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Manchus

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Manchus

"Manchu" redirects here. For other uses, see Manchu (disambiguation).
Manchu
ᠮᠠᠨᠵᡠ
Template:Image array
Total population
10,430,000
0.15% of global human population
(estimate)
10,410,585[1]
0.77% of China's population
(estimate)
Regions with significant populations
 People's Republic of China 10,410,585[1]
 Hong Kong >288[2]
 Taiwan 12,000[3]
Languages
Standard Chinese, Manchu
Religion
Shamanism, Buddhism, Chinese folklore, Christianity, also many are Atheists or Agnostics[4]
Related ethnic groups
Evenks, Nanai, Oroqen, Udege, Xibe
and other Tungusic peoples

Template:Contains Manchu text

The Manchus[note 1] (Template:Manchu; simplified Chinese: 满族; traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: Mǎnzú; Wade–Giles: Man3-tsu2) are members of an indigenous people of Manchuria[12] also known as red tasseled Manchus (Template:Manchu; 红缨满洲) because of their traditional hat ornaments.[13][14] Manchus are the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are chiefly distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group and the third largest ethnic minority group in that country.[1] They can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. It is also the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing has over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in Liaoning province and one-fifth in Hebei province. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Xiuyan, Qinglong, Fengning, Yitong, Qingyuan, Weichang, Kuancheng, Benxi, Kuandian, Huanren, Fengcheng, Beizhen[note 2] and over 300 Manchu towns and townships.[16]

History

Origins and early history

Further information: Sushen, Mogher and Jurchen people

The Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin Dynasty (1115–1234) in China[17][18][19] but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen,[20][21][22][23] a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of North East Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Shun[24] and later to Zhou.[25] The cognates Sushen or Jichen (稷真) again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far Northeast.[26] In the 10th century AD the term Jurchen first appeared in documents of the late Tang dynasty in reference to the ethnic-Goguryeo state of Balhae.

Following the fall of Balhae the Jurchens were vassals of the Liao dynasty. In the year of 1114, Wanyan Aguda united the Jurchen tribes and established the Jin dynasty.[27] His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai destroyed Liao and Northern Song and established the Jin Dynasty.[28] During the Jin Dynasty, first Jurchen scripts came into use in 1120s. It was mainly derived from Khitan script.[27]

In 1206, the Mongols who were vassals to Jurchens rose in Mongolia. Their leader, Genghis Khan, led the Mongol troops to fight against Jurchens. The Jin dynasty could not withstand the Mongols' attack and was finally defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234.[29] Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were mainly divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese (Han); but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland (Manchuria) without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically.[30] From that time, the Jurchens of North China increasingly merged with the Han Chinese, while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized.[31] They adopted Mongolian customs, names[note 3] and the Mongolian language. As time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script.

The Mongol domination of China was replaced by the Ming Dynasty in 1368. In 1387, the Ming defeated the Nahacu's Mongol resisting forces who settled in Haixi area[32] and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute[33] At the time, some Jurchen tribes were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai.[34] Their elites served in Korean royal bodyguard.[35] However, their relationship discontinued by Ming, because Ming was planning to make Jurchens their protection of border. Korea had to allow it since itself was in Ming's tribute system.[35] In 1403, Ahacu, chieftain of Huligai, paid tribute to Yongle Emperor of Ming. Soon after that, Möngke Temür, chieftain of Odoli, went to tribute from Korea, too. Yi Seong-gye, the Taejo of Joseon requested Ming to send Möngke Temür back but rejected.[36] Since then, more and more Jurchen tribes presented tribute to Ming in succession.[33] They were divided in 384 guards by Ming.[35]

In 1449, Mongol taishi Esen assaulted Ming Dynasty and captured Zhengtong Emperor in Tumu. Some Jurchen guards in Jianzhou and Haixi cooperated with Esen's action,[37] but more were also attacked by the Mongol invasion. A large number of Jurchen chieftains lost their hereditary certificates which had been granted by the Ming.[38] They had to present tribute as secretariats (中书舍人) with much less award from Ming court than they were heads of guards which was not joyful to the them.[39] Since then, more and more Jurchens started to find out Ming's declining power from Esen's invasion, especially Zhengtong Emperor's capture which directly caused Jurchen guards gradually went out of control.[40] Some tribal leaders even publicly plundered Ming's area, such as Cungšan[note 4] and Wang Gao. At about this time, the Jurchen script was officially abandoned.[42] More Jurchens adopted Mongolian as their writing language and fewer used Chinese.[43]

