World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Maine in the American Civil War

Article Id: WHEBN0018121464
Reproduction Date:

Title: Maine in the American Civil War  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Union (American Civil War), Connecticut in the American Civil War, Illinois in the American Civil War, Indiana in the American Civil War, Iowa in the American Civil War
Collection: Maine in the American Civil War
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Maine in the American Civil War

During the American Civil War, the state of Maine was a source of military manpower, supplies, ships, arms, and political support for the Union Army. Maine was the first state in the northeast to be aligned with the new Republican Party, partly due to the influence of evangelical Protestantism, and partly to the fact that Maine was a frontier state, and thus receptive to the party's "free soil" platform. Abraham Lincoln chose Maine's Hannibal Hamlin as his first Vice President, and said on meeting Brunswick novelist Harriet Beecher Stowe (the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin), "so this is the little lady who made this big war".[1]

Maine was so eager for the cause that it ended up contributing a larger number of combatants, in proportion to its population, than any other Union state.[2] It was second only to Massachusetts in the number of its sailors who served in the Union Navy. Colonel Joshua L. Chamberlain (later a major general) and the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment played a key role at the Battle of Gettysburg, and the 1st Maine Heavy Artillery Regiment lost more men in a single charge (during the Siege of Petersburg) than any Union regiment in the war.

Contents

  • Maine's contributions 1
    • The homefront 1.1
  • Notable leaders from Maine 2
    • Political 2.1
    • Union Army 2.2
    • Union Navy 2.3
  • See also 3
  • Further reading 4
  • Notes 5
  • External links 6

Maine's contributions

About 80,000 men from Maine served in the U.S. military as soldiers and sailors. They were organized into 32

  • Maine State Archives; Civil War home page
  • Maine Civil War Trails

External links

  1. ^ Hanne, Michael, The Power of the Story: Fiction and Political Change (1996), p. 75.
  2. ^ Whitman & True, p. 21.
  3. ^ Maine Civil War Trails Retrieved 2008-10-13
  4. ^
  5. ^ Harper's Weekly, July 11, 1863.
  6. ^ Biography at Mr. Lincoln's White House Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  7. ^ Cimbala, Paul A., "Oliver Otis Howard", Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History, Heidler, David S., and Heidler, Jeanne T., eds., W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
  8. ^ Budiansky, Stephen, The Bloody Shirt: Terror After Appomattox, Viking Adult, 2008, ISBN 978-0-670-01840-6. p. 65.
  9. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain
  10. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain
  11. ^ Collins, Robert, General James G. Blunt: Tarnished Glory, Pelican Publishing, 2005, p. 11.
  12. ^ Mundy, James H., No Rich Men's Sons: The Sixth Maine Volunteer Infantry, Cape Elizabeth, Maine: Harp Publications, 1994.
  13. ^ , 8/14/1938Press HeraldObituary of Daggett, Portland Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  14. ^
  15. ^ Linedecker, Clifford L., ed., Civil War, A–Z: The Complete Handbook of America's Bloodiest Conflict, New York: Ballantine Books, 2002, ISBN 0-89141-878-4.
  16. ^ University of Maine biography of Hamlin Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  17. ^ This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.

Notes

  • Beattie, Donald A. and Rodney Cole. A Distant War Comes Home: Maine in the Civil War Era (1991) Excerpts; short popular essays
  • Miller, Richard F. ed. States at War, Volume 1: A Reference Guide for Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont in the Civil War (2013) excerpt
  • Whitman, William E.S. and True, Charles H., Maine in the War for the Union, Lewiston, Maine, 1865.

Further reading

See also

Battle of Mobile Bay. Henry K. Thatcher of Thomaston commanded the West Gulf Blockading Squadron in a combined arms action against Mobile, which surrendered April 12, 1865.[17]

Union Navy

Many others, such as William Googins of Old Orchard, served as private soldiers.

Danville Leadbetter, born in Leeds, cast his lot with the Confederacy and became a general in its army.

Erasmus D. Keyes of Kennebec County commanded the IV Corps of Army of the Potomac during the first half of the war. Augusta's Seth Williams was assistant adjutant general of the Army of the Potomac and later was inspector general on the staff of Ulysses S. Grant. At Appomattox Court House in April 1865, he carried Grant's message offering to accept Robert E. Lee's surrender to the Confederate lines and later delivered Grant's terms to the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia.

