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List of Hungarian rulers

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List of Hungarian rulers

This is a List of rulers of Hungary, which includes the grand princes (895–1000), the kings (1000–1918), and regent Miklós Horthy (1920–1944).

For a list of presidents until present day, see List of heads of state of Hungary. For the semi-independent monarchs of Transylvania in the 16th and 17th centuries, see List of Princes of Transylvania.

Early Hungarian leaders

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Lebedias The first known Hungarian voivode in Khazaria.
High Prince Álmos c.858 c.895 The first Hungarian Grand Prince, elected in Etelköz, and father of Árpád. He strengthened the alliance between the other six Magyar tribal leaders.

Grand princes of Hungary

House of Árpád

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
The rulers of the first half of the 10th century are often disputed, as the Hungarian nation consisted of several tribes led by various leaders. The most frequently proposed are:
Árpád c.895 c.907 Led the Magyars into Central Europe around 896.[1] According to the dual system of rulership (similar to the Khazars), he was the actual leader with Kurszán as religious head.
Zoltán c.907 c.947 Also known as Zaltas. The youngest (fifth) son of Árpád, and Third Grand Prince of the Hungarians (Magyars).
Fajsz c.947 c.955 Also known as Fali or Falicsi. Son of Jutocsa (Jutas) the third son of Árpád.
Taksony c.955 c.972 Son of Zoltán (Zaltas)  
Géza c.972 997 Son of Taksony  
Stephen I
(Szent István)
997 1000 Son of Géza. Last Grand Prince.

Kings of Hungary

House of Árpád

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Stephen I 1000 15 August 1038 Son of Géza. Proclaimed the first King of Hungary.
Dynastic struggle 1038–1046
Peter Orseolo 15 August 1038 1041 Also known as Peter I the Venetian. Grandson of Géza. Dethroned.
Samuel Aba 1041 5 July 1044 Leader of the Kabar tribe. Married Géza's daughter Gizella.
Peter Orseolo 1044 1046 Reinstated, but dethroned again.
Vatha pagan rising 1046–1047
Andrew I 1047 1061 Árpád dynasty restored
Béla I 1061 August 1063 Brother of Andrew I
Solomon August 1063 28 October 1074 Son of Andrew I
Géza I 28 October 1074 25 April 1077 Son of Béla I
St. Ladislaus 25 April 1077 29 July 1095 Son of Béla I
Coloman 29 July 1095 3 February 1116 Son of Géza I.
Stephen II 3 February 1116 3 April 1131 Son of Kálmán
Béla II the Blind 3 April 1131 13 February 1141 Grandson of Géza I, son of Álmos, Kálmán's younger brother
Géza II 13 February 1141 31 May 1162 Son of Béla II
Stephen III 31 May 1162 4 March 1172 Son of Géza II
Ladislaus II 31 May 1162 14 January 1163 Rebel anti-king, younger brother of Géza II.
Stephen IV 14 January 1163 June 1163 Rebel anti-king, younger brother of Géza II.
Béla III 4 March 1172 13 April 1196 Younger brother of Stephen III.
Emeric 13 April 1196 30 November 1204 Son of Béla III.
Ladislaus III 30 November 1204 7 May 1205 Son of Imre, crowned and died as a child
Andrew II 7 May 1205 21 September 1235 Brother of Imre
Béla IV 14 October 1235 3 May 1270 Son of Andrew II, the "second founder" after the First Mongol invasion (1241–42)
Stephen V 3 May 1270 6 August 1272 Son of Béla IV.
Ladislaus IV the Cuman 6 August 1272 10 July 1290 Son of Steven V, unsuccessful Mongol invasion, lived with the nomad cuman tribes
Andrew III 4 August 1290 14 January 1301 Grandson of Andrew II, born in Venice last of the Árpád dynasty

Kings of different houses

Přemyslid Dynasty

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Wenceslaus of Bohemia 1301 1305 King of Bohemia, elected as King of Hungary but not universally recognized