Manchu reign of China

Further information: Eight Banners, Manchu conquest of China and Qing Dynasty

A century after the chaos started in Jurchen's land, Nurhaci, a chieftain of Jianzhou Left Guard, started his ambition as a revenge of Ming's manslaughter of his grandfather and father in 1583.[44] He reunified Jurchen tribes, established a military system called "Eight Banners" to organized Jurchen soldiers as "Bannermen" and ordered his scholar Erdeni and minister Gagai to create a new Jurchen script (later known as Manchu script) by referencing traditional Mongolian alphabet.[45]

In 1603, Nurhaci was recognized as Sure Kundulen Khan (Template:Manchu, "wise and respected khan") by his Khalkha Mongol allies.[46] 13 years later (1616), he publicly throned and proclaimed himself Genggiyen Khan (Template:Manchu, "bright khan") of Later Jin Dynasty (Template:Manchu[note 5], 后金) and then eventually launched his attack on Ming Dynasty.[46] Nurhaci moved the capital to Mukden after his conquest of Liaodong.[48] In 1635, his son and successor Hong Taiji changed the ethnic group Jurchen (Template:Manchu) to Manchu.[49] A year later, Hong Taiji proclaimed himself the emperor of Qing Dynasty (Template:Manchu).[50] In 1644, the Ming capital Beijing was sacked by a peasant revolt led by Li Zicheng, a former minor Ming official who became the leader of the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committed suicide when the city fell. When Li Zicheng moved against Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance with the Manchus and opened the Shanhai Pass to the Manchurian army. After defeated Li Zicheng, they moved the capital to Beijing (Template:Manchu[51]) in the same year.[52]

As a result of the conquest, almost all the Manchus followed regent prince Dorgon (ᡩᠣᡵᡤᠣᠨ) and Shunzhi Emperor to Beijing and mainly settled down there.[53][54] Few of them were sent to other places such as Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet as garrisons.[54] There were only 1524 Banner soldiers left in Manchuria at the time.[55] After the border conflicts with Russians, Qing's emperors started to realize the strategic importance of Manchuria and gradually sent Manchus back to where they originally came from.[53] However, during the period of Qing, Beijing was always the only focal point of Manchus in political, economic and cultural aspects. The Yongzheng Emperor noted: "Garrisons are the places of stationed works, Beijing is their homeland."[56]

While the Manchu ruling elite at the Beijing imperial court and posts of authority throughout China increasingly adopted Han culture, the Qing imperial government viewed the Manchu communities (as well as those of various tribal people) in Manchuria as a place where traditional Manchu virtues could be preserved, and as a reservoir of military manpower fully dedicated to the regime.[57] The emperors tried to protect the traditional way of life of the Manchus (as well as various tribal people) in the central and northern Manchuria by a variety of means, in particular, restricting the migration of Chinese colonists to the region. This ideal, however, had to be balanced with practical needs, such as maintaining the defense against the Russians and the Mongols, supplying government farms with skilled work force, and running trade in the region's products, which resulted in a continuous trickle of Chinese convicts, workers, and merchants to the north-east.[58]

However, this policy of artificially isolating the Manchus of the north-east from the rest of China could not last forever. In the 1850s, large numbers of the Manchu bannermen were sent to central China to fight the Taiping rebels. (For example, just the Heilongjiang province - which at the time included only the northern part of today's Heilongjiang - contributed 67,730 bannermen to the campaign, of which merely 10-20% survived).[59] Those few who returned were demoralized and often exposed to opium addiction.[60] In 1860, in the aftermath of the loss of the "Outer Manchuria", and with the imperial and provincial governments in deep financial trouble, parts of Manchuria became officially open to Chinese settlement;[61] within a few decades, the Manchus became a minority in most of Manchuria's districts.

Modern days

As the end of the Qing Dynasty approached, Manchus were portrayed as outside colonizers by Chinese nationalists such as Sun Yat-Sen, even though the Republican revolution he brought about was supported by many reform-minded Manchu officials and military officers.[62] This portrayal dissipated somewhat after the 1911 revolution as the new Republic of China now sought to include Manchus within its national identity.[63]

By the early years of the Republic of China, very few areas of China still had traditional Manchu populations. Among the few regions where such comparatively traditional communities could be found, and the Manchu language was still widely spoken, were the Aigun (Template:Manchu) District and the Qiqihar (Template:Manchu) District of Heilongjiang Province.[64]

Until 1924, the government continued to pay stipends to Manchu bannermen; however, many cut their links with their banners and took on Han-style names in shame to avoid persecution.[65] The official total of Manchu fell by more than half during this period, as they refused to admit to their ethnicity when asked by government officials or other outsiders.[66] On the other hand, in warlord Zhang Zuolin's reign of Manchuria, a much better treatment than the situation of Manchus in mainland China was reported.[67][68] There were not any particular persecution towards Manchus.[67] Even the mausoleums of Qing's emperors were still allowed to be managed by Manchu guardsmen like it was in the past.[67] In this case, many Manchus joined Fengtian clique, such as Xi Qia who was a member of Qing's imperial clan.

