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Lod Airport massacre

 

Lod Airport massacre

Lod Airport massacre

The attack site
Location Lod Airport, Tel Aviv , Israel
Coordinates
Date May 30, 1972
12:04 – 12:28
Attack type
Shooting spree
Deaths 26 (+ 2 attackers)
Non-fatal injuries
79 (+ 1 attacker)
Perpetrators Three members of the Japanese Red Army (guided by PFLP-EO)

The Lod Airport massacre[1][2][3][4] was a terrorist attack that occurred on May 30, 1972, in which three members of the Japanese Red Army recruited by the Palestinian group called the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-External Operations (PFLP-EO),[4][5] attacked Tel Aviv's Lod airport (now Ben Gurion International Airport), killing 26 people and injuring 80 others.[6] Two of the attackers were killed, while a third, Kōzō Okamoto, was captured after being wounded.

The dead comprised 17 Christian pilgrims from Puerto Rico, a Canadian citizen, and eight Israelis, including Professor Aharon Katzir, an internationally renowned protein biophysicist, head of the Israeli National Academy of Sciences, and a popular scientific radio show host, who was a candidate for the coming Israeli presidency, and whose brother, Ephraim Katzir, was elected President of Israel the following year instead.

Because airport security was focused on the possibility of a Palestinian attack, the use of Japanese attackers took the guards by surprise. The attack has often been described as a suicide mission, but it has also been asserted that it was the outcome of a larger operation (the particulars of which remain unpublicized) that went awry. The three perpetrators—Okamoto, Tsuyoshi Okudaira, and Yasuyuki Yasuda—had been trained in Baalbek, Lebanon; the actual planning was handled by Wadie Haddad (a.k.a. Abu Hani), head of PFLP External Operations, with some input from Okamoto.[7] In the immediate aftermath, news magazine Der Spiegel speculated that funding had been provided by some of the $5 million ransom paid by the West German government in exchange for the hostages of hijacked Lufthansa Flight 649 in February 1972.[8]

Contents

  • The attack 1
    • Fatalities 1.1
  • Aftermath 2
    • North Korea trial 2.1
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

The attack

At 10 pm the attackers arrived at the airport aboard an Air France flight from Rome.[9][10] Dressed conservatively and carrying slim violin cases, they attracted little attention. As they entered the waiting area, they opened up their violin cases and extracted Czech vz. 58 assault rifles with the butt stocks removed. Immediately afterward, they began to fire indiscriminately at airport staff and visitors, which included a group of pilgrims from Puerto Rico, tossing grenades as they changed magazines. Yasuda was accidentally shot dead by one of the other attackers, and Okudaira moved from the airport building into the landing area, firing at passengers disembarking from an El Al aircraft before being killed by one of his own grenades, either due to accidental premature explosion or as a suicide. Okamoto was shot by security, brought to the ground by an El Al employee, and arrested as he attempted to leave the terminal.[11][12] Whether or not the attackers were responsible for killing all of the victims has been disputed, as some victims may have been caught in the crossfire of the attackers and airport security.[7]

Fatalities

A total of 26 people were killed during the attack:

US citizens of Puerto Rico[13]
  • Reverend Angel Berganzo
  • Carmelo Calderón Molina
  • Carmela Cintrón
  • Carmen E. Crespo
  • Vírgen Flores
  • Esther González
  • Blanca González de Pérez
  • Carmen Guzmán
  • Eugenia López
  • Enrique Martínez Rivera
  • Vasthy Zila Morales de Vega
  • José M. Otero Adorno
  • Antonio Pacheco
  • Juan Padilla
  • Antonio Rodríguez Morales
  • Consorcia Rodríguez
  • José A. Rodríguez
Israeli citizens
  • Yoshua Berkowitz
  • Zvi Gutman
  • Aharon Katzir
  • Orania Luba
  • Aviva Oslander
  • Henia Ratner
  • Shprinza Ringel
  • Adam Tzamir
Canadian citizen
  • Lonna Sabah

Aftermath

The Japanese public initially reacted with disbelief to initial reports that the perpetrators of the refugee status in Lebanon. He is still wanted by the Japanese government.[15] Four other JRA members arrested at the same time were extradited to Japan.[16]

Mossad in early 1978.[17][18]

In June 2006, a legislative initiative by Puerto Rico Senator José Garriga Picó, Senate Project (PS) 1535, was approved by unanimous vote of both houses of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, making every May 30 "Lod Massacre Remembrance Day". On August 2, 2006, the Governor of Puerto Rico, Aníbal Acevedo Vilá, signed it into law as Law 144.[19] The purpose of "Lod Remembrance Day" is to commemorate those events, to honor both those murdered and those who survived, and to educate the Puerto Rican public against terrorism. On May 30, 2007, the event was officially memorialized in Puerto Rico, on the 35th anniversary of the massacre.

North Korea trial

In 2008, the eight surviving children of Carmelo Calderón Molina, who was killed in the attack, and Pablo Tirado, the son of Pablo Tirado Ayala, who was wounded, filed a lawsuit at the U.S. Federal Courthouse in San Juan, Puerto Rico. They sued the government of North Korea for providing material support to the PFLP-EO and the JRA, and for planning the attack. The plaintiffs claimed a right to sue the North Korean government based on the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act of 1976. Preliminary hearings to examine evidence began on December 2, 2009, with district judge Francisco Besosa presiding. The North Korean government did not respond to the lawsuit and had no representatives present. The victims' families were represented by attorneys from the Shurat HaDin Israel Law Center, including its founder, Nitsana Darshan-Leitner.[20]

In July 2010, the U.S. court ordered North Korea to pay US$378 million to families as recoupment for the terror attack.[21]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The short-term impact of the Lod Airport massacre as a precursor to Munich..." Stephen Sloan, John C. Bersia, J. B. Hill. Terrorism: The Present Threat in Context, Berg Publisher, 2006, p. 50. ISBN 1-84520-344-5
  2. ^ "Two years later, just before the Lod Airport massacre, authorities uncovered the bodies of 14 young men and women on remote Mount Haruna, 70 miles northwest of Tokyo." "Again the Red Army", TIME, August 18, 1975.
  3. ^ "Those named by Lebanese officials as having been arrested included at least three Red Army members who have been wanted for years by Japanese authorities, most notably Kōzō Okamoto, 49, the only member of the attacking group who survived the Lod Airport massacre." "Lebanon Seizes Japanese Radicals Sought in Terror Attacks", The New York Times, February 19, 1997.
  4. ^ a b "They were responsible for the Lod Airport massacre in Israel in 1972, which was committed on behalf of the PFLP." Jeffrey D. Simon, The Terrorist Trap: America's Experience with Terrorism, Indiana University Press, p. 324. ISBN 0-253-21477-7
  5. ^ "This Week in History:". July 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012-07-24. The assailants, members of communist group the Japanese Red Army (JRA), were enlisted by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), 
  6. ^ "In what became known as the Lod Airport Massacre, three members of the terrorist group, Japanese Red Army, arrived at the airport aboard Air France Flight 132 from Rome. Once inside the airport they grabbed automatic firearms from their carry-on cases and fired at airport staff and visitors. In the end, 26 people died and 80 people were injured." CBC News, The Fifth Estate, "Fasten Your Seatbelts: Ben Gurion Airport in Israel", 2007. Retrieved June 2, 2008.
  7. ^ a b Marx, W David. "Interview: Dr. Patricia Steinhoff 4". Neojaponisme. Retrieved February 20, 2013. 
  8. ^ "Weißer Kreis" (PDF).  
  9. ^ Burns, John F. (March 17, 2000). "Fate of 5 Terrorists Hangs Between Japan and Lebanon". The New York Times. 
  10. ^ Patricia G. Steinhoff (1976). "Portrait of a Terrorist: An Interview with Kozo Okamoto". Asian Survey 16: 830–845.  
  11. ^ a b Schreiber, Mark (1996). Shocking Crimes of Postwar Japan. Tuttle Publishing.  
  12. ^ Burleigh, M (2009) Blood & Rage, a cultural history of terrorism, Harper Perennial P161
  13. ^ "Senado conmemora el 42 aniversario de la Masacre de Lod en Israel". Diario de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). May 31, 2014. Retrieved December 27, 2014. 
  14. ^ The Terrorist Attack on Lod Airport: 40 Years After
  15. ^ Press Conference The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan 21 March 2000
  16. ^ "Red Army guerrillas arrested". BBC Online. March 18, 2000. Retrieved 2012-05-30. 
  17. ^ "Israel used chocs to poison Palestinian"
  18. ^ http://www.swr.de/presseservice/archiv/2010/-/id=5749182/nid=5749182/did=6605332/1e8ty7a/index.html dead link
  19. ^ Law 144 August 2, 2006 M
  20. ^ Marrero, Rosita (December 3, 2009). "Juicio civil contra Corea del Norte por boricuas muertos en atentado de 1972" (in Español). Primera Hora. Retrieved 2012-05-30. 
  21. ^ US court fines N. Korea over 1972 Israel terror attack, YNet 07.21.10

External links

  • 1972: Japanese kill 26 at Tel Aviv airport (BBC news, On This Day, May 29, 1972).
  • Complaint and court documents from survivors' lawsuit against North Korea for supporting the JRA and PFLP
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