House of Wittelsbach

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Otto of Bavaria (Béla V) 6 December 1305 1308 Duke of Lower Bavaria as Otto III, was not universally recognized

House of Anjou

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Charles I (I. Károly) 20 August 1310 16 July 1342 Established the Angevin dynasty in Hungary.
Louis I the Great (Nagy Lajos) 16 July 1342 11 September 1382 Also became King of Poland (1370)
Mary I (I. Mária) 11 September 1382 17 May 1395 Married Sigismund of Luxemburg
Charles II the Small (Kis Károly) 31 December 1385 24 February 1386 Also King of Naples, in opposition to Mary

House of Luxembourg

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Sigismund I (Zsigmond) 31 March 1387 9 December 1437 Later also Roman-German King (since 1410), King of Bohemia (since 1419), Holy Roman Emperor (since 1433)

House of Habsburg

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Albert I 1 January 1438 27 October 1439 Son-in-law of Sigismund, also Roman-German King, King of Bohemia, Duke of Austria
Kingship disputed between Vladislaus I and Ladislaus Posthumus

House of Jagiellon

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Vladislaus I 15 May 1440 10 November 1444 Also King of Poland

House of Habsburg

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Ladislaus V the Posthumus 10 November 1444 23 November 1457 Born in 1440 after his father's death, spent most of his life in captivity.

House of Hunyadi

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
John Hunyadi (Hunyadi János) 1446 1453 Ruled as regent, fought with great success against the Ottomans
Matthias I Corvinus (Corvin Mátyás or Hunyadi Mátyás) 24 January 1458 6 April 1490 Son of John Hunyadi, also King of Bohemia

House of Jagiellon

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Vladislaus II 15 July 1490 13 May 1516 Also King of Bohemia
Louis II 13 May 1516 29 August 1526 Also King of Bohemia, killed in the Battle of Mohács

Habsburg Dynasty

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Kingship disputed between Ferdinand of Austria and John Zápolya during the Ottoman invasion
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (Ferdinánd) 16 December 1526 25 July 1564 Claimed the throne according to the agreement between the House of Jagiellon and the House of Habsburg

House of Zápolya

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
John I (Szapolyai János) 10 November 1526 22 July 1540 Also claimed the throne, with support of Hungarian nobles and later Suleiman the Magnificent.
John II (Szapolyai János Zsigmond) 22 July 1540 16 August 1570 Son of John Zápolya; renounced his claim in 1570 in favour of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor. He was elected twice.
Hungary was effectively split into three parts: Royal Hungary in the north and west, Ottoman Hungary in the south, and the Principality of Transylvania in the east. The following, until 1699, gives the rulers of "Royal Hungary".

Habsburg Dynasty

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Maximilian (I. Miksa) 8 September 1563 12 October 1576  
Rudolf I 25 September 1572 26 June 1608  
Matthias II (II. Mátyás) 26 June 1608 20 March 1619  
Ferdinand II 1 July 1618 15 February 1637  

House of Bethlen

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Gabriel I 25 August 1620 31 December 1621 Contested by Ferdinand II

Habsburg Dynasty

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Ferdinand III 8 December 1625 2 April 1657  
Ferdinand IV 16 June 1647 9 July 1654  
Leopold I (I. Lipót) 27 June 1655 5 May 1705 Habsburgs began colonization of Serbs (1690) and Germans (1682–1699) in Southern Hungary.
Hungary reunited under Habsburg rule after the Great Turkish War in 1699.
Joseph I (I. József) 9 December 1687 17 April 1711  
Charles III (III. Károly) 11 April 1711 20 October 1740 Large scale German settlements in Hungary begin (1720–1800).
Maria II Theresa (II. Mária Terézia) 20 October 1740 29 November 1780 Enjoyed broad support of Hungarian nobles;

Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Joseph II
(II. József)
29 November 1780 20 February 1790  
Leopold II
(II. Lipót)
20 February 1790 1 March 1792  
Francis II
(I. Ferenc)
1 March 1792 2 March 1835  
Ferdinand V
(V. Ferdinánd)
28 September 1830 2 December 1848 Being epileptic and mentally ill, abdicated in favour of his nephew, Franz Joseph (son of his younger brother Franz Karl). Died in 1875.
Franz Joseph I
(I. Ferenc József)
2 December 1848 21 November 1916 Later regained the rule with Russian help in 1849. Crowned in 1867.
Charles IV
(IV. Károly)
21 November 1916 16 November 1918 Reigned until 1918, when he "renounced participation" in state affairs, but did not abdicate. He spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922.

Regency (1920–1944)

Portrait Ruler Began Ended Remarks
Miklós Horthy 1 March 1920 3 November 1944 Navy admiral Horthy officially 'represented' the defunct Hungarian monarchy despite Charles I of Austria's attempts to retake the throne of Hungary. The state was effectively a "kingdom without a king". Dethronization of Habsburgs enacted by Hungarian Parliament in 1921.

Pretenders of the Hungarian throne

Habsburg-Lorraine Dynasty

Portrait Titular ruler Began Ended Remarks
Charles IV
(IV. Károly)
16 November 1918 1 April 1922 He reigned until 1918, when he "renounced participation" in state affairs but did not abdicate. He spent the remaining years of his life attempting to restore the monarchy until his death in 1922.
Otto II
(II. Ottó)
1 April 1922 4 July 2011 On 31 May 1961, Otto renounced all claims to the Austrian throne. However, he did not renounce his claims to the Hungarian and Bohemian thrones, and the Communist government did not request this.
Charles V
(V. Károly)
4 July 2011 Incumbent Head of the House of Habsburg since January 2007.

Timeline

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 bar:Kingdom of Hungary
 from: 1000    till:    1301   color: arpadok       text:Árpáds
 from: 1301    till:    1308   color: interregnum   text:
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 from: 1458    till:    1490   color: hunyadi       text:Huny.
 from: 1490    till:    1526   color: jagello       text:Jag.
 from: 1711    till:    1780   color: habsburg      text: 
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 from: 1920    till:    1945   color: horthy                 text:Horthy
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 bar:Eastern Hungarian Kingdom
 from: 1526   till:    1570   color: szapolyai               text:Szapolyai
 bar:Royal Hungary
 from: 1526   till:    1711   color: habsburg   text:Habsburg
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  from: 1690   till:    1704   color: habsburg   text: 
  from: 1704   till:    1711   color: erdely   text:  
  from: 1711   till:    1780   color: habsburg   text: 
  align:center textcolor:black fontsize:8 mark:(line,black) width:25 shift:(15,-5)
  from: 1780    till:    1867   color: habsburglotharingiai   text:Habsburg-Lorraine
  bar:Ottoman Empire
 align:center textcolor:black fontsize:8 mark:(line,black) width:25 shift:(-5,-5)
  from: 1526   till:    1718   color: torok   text:Ottoman sultans
   at:895 shift:(50,190) color:black text:895 Hungarian Conquest
   at:1000 shift:(70,180) color:black text:1000 Coronation of King Stephen I
   at:1526 shift:(45,190) color:black text:1526 Battle of Mohács
   at:1570 shift:(45,180) color:black text:1570 Treaty of Speyer
   at:1718 shift:(45,190) color:black text:1718 Treaty of Passarowitz
   at:1867 shift:(25,200) color:black text:1867 Ausgleich
   at:1918 shift:(45,180) color:black text:1920 Treaty of Trianon

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    at:1526 color:black layer:back
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    at:1718 color:green layer:back
    at:1867 color:green layer:back
    at:1920 color:black layer:back

References

[2]
[3][4][5][6]

External links

  • Rulers and Heads of State of Hungary
  • Hungarian Dynasties

See also

Hungary portal
Austria-Hungary portal
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