As a follow-up action of Mukden Incident, Manchukuo, a puppet state in Manchuria, was created by Imperial Japan which was nominally ruled by the deposed Emperor Puyi in 1932. Although the nation's name was related to Manchus, it was actually a complete new country for all the ethnicities in Manchuria[69][70] which had a majority Han population and was opposed by many Manchus like other ethnicities who fought against Japan in World War II, too.[37]

In 1952, after the failure of both Manchukuo and the Nationalist Government (KMT), the newborn People's Republic of China officially recognized the Manchu as one of the ethnic minorities in 1952.[71] In the 1953 census, 2.5 million people identified themselves as Manchu.[72] The Communist government also attempted to improve the treatment of Manchu people; some Manchu people who had hidden their ancestry during the period of KMT rule thus became more comfortable to reveal their ancestry, such as the writer Lao She, who began to include Manchu characters in his fictional works in the 1950s (in contrast to his earlier works which had none). However during the Cultural Revolution, he was eventually persecuted.[73] Between 1982 and 1990, the official count of Manchu people more than doubled from 4,299,159 to 9,821,180, making them China's fastest-growing ethnic minority.[74] In fact, however, this growth was not due to natural increase, but instead people formerly registered as Han applying for official recognition as Manchu.[75]

Eight-Banner system is one of the most important ethnic identity of today's Manchu people.[76] So nowadays, Manchus are more like an ethnic community which not only contains the descendants of Manchu bannermen, also has a large number of Manchu-assimilated Chinese and Mongol bannermen.[77][78][79][80] However, the ones who were mostly considered as Manchu bannermen in Qing Dynasty, such as Solon, Xibe and Nanai people, were separated as independent ethnic groups by the PRC government.[81]

Since 1980s, the reform after Cultural Revolution, there has been a renaissance of Manchu culture and language among the government, scholars and social activities with remarkable achievements.[82] It was also reported that the resurgence of interest also spread among Han Chinese.[83]

Etymology of the ethnic name

The actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable.[84] According to Qing Dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī.[85] Qianlong Emperor also supported the point of view and even made few poems about it.[86]

Meng Sen, a famous scholar of Qing study, agreed, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" is also related to Li Manzhu, the chieftain of Jianzhou Jurchen.[87] It was just the most respectful appellation in the society of Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind.[88]

Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks Manju is a compound word. "Man" was from the word "mangga" (ᠮᠠᠩᡤᠠ) which means strong and "ju" (ᠵᡠ) means arrow. So Manju actually means "intrepid arrow".[89]

There are other hypothesis, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Zhang Binglin's "etymology of Jianzhou"; Isamura Sanjiro's "etymology of Wuji and Mohe"; Sun Wenliang's "etymology of Manzhe"; "etymology of mangu(n) river" and so on.[90][91]

Population

Mainland China

Most Manchu people now live in Mainland China with a population of 10,410,585,[1] which is 9.28% of ethnic minorities and 0.77% of China's total population.[1] Among the provincial regions, there are two provinces, Liaoning and Hebei, which have over 1,000,000 Manchu residents.[1] Liaoning has 5,336,895 Manchu residents which is 51.26% of Manchu population and 12.20% provincial population; Hebei has 2,118,711 which is 20.35% of Manchu people and 70.80% of provincial ethnic minorites.[1] Manchu is the largest ethnic minority in Liaoning, Hebei, Heilongjiang and Beijing; 2nd largest in Jilin, Inner Mongolia, Tianjin, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shanxi and 3rd largest in Henan, Shandong and Anhui,.[1]

Distribution

Manchu autonomous regions

Other areas

Further information: Manchu people in Taiwan

Manchu people can be found living outside mainland China. There are approximately 12,000 Manchus now in Taiwan. Most of them moved to Taiwan with the ROC government in 1949. Puru, a famous painter, calligrapher and also the founder of the Manchu Association of Republic of China, was a typical example.[3] There are also Manchus who settled in the United States and Japan, such as John Fugh, Garry Guan and Fukunaga Kosē.

