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List of active separatist movements in Europe

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Title: List of active separatist movements in Europe  
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Subject: Luhansk People's Republic, List of active separatist movements in Africa, Future enlargement of the European Union, History of Spain
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List of active separatist movements in Europe

Map of active separatist movements in Europe. Red names indicate regions with movements that only claim greater autonomy within the actual state. Black names indicate regions with important secessionist movements, although both categories include moderate movements. The nations highlighted in colors are the territories claimed by the local nationalist groups, including areas out of the state's borders and cases of annexation to other states (click to enlarge).

This is a list of currently active separatist movements in Europe. Separatism often refers to full political secession,[1][2][3] though separatist movements may seek nothing more than greater autonomy.[4]

What is and is not considered an autonomist or secessionist movement is sometimes contentious. Entries on this list must meet three criteria:

  1. They are active movements with active members;
  2. They are seeking greater autonomy or self-determination for a geographic region (as opposed to personal autonomy);
  3. They are the citizen/peoples of the conflict area and do not come from another country.

Under each region listed is one or more of the following:

Various ethnic groups in Europe are seeking greater autonomy or independence. In the European Union (EU), several of these groups are members of the European Free Alliance (EFA). In some cases, the group seeks union with a neighbouring country.


Northern Epirus[5][6]

  • Ethnic group: Greeks in Albania
    • Political parties: Unity for Human Rights Party (seeks autonomous status or union with Greece)






 Brussels-Capital Region

 Flemish Region or the Flemish Community (the latter includes Brussels)

German-speaking Community of Belgium

 Walloon Region

Bosnia and Herzegovina

 Republika Srpska

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia





Breakaway state:

 Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic


Czech Silesia


For movements in Greenland, see List of active separatist movements in North America.


 Faroe Islands




Some of the claimed nations and/or regions – 1. Brittany, 2. France proper (excluding Wallonia), 3. Occitania, 4. Lorraine which is sometimes part of France proper, 5. Alsace, 6. Basque Country, 7. Catalonia and 8. Corsica.
Secessionist movements
Gradual and eventual secession
Autonomist movements


Breakaway states:


 South Ossetia

Proposed autonomous movements:

Armenians in Samtskhe-Javakheti

Borchali Azerbaijanis



East Frisia






South Tyrol



See: International recognition of Kosovo

North Kosovo





Breakaway state:


Proposed independent and autonomous movements:





  • Ethnic group: Frisian
    • Proposed autonomous region: Frisia
      • Political party: Frisian National Party, (EFA member)
      • Status: Democratic movement seeking greater autonomy for Frisian-speaking people in Friesland[29]


Upper Silesia


  • Ethnic group: Kashubians
    • Proposed autonomous area: Kashubia
    • An association of people: Kaszëbskô Jednota who want to actively participate in the life of the Kashubian nation and who recognize its right to cultural autonomy and self-identity within the multi-ethnic society.


The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Romania

Székely Land

Szekler National Council,[36] Hungarian National Council of Transylvania, Liga Pro Europa, a Romanian-Hungarian regionalist NGO.,[35] Provincia, a group of intellectuals promoting regionalization of Romania,[35] Autonomy for Transylvania (AFT) campaign, it demands autonomy for Transylvania.[37] [


Russia's North Caucasus

Russia's other European regions




Preševo Valley

Breakaway state:

Republic of Kosovo


The geographical distribution of Hungarians in Slovakia

Autonomist movements:

  • Political parties: Party of the Hungarian Community,[43] In 2010, the party renewed their demand for autonomy.[44]
    • Goals: Territorial autonomy for the compact Hungarian ethnic block and cultural autonomy for the regions of sporadic Hungarian presence.[45]


Areas in Spain with separatist movements.
The disputed territory of Olivenza.

 Canary Islands (Main article: Canarian nationalism)

 Andalusia (Main article: Andalusian nationalism)


  • Ethnic group: Aragonese
  • Political party (nationalist): Chunta Aragonesista (EFA member)
  • Political party (secessionist): Estau Aragonés, Puyalón de Cuchas
  • Youth movement: Purna Astral, Chobenalla Aragonesista * Trade Unions: SOA
  • Other pro-independence organisations:A Enrestida, SEIRA
  • Proposed state: Aragon

Asturias (Main article: Asturian nationalism)

Balearic Islands

Basque Country (autonomous community) (Main article: Basque nationalism)


Catalonia (Catalan independence)


Galicia (Main article: Galician nationalism)

Leonese Country (Main article: Leonesismo)
Territory of Olivenza (Olivença) (Main article: Disputed status of Olivenza)



  • Regional group: Genevan
    • Proposed state: La République de Genève" or "Free State of Geneva"
      • Pressure Groups: Genevan politicians and activists.




Northern Kurdistan[48]


Breakaway state:

Map of protests by region, indicating severity of the unrest at its peak

 Federal State of Novorossiya

Disputed status:

 Republic of Crimea

City of Sevastopol

Proposed autonomous regions:


Subcarpathian Ruthenia

United Kingdom, its territories, and the Crown dependencies

The United Kingdom, the Crown Dependencies and the Republic of Ireland (click to enlarge)

United Kingdom




 Cornwall (possibly including the Isles of Scilly)





United Ireland

United Ireland



Northern Isles

Northern Isles





Outer Hebrides

Outer Hebrides



Isle of Man

Shared sovereignty of Gibraltar between the United Kingdom and Spain

  • The condominium, with sovereignty shared between the UK and Spain. It was proposed by the Spanish government, rejected by the British government.[68]

See also


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External links

"Manifest", Politiskaprogram [Political program] (PDF), AX: Ålands framtid, 2011 .

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