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List of Nobel laureates in Literature

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List of Nobel laureates in Literature

Horace Engdahl, the former permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy, announcing that Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio won the 2008 Nobel Prize in Literature

The Nobel Prize in Literature (Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) is awarded annually by the Swedish Academy to authors for outstanding contributions in the field of literature. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which are awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Swedish Academy.[2] The first Nobel Prize in Literature was awarded in 1901 to Sully Prudhomme of France. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[3] In 1901, Prudhomme received 150,782 SEK, which is equivalent to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[4]

As of 2014, the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded to 111 individuals.[5] When he received the award in 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak was forced to decline it under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union. In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre refused to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past.[6] Thirteen women have won the Nobel Prize in Literature, more than any other Nobel Prize with the exception of the Nobel Peace Prize.[7] Among all the years the Nobel Prize in Literature has been awarded, there have been only four instances in which the award was given to two people (1904, 1917, 1966, 1974). There have been seven years in which the Nobel Prize in Literature was not awarded (1914, 1918, 1935, 1940–1943).[5] The country with the most recipients of the Nobel Prize in Literature is France, with 15, followed by the United States, with 10.


Year Laureate Country Language Citation Genre(s)
1901 Sully Prudhomme  France French "in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect"[8] poetry, essay
1902 Theodor Mommsen  German Empire German "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome"[9] history, law
1903 Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson  Norway Norwegian "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"[10] poetry, novel, drama
1904 Frédéric Mistral  France Occitan "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"[11] poetry, philology
José Echegaray  Spain Spanish "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"[11] drama
1905 Henryk Sienkiewicz  Poland Polish "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"[12] novel
1906 Giosuè Carducci  Kingdom of Italy Italian "not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces"[13] poetry
1907 Rudyard Kipling  United Kingdom English "in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author"[14] novel, short story, poetry
1908 Rudolf Christoph Eucken  German Empire German "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life"[15] philosophy
1909 Selma Lagerlöf  Sweden Swedish "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"[16] novel, short story
1910 Paul von Heyse  German Empire German "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[17] poetry, drama, novel, short story
1911 Maurice Maeterlinck  Belgium French "in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers' own feelings and stimulate their imaginations"[18] drama, poetry, essay
1912 Gerhart Hauptmann  German Empire German "primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art"[19] drama, novel
1913 Rabindranath Tagore India Bengali "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West"[20] poetry, novel, drama, short story, music
1914 Not awarded
1915 Romain Rolland  France French "as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings"[21] novel
1916 Verner von Heidenstam  Sweden Swedish "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"[22] poetry, novel
1917 Karl Adolph Gjellerup  Denmark Danish "for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals"[23] poetry
Henrik Pontoppidan  Denmark Danish "for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark"[23] novel
1918 Not awarded
1919 Carl Spitteler   Switzerland German "in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring"[24] poetry
1920 Knut Hamsun  Norway Norwegian "for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil"[25] novel
1921 Anatole France  France French "in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament"[26] novel, poetry
1922 Jacinto Benavente  Spain Spanish "for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama"[27] drama
1923 William Butler Yeats  Ireland English "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"[28] poetry
1924 Władysław Reymont  Poland Polish "for his great national epic, The Peasants"[29] novel
1925 George Bernard Shaw  Ireland English "for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty"[30] drama, literary criticism
1926 Grazia Deledda  Kingdom of Italy Italian "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"[31] poetry, novel
1927 Henri Bergson  France French "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[32] philosophy
1928 Sigrid Undset  Norway
(Born in
Norwegian "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"[33] novel
1929 Thomas Mann  Germany German "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"[34] novel, short story, essay
1930 Sinclair Lewis  United States English "for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters"[35] novel, short story, drama
1931 Erik Axel Karlfeldt  Sweden Swedish "The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt"[36] poetry
1932 John Galsworthy  United Kingdom English "for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga"[37] novel
1933 Ivan Bunin Stateless (born in
 Russian Empire, living in
Russian "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"[38] short story, poetry, novel
1934 Luigi Pirandello  Kingdom of Italy Italian "for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art"[39] drama, novel, short story
1935 Not awarded
1936 Eugene O'Neill  United States English "for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy"[40] drama
1937 Roger Martin du Gard  France French "for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel cycle Les Thibault"[41] novel
1938 Pearl S. Buck  United States English "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"[42] novel, biography
1939 Frans Eemil Sillanpää  Finland Finnish "for his deep understanding of his country's peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature"[43] novel
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943 Not awarded
1944 Johannes Vilhelm Jensen  Denmark Danish "for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style"[44] poetry
1945 Gabriela Mistral  Chile Spanish "for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"[45] poetry
1946 Hermann Hesse   Switzerland
(Born in
 German Empire)
German "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"[46] novel, poetry
1947 André Gide  France French "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"[47] novel, essay
1948 T. S. Eliot  United Kingdom
(Born in
English "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"[48] poetry
1949 William Faulkner  United States English "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"[49] novel, short story
1950 Bertrand Russell  United Kingdom English "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought"[50] philosophy
1951 Pär Lagerkvist  Sweden Swedish "for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind"[51] poetry, novel, short story, drama
1952 François Mauriac  France French "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"[52] novel, short story
1953 Winston Churchill  United Kingdom English "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"[53] history, essay, memoirs
1954 Ernest Hemingway  United States English "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"[54] novel, short story, screenplay