Culture

Language and alphabet

Language

Main article: Manchu language

Manchu is a branch of the Tungusic languages and has many dialects:

  • Standard Manchu: Standard Manchu originates from the accent of Jianzhou Jurchens.[93] It was standardized by the Qianlong Emperor under his reign.[94] During the Qing period, Manchus at court were required to speak Standard Manchu[95] or face the emperor's reprimand.[95] This applied equally to the palace presbyter of shamanic fete when performing sacrifice.[95]
  • Beijing dialect: The Manchus who lived in Beijing were not only Jianzhou Jurchens, but also Haixi Jurchens and Yeren Jurchens. Over time, the mingling of their accents produced Beijing dialect (京语). Beijing dialect is very close to Standard Manchu[96]
  • Mukden-South Manchurian dialect:Mukden-South Manchurian dialect (盛京南满语), aka, "Mukden-Girin dialect" (盛京吉林语) was originally spoken by the Manchus who lived in Liaoning and the western and southern areas of Jilin, having an accent very close to the Xibe language spoken by the Xibes living in Qapqal.[97]

There are also Ningguta, Alcuka dialects, etc., of Manchu which have their own particular characteristics.[98]

Alphabet

Main article: Manchu alphabet

Jurchens, ancestors of the Manchu, had created Jurchen script in the Jin Dynasty. After Jin collapsed, Jurchen script was gradually lost. In the Ming period, 60%-70% of Jurchens used Mongolian script to write letters and 30%-40% of Jurchens used Chinese characters.[43] This persisted until Nurhaci revolted against the Ming reign. Nurhaci considered it a major impediment that his people lacked a script of their own, so he commanded his scholars, Gagai and Eldeni, to create Manchu characters by reference to Mongolian scripts.[99] They dutifully complied with the Khan's order and created Manchu script, which is called "script without dots and circles" (Template:Manchu; 无圈点满文) or "old Manchu script" (老满文).[100] Due to its hurried creation, the script has its defects. Some vowels and consonants were difficult to distinguish.[101][102] Shortly afterwards, their successor Dahai used dots and circles to distinguish vowels, aspirated and non-aspirated consonants and thus completed the script. His achievement is called "script with dots and circles" or "new Manchu script".[103]

Current situation

After the 1800s, most Manchus had perfected Standard Chinese and the number who knew Manchu was dwindling.[104] Although the Qing emperors emphasized the importance of Manchu language again and again, the tide could not be turned. After the Qing collapsed, the Manchu language lost its status as a national language and its use officially in education ended. Manchus today generally speak Standard Chinese. The remaining skilled native Manchu speakers number less than 100,[105] most of whom are to be found in Sanjiazi (Template:Manchu), Heilongjiang Province.[106] Since 1980s, there has been a resurgence of Manchu language among the government, scholars and social activities.[107] In recent years, with the help of the governments in Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang, many schools started to have Manchu classes.[108][109][110] There are also Manchu volunteers in many places of China who freely teach Manchu in the desire to rescue of the language.[111][112][113][114] Thousands of non-Manchu speakers have learned the language through these measures.[115][116]

Names and naming practices

Family names

Main article: Manchu family name

The history of Manchu family names is quite long. Fundamentally, it succeeds the Jurchen family name of the Jin Dynasty.[117] However, after the Mongols extinguished the Jurchen empire, Manchus started to adopt Mongol culture, including their custom of using only their given name till the end of the Qing Dynasty,[118] a practice confounding non-Manchus, leading them to conclude, erroneously, that they simply don't have family names.[119]

A Manchu family name usually has two portions: the first is "Mukūn" (ᠮᡠᡴᡡᠨ) which literally means "branch name"; the second, "Hala" (ᡥᠠᠯᠠ), represents the name of a person's clan.[120] According to the Book of the Eight Manchu Banners' Surname-Clans (八旗滿洲氏族通譜), there are 1,114 Manchu family names. Gūwalgiya, Niohuru, Šumulu, Tatara, Gioro, Nara are considered as "famous clans" (著姓) among Manchus.[121]

Given names

Main article: Manchu given name

Manchus given names are distinctive. Generally, there are several forms, as below:

Current status

Nowadays, Manchus primarily use Chinese family and given names, but some still use a Manchu family name and Chinese given name,[note 10] a Chinese family name and Manchu given name[note 11] or both Manchu family and given names.[note 12]

