located At Byrd's Camp", Fairbanks (Alaska) Daily News-Miner. January 17, 1936. Page A1.
  4. ^ "Ellsworth party greeted on return", The New York Times. April 20, 1936. Page 13.
  5. ^ "Around the World".  
  6. ^ Ellsworth, Lincoln (1931). "The First Crossing of the Polar Sea". In West, James E. The Boy Scout's Book of True Adventure, Fourteen Honorary Scouts.  
  7. ^ "Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2012, see pages 7-8". senate.gov. Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  8. ^ "List of Past Gold Medal Winners" (PDF). Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved 24 August 2015. 
  9. ^ "Lincoln Ellsworth: The Museum's Polar Star". 

External links

  • Lincoln Ellsworth
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