1955 Halldór Laxness  Iceland Icelandic "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"[55] novel, short story, drama, poetry
1956 Juan Ramón Jiménez  Spanish State Spanish "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"[56] poetry
1957 Albert Camus  France French "for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times"[57] novel, short story, drama, philosophy, essay
1958 Boris Pasternak  Soviet Union Russian "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[58] novel, poetry, translation
1959 Salvatore Quasimodo  Italy Italian "for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times"[59] poetry
1960 Saint-John Perse  France French "for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time"[60] poetry
1961 Ivo Andrić  Yugoslavia
(Born in
Serbo-Croatian[61] "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"[61] novel, short story
1962 John Steinbeck  United States English "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"[62] novel, short story, screenplay
1963 Giorgos Seferis  Kingdom of Greece
(Born in
 Ottoman Empire)
Greek "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"[63] poetry
1964 Jean-Paul Sartre  France French "for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age"[64] novel, philosophy, drama, literary criticism, screenplay
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov  Soviet Union Russian "for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people"[65] novel
1966 Shmuel Yosef Agnon  Israel
(Born in
Hebrew "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[66] novel, short story
Nelly Sachs  Sweden
(Born in
 German Empire)
German "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[66] poetry, drama
1967 Miguel Ángel Asturias  Guatemala Spanish "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"[67] novel, poetry
1968 Yasunari Kawabata  Japan Japanese "for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind"[68] novel, short story
1969 Samuel Beckett  Ireland English and French "for his writing, which - in new forms for the novel and drama - in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation"[69] novel, drama, poetry
1970 Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn  Soviet Union Russian "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"[70] novel
1971 Pablo Neruda  Chile Spanish "for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent's destiny and dreams"[71] poetry
1972 Heinrich Böll  Germany German "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"[72] novel, short story
1973 Patrick White  Australia
(Born in
 United Kingdom)
English "for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature"[73] novel, short story, drama
1974 Eyvind Johnson  Sweden Swedish "for a narrative art, farseeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom"[74] novel
Harry Martinson  Sweden Swedish "for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos"[74] poetry, novel, drama
1975 Eugenio Montale  Italy Italian "for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions"[75] poetry
1976 Saul Bellow  United States
(Born in
English "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[76] novel, short story
1977 Vicente Aleixandre  Spanish State Spanish "for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man's condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars"[77] poetry
1978 Isaac Bashevis Singer  United States
(Born in
Yiddish "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[78] novel, short story, memoirs
1979 Odysseas Elytis  Greece Greek "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"[79] poetry
1980 Czesław Miłosz  Poland Polish "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[80] poetry, essay
1981 Elias Canetti  Germany
German "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[81] novel, drama, memoirs, essay
1982 Gabriel García Márquez  Colombia Spanish "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"[82] novel, short story, screenplay
1983 William Golding  United Kingdom English "for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today"[83] novel, poetry, drama
1984 Jaroslav Seifert  Czechoslovakia
(Born in
Czech "for his poetry which endowed with freshness, and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man"[84] poetry
1985 Claude Simon  France French "who in his novel combines the poet's and the painter's creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition"[85] novel
1986 Wole Soyinka  Nigeria English "who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence"[86] drama, novel, poetry
1987 Joseph Brodsky  United States
(Born in
 Soviet Union)
English and Russian "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[87] poetry
1988 Naguib Mahfouz  Egypt Arabic "who, through works rich in nuance - now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous - has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind"[88] novel
1989 Camilo José Cela  Spain Spanish "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"[89] novel, short story
1990 Octavio Paz  Mexico Spanish "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"[90] poetry, essay
1991 Nadine Gordimer  South Africa English "who through her magnificent epic writing has - in the words of Alfred Nobel - been of very great benefit to humanity"[91] novel, short story, essay
1992 Derek Walcott  Saint Lucia English "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"[92] poetry
1993 Toni Morrison  United States English "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"[93] novel
1994 Kenzaburō Ōe  Japan Japanese "who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today"[94] novel, short story
1995 Seamus Heaney  Ireland English "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"[95] poetry
1996 Wisława Szymborska  Poland Polish "for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality"[96] poetry
1997 Dario Fo  Italy Italian "who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden"[97] drama
1998 José Saramago  Portugal Portuguese "who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality"[98] novel, drama, poetry
1999 Günter Grass  Germany German "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"[99] novel, drama, poetry
2000 Gao Xingjian  France (since 1998)
 China (1940-1998)
Chinese "for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama"[100] novel, drama, literary criticism
2001 V. S. Naipaul  United Kingdom
(Born in
 Trinidad & Tobago)
English "for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories"[101] novel, essay
2002 Imre Kertész  Hungary Hungarian "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[102] novel
2003 J. M. Coetzee  South Africa English "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"[103] novel, essay, translation
2004 Elfriede Jelinek  Austria German "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[104] novel, drama
2005 Harold Pinter  United Kingdom English "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[105] drama
2006 Orhan Pamuk  Turkey Turkish "who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures"[106] novel, screenplay, essay
2007 Doris Lessing  United Kingdom English "that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny"[107] novel, drama, poetry, short story, memoirs
2008 J. M. G. Le Clézio  France
French "author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization"[108] novel, short story, essay, translation
2009 Herta Müller  Germany
(Born in
German "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"[109] novel, poetry
2010 Mario Vargas Llosa Peru
Spanish "for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual's resistance, revolt, and defeat"[110] novel, short story, essay, drama
2011 Tomas Tranströmer  Sweden Swedish "because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"[111] poetry, translation
2012 Mo Yan  China Chinese "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary"[112] novel, short story
2013 Alice Munro  Canada English "master of the contemporary short story"[113] short story
2014 Patrick Modiano  France French "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation."[114] novel