Traditional garments

  • Hats: Wearing hats is a part of Manchu traditional culture.[125] Conventionally, especially different from Han Chinese culture of "Starting to wear hats in 20 year-old" (二十始冠), Manchu people wear hats in all ages and seasons.[125] Manchu hats has formal and casual ones. Formal hats also have two different styles. One is straw hat worn in spring and summer; another is warm hat worn in fall and winter. Manchu casual hat is more known as "Mandarin hat" in English.[126]
  • Robe: Sijigiyan(ᠰᡳᠵᡳᡤᡳᠶᠠᠨ), the Manchu robe, is the most representative clothing of the Manchu people.[127] Modern Chinese female suit Cheongsam deverted from Manchu robe.[127]
  • Surcoat: Manchu surcoat (马褂) was a military uniform of Eight banners army.[128] Since Kangxi period, surcoat got popular in third estate.[129] The Chinese suit "Tangzhuang" is directly deverted from it.

Manchus have many distinctive traditional accessories. Women traditionally wear 3 earrings in each ear,[130] a tradition that is maintained by many older Manchu women.[131] Manchu men also traditionally wear piercings, but they tend to only have one earring in their youth and do not continue to wear it as adults.[132]

The Manchu people also have traditional jewelry which evokes their past as hunters. The fergetun (ᡶᡝᡵᡤᡝᡨᡠᠨ), a thumb ring traditionally made out of reindeer bone, was worn to protect the thumbs of archers. After the Manchu conquest of China in 1644, the fergetun gradually became simply a form of jewelry, with the most valuable ones made in jade and ivory.[133]

Traditional activities

Riding and archery

Riding and archery (Template:Manchu) is significant to the Manchu. They were well-trained horsemen from their teenage[134] years. Hong Taiji, the Qing Taizong emperor, said, "Riding and Archery is the most important martial art of our country".[135][136] Every generation of the Qing dynasty treasured Riding and Archery the most.[137] Every spring and fall, from ordinary Manchus to aristocrats, all had to take a riding and archery test. Their test results could even affect their rank in the nobility.[138] The Manchus of the early Qing had excellent shooting skills and their arrows were reputed to be capable of penetrating two people.[139]

From the middle period of Qing, archery became more a form of entertainment, in the form of games such as, hunting swans, shooting fabric or silk target. The most difficult is shooting a candle hanging in the air at night.[140] Gambling was banned in the Qing reign but there was no limitation on Manchus engaging in shooting skill contests. It was common to see Manchus putting signs in front of their houses to invite challenges.[140] After the Qianlong period, Manchus gradually neglected the practice of riding and archery, even though their rulers tried their best to encourage Manchus to continue their riding and archery traditions,[139] but the tradition is still kept among some Manchus even nowadays.[141]

Manchu wrestling

Manchu wrestling (Template:Manchu) [142] is also an important martial art of the Manchu people.[143] Buku, meaning "wrestling" or "man of unusual strength" in Manchu, was originally from a Mongolian word, “bökh”.[142] The history of Manchu wrestling can be traced back to Jurchen wrestling in the Jin Dynasty which was originally from Khitan wrestling; it was very similar to Mongolian wrestling.[144] In the Yuan Dynasty, the Jurchens who lived in northeast China adopted Mongol culture including wrestling, bökh.[145] In the latter Jin and early Qing period, rulers encouraged the populace, including aristocrats, to practise buku as a feature of military training.[146] At the time, Mongol wrestlers were the most famous and powerful. By the Chongde period, Manchus had developed their own well-trained wrestlers[147] and, a century later, in the Qianlong period, they surpassed Mongol wreslers.[148] The Qing court established the "Shan Pu Battalion" and chose 200 fine wrestlers divided into three levels. Manchu wrestling moves can be found in today's Chinese wrestling, Shuai jiao, which is its most important part.[149] Among many branches, Beijing wrestling adopted most Manchu wrestling moves.[150]

Falconry

As a result of their hunting ancestry, Manchus are traditionally interested in falconry.[151] Gyrfalcon (Template:Manchu) is the most highly valued discipline in the Manchu falconry social circle.[152] In the Qing period, giving a gyrfalcon to the royal court in tribute could be met with a considerable reward.[152] There were professional falconers in Ningguta area.[note 13] It was a big base of falconry.[151] Beijing's Manchus also like falconry. Compared to the falconry of Manchuria, it is more like an entertainment.[137] Imperial Household Department of Beijing had professional falconers, too. They provided outstanding falcons to the emperor when he went to hunt every fall.[137] Even today, Manchu traditional falconry is well practised in some regions.[153]

