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List of active separatist movements in Europe

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List of active separatist movements in Europe

Map of active separatist movements in Europe. Red names indicate regions with movements that only claim greater autonomy within the actual state. Black names indicate regions with important secessionist movements, although both categories include moderate movements. The nations highlighted in colors are the territories claimed by the local nationalist groups, including areas out of the state's borders and cases of annexation to other states (click to enlarge).

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.

Albania

Northern Epirus[5][6]

  • Ethnic group: Greeks in Albania
    • Political parties: Unity for Human Rights Party (seeks autonomous status or union with Greece)

Azerbaijan

Lezgistan

Nagorno-Karabakh

Talysh-Mughan

Belgium

 Brussels-Capital Region

 Flemish Region or the Flemish Community (the latter includes Brussels)

German-speaking Community of Belgium

 Walloon Region

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia

Croatia

Istria

Rijeka

Cyprus

Breakaway state:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic

 Moravia

Czech Silesia

Denmark

For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.

 Bornholm

 Faroe Islands

Finland

 Åland

France

Some of the claimed nations and/or regions – 1. Brittany, 2. France proper (excluding Wallonia), 3. Occitania, 4. Lorraine which is sometimes part of France proper, 5. Alsace, 6. Basque Country, 7. Catalonia and 8. Corsica.
Secessionist movements
Gradual and eventual secession
Autonomist movements

Georgia

Breakaway states:

Abkhazia

 South Ossetia

Proposed autonomous movements:

Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

Borchali Azerbaijanis

Germany

Bavaria

East Frisia

Franconia[23]

Lusatia

Schleswig-Holstein

Italy

Sardinia

South Tyrol

Veneto

Kosovo

See: International recognition of Kosovo

North Kosovo

Latvia

Latgale

 Macedonia

 Moldova

Breakaway state:

 Transnistria

Proposed independent and autonomous movements:

 Gagauzia

Taraclia[28]

Netherlands

Frisia

  • Ethnic group: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[29]

Poland

Upper Silesia

Kashubia

  • Ethnic group: Kashubians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Kashubia
    • An association of people: Kaszëbskô Jednota who want to actively participate in the life of the Kashubian nation and who recognize its right to cultural autonomy and self-identity within the multi-ethnic society.

Romania

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Székely Land

Szekler National Council,[36] Hungarian National Council of Transylvania, Liga Pro Europa, a Romanian-Hungarian regionalist NGO.,[35] Provincia, a group of intellectuals promoting regionalization of Romania,[35] Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania.[37] [

Russia

Russia's North Caucasus

Russia's other European regions

Serbia

Vojvodina

Sandžak

Preševo Valley

Breakaway state:

Republic of Kosovo

Slovakia

The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Autonomist movements:

  • Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community,[43] In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.[44]
    • Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[45]

Spain

Areas in Spain with separatist movements.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.

 Canary Islands (Main article: Canarian nationalism)

 Andalusia (Main article: Andalusian nationalism)

 Aragon

  • Ethnic group: Aragonese
  • Political party (nationalist): Chunta Aragonesista (EFA member)
  • Political party (secessionist): Estau Aragonés, Puyalón de Cuchas
  • Youth movement: Purna Astral, Chobenalla Aragonesista * Trade Unions: SOA
  • Other pro-independence organisations:A Enrestida, SEIRA
  • Proposed state: Aragon

Asturias (Main article: Asturian nationalism)

Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) (Main article: Basque nationalism)

Cantabria

Catalonia (Catalan independence)

 Castile

Galicia (Main article: Galician nationalism)

Leonese Country (Main article: Leonesismo)
Territory of Olivenza (Olivença) (Main article: Disputed status of Olivenza)

Switzerland

Geneva

  • Regional group: Genevan
    • Proposed state: La République de Genève" or "Free State of Geneva"
      • Pressure Groups: Genevan politicians and activists.

Jura[46]

Ticino

Turkey

Northern Kurdistan[48]

Ukraine

Breakaway state:

Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Federal State of Novorossiya

Disputed status:

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions:

 Crimea

Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom, its territories, and the Crown dependencies

The United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the Republic of Ireland (click to enlarge)

United Kingdom

England

 England

Cornwall

 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)

Wessex

Wessex[59]

Yorkshire

 Yorkshire

United Ireland

United Ireland

Scotland

 Scotland

Northern Isles

Northern Isles

Orkney

 Orkney

Shetland

 Shetland

Outer Hebrides

Outer Hebrides

Wales

 Wales

Isle of Man

Shared sovereignty of Gibraltar between the United Kingdom and Spain

  • The condominium, with sovereignty shared between the UK and Spain. It was proposed by the Spanish government, rejected by the British government.[68]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Merriam; Webster, "Separatism", Dictionary .
  3. ^ "Separatism", The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English, Encyclopedia, 2008 ..
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  5. ^ "Directory of Minorities". Minority rights. Retrieved 10 April 2014. he size of the Greek minority is especially contentious on account of the history of claims to southern Albania made by the Greek government in Athens, and of the substantial support within Greece and among Greeks in Albania, for the establishment of an autonomous district of ‘Northern Epirus’. 
  6. ^ Andreevska, Elena (1998). The national minorities in the Balkans under the European and UN system of protection of human and minority rights. Magor.  
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  11. ^ Armed Peacekeepers in Bosnia. Diane. 2004. p. 122.  
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  68. ^ Gold, Peter (2005). Gibraltar: British or Spanish?. Routledge. p. 66.  

External links

"Manifest", Politiskaprogram [Political program] (PDF), AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 .

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