Nobel laureates by country

The 111 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2014 have come from the following countries:

Country Number
France 15
United States 10
United Kingdom 9
Germany 8
Sweden 8
Italy 6
Spain 6
Poland 4
Ireland 4
Russia/USSR 3
Denmark 3
Norway 3
China 2
Japan 2
South Africa 2
Greece 2
Chile 2
Switzerland 2
Belgium 1
India 1
Finland 1
Iceland 1
Yugoslavia 1
Israel 1
Turkey 1
Guatemala 1
Australia 1
Bulgaria 1
Colombia 1
Czechoslovakia 1
Nigeria 1
Egypt 1
Mexico 1
Saint Lucia 1
Portugal 1
Hungary 1
Austria 1
Mauritius 1
Peru 1
Canada 1

One Nobel laureate is classified as stateless (Ivan Bunin, 1933).

Nobel laureates by language

The 111 Nobel laureates in literature from 1901 to 2014 have written in the following languages:

Language Number
English 30
French 16
German 13
Spanish 11
Swedish 7
Italian 6
Russian 5
Polish 4
Danish 3
Norwegian 3
Chinese 2
Greek 2
Japanese 2
Arabic 1
Bengali 1
Czech 1
Finnish 1
Hebrew 1
Hungarian 1
Icelandic 1
Occitan 1
Portuguese 1
Serbo-Croatian 1
Turkish 1
Yiddish 1

Rabindranath Tagore (Nobel Prize in Literature 1913) wrote in Bengali and English, Samuel Beckett (Nobel Prize in Literature 1969) wrote in French and English and Joseph Brodsky (Nobel Prize in Literature 1987) wrote poetry in Russian and prose in English. These three Nobel laureates have been sorted under Bengali, French and Russian, respectively.[115]


  • "All Nobel Laureates in Literature".  
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  2. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders".  
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize".  
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies".  
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  6. ^ "Nobel Laureates Facts".  
  7. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates".  
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  83. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1983". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  84. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  85. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1985". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  86. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1986". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  87. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1987". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  88. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1988". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  89. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1989". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  90. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  91. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1991". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  92. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1992". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  93. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  94. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1994". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  95. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1995". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  96. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1996". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  97. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  98. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  99. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  100. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  101. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2001". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  102. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2002". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  103. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  104. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  105. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2005". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  106. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  107. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  108. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 14 October 2008. 
  109. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 8 October 2009. 
  110. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  111. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2011". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 6 October 2011. 
  112. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2012". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  113. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2013". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 27 January 2013. 
  114. ^ [“for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”. "Nobel Prize in Literature 2014"] . Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2014. 
  115. ^ Number of Nobel Laureates in Literature Sorted in Languages

^ A. The information in the country column is according to, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

External links

  • Official website of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
  • Official website of the Nobel Foundation
  • Read the Nobels - a collaborative Litblog featuring reviews of individual books by Nobel laureates.
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