Ice skating

Ice skating (Template:Manchu) is another Manchu pastime. Emperor Qianlong called it “national custom”.[154] It is one of the most important winter events of the Qing royal household,[155] performed by "Eight Banner Ice Skating Battalion" (八旗冰鞋营)[155] which was a special force trained to do battle on icy terrain.[155] The battalion consisted of 1600 soldiers. In the Jiaqing period, it was reduced to 500 soldiers and transferred to the Jing Jie Battalion (精捷营) originally, literally meaning "chosen agile battalion".[155]

In 1930s-1940s, there was a famous Manchu skater in Beijing whose name was Wu Tongxuan, from the Uya clan and one of the royal household skaters in Empress Dowager Cixi's reign.[156] He frequently appeared in many of Beijing's skating rinks.[156] Nowadays, there are still Manchu figure skaters; world champions Zhao Hongbo and Tong Jian are the pre-eminent examples.

Literature

The Tale of the Nisan Shaman (Template:Manchu; 尼山萨满传) is the most important literature of Manchus.[157] It primarily tells the process of how Nisan Shaman helps a young hunter revive.[158] The story spreads not long among Manchus, but also in Xibe, Nanai, Daur, Oroqen, Evenk and other Tungusic peoples.[157] It basically has four versions: the handwriting version from Qiqihar; two different handwriting versions from Aigun; the one which was written by a Manchu writer Dekdengge in Vladivostok (Template:Manchu[159]). The pilot of four versions are similar, but the version of Haišenwei has the most complete content.[160] It is already translated in Russian, Chinese, English and other languages.[157]

There is also literature written in Chinese by Manchu writers, such as the Tale of Heroic Sons and Daughters (儿女英雄传), Song Of Drinking Water (饮水词) and The collection of Tianyouge (天游阁集).

Folk art

Octagonal drum

Octagonal drum is a type of Manchu folk art that was very popular among bannermen, especially in Beijing.[161] It is said that octagonal drum originated with the snare drum of the Eight-banner military and the melody was made by the banner soldiers who were on the way back home from victory in the battle of Jinchuan.[161] The drum is composed of wood surrounded by bells. The drumhead is made by wyrmhide with tassels at the bottom.[161] The colors of the tassels are yellow, white, red, and blue, which represent the four colors of Eight Banners.[162] When artists perform, they use their fingers to hit the drumhead and shake the drum to ring the bells.[161] Traditionally, octagonal drum is performed by three people. One is the harpist; one is the clown who is responsible for harlequinade; and the third is the singer.[161]


"Zidishu" is the main libretto of octagonal drum and can be traced back to a type of traditional folk music called "Manchu Rhythm".[163] Although Zidishu was not created by Chinese people, it still contains many themes from Chinese stories,[164] such as Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Dream of the Red Chamber, Romance of the West Chamber, Legend of the White Snake and Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio.[164] Additionally, there are many works that depict the lives of Bannermen. Aisin Gioro Yigeng, who was pen named "Helü" and wrote the sigh of old imperial bodyguard, is the representative author.[165] Zidishu involves two acts of singing, which are called dongcheng and xicheng.[166]

After the fall of the Qing dynasty, the influence of the octagonal drum gradually reduced. However, the Chinese monochord[166] and crosstalk[167] which derived from octagonal are still popular in Chinese society. Many famous Chinese monochord performers and crosstalkers were the artists of octagonal drum. Such as De shoushan and Zhang Sanlu.[168]

Ulabun

Ulabun (ᡠᠯᠠᠪᡠᠨ) is a Manchu storytelling entertainment which is performed in Manchu language.[169] Different from octagonal drum, ulabun is popular among the Manchu people who lives in Manchuria. It has two main categories. One is popular folk literature such as the Tale of the Nisan Shaman; Another classification is from folk music which is informative and has independent pilot, complete structure.[169] Song Xidong aka. Akšan (ᠠᡴᡧᠠᠨ) is a famous artist in performing ulabun.[170]

Religion

The religions of the Manchus are diverse. Originally, Manchus, and their predecessors, were principally Shamanists. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, Manchus came into contact with Chinese culture. They were markedly influenced by Chinese folk religion and retained only some Shamanic customs. Buddhism and Christianity also had their impacts. Manchus are today mostly irreligious.[4]

Shamanism

Shamanism has a long history in Manchu civilization and influenced them tremendously over thousands of years. John Keay states in A History Of China, shaman is the single loan-word from Manchurian into the English language