Brothers Francis and James Fessenden, members of a prominent Maine political family, were both generals in the Union Army. Cuvier Grover of Bethel commanded a division in the XIX Corps during the capture of Baton Rouge and the Siege of Port Hudson.[15] Hampden's Cyrus Hamlin led a brigade of black troops at Port Hudson and in other engagements.[16] Albion P. Howe of Standish commanded 2nd Division of the VI Corps at Fredericksburg, Chancellorville, and Gettysburg. Rufus Ingalls of Denmark, Maine, was the Quartermaster General of the Army of the Potomac and later of all armies operating during the sieges of Richmond and Petersburg. He built up the huge supply depot at City Point, Virginia.

Hiram Burnham of Narraguagus was killed while assaulting Confederate positions near Richmond, Virginia, during the Battle of Chaffin's Farm.[12] Lowell's John C. Caldwell led a division in the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg in the fighting in the Wheatfield. Aaron S. Daggett of Greene was the last surviving Union Civil War general when he died in 1938 at the age of 100.[13] Neal S. Dow of Portland led a brigade during the Federal capture and occupation of New Orleans and later commanded the District of Florida.[14]

Other notable generals from Maine included Hiram Berry of Rockland was killed at Chancellorsville while leading his 2nd Division of the III Corps in a bayonet charge.[10] James G. Blunt, a fiery abolitionist born in Trenton, won a victory at the Battle of Honey Springs, bringing much of the Indian Territory into Union control. In 1864, Blunt's division inflicted the final defeat to Sterling Price at the Second Battle of Newtonia, ending Price's Missouri Raid.[11]

Perhaps the most widely known officer from Maine to today's generation is Brewer native Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain, whose exploits in defending Little Round Top during the July 1863 Battle of Gettysburg were celebrated in the book Killer Angels and the corresponding 1993 film Gettysburg. His subordinate officers, including Ellis Spear and Holman S. Melcher, and the men of the 20th Maine successfully repulsed a series of charges made by Alabama troops of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Earlier in the war, the 20th had been led by Adelbert Ames of Rockland. The son of a sea captain, Ames rose at Gettysburg to command of a division. He led the successful assault in the Second Battle of Fort Fisher (commanding the 2nd Division, XXIV Corps), accompanying his men into the formidable coastal fortress as most of his staff were shot down by Confederate snipers.[8]

More than two dozen men from Maine served in the Union army as generals, and dozens more Mainers led brigades at one time or another as colonels. The highest-ranking officer was Maj. Gen. Oliver O. Howard of Leeds, who commanded the XI Corps in several major battles, including Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. He had lost an arm at the Battle of Seven Pines during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign. In the fall of 1863, Howard and his corps were transferred to the Western Theater to join the Army of the Cumberland in Tennessee. In the Battle of Chattanooga, Howard's corps helped capture Missionary Ridge and force the retreat of Gen. Braxton Bragg. In July 1864, Howard became commander of the Army of the Tennessee and fought in the Atlanta Campaign. He led the right wing of Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman's forces in the famous March to the Sea and the subsequent Carolinas Campaign.[7]

Union Army

Augusta newspaperman and U.S. Congressman James G. Blaine was a powerful voice on Capitol Hill and dominated post-war politics during the Reconstruction period. The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was substantially Blaine's proposition, and later he was the 1884 Republican nominee for President.

Hannibal Hamlin of Paris, Maine, was Lincoln's vice-president during his first term. A strong orator and opponent of slavery, he urged both the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the arming of African Americans. He became aligned with Radical Republicans, which may have caused him to be dropped from the ticket in 1864.[6]

Political

Notable leaders from Maine

No Civil War land battles were fought in Maine, but anti-Confederate passions were inflamed in June 1863 when Southern raiders triggered the Battle of Portland Harbor after seizing a revenue cutter and trying to escape to the ocean.[5]

Thomas Lincoln Casey oversaw the state's coastal fortifications including forts McClary and Preble. He completed the massive Fort Knox on the Penobscot River.[4]

During the early part of the war, several vocal abolitionist organizations kept the issue of slavery in the public eye. Newspaper editors informed the populace of the conduct and outcome of the war efforts. Maine factories produced ships, naval stores and supplies, army equipment, tents, etc.

The homefront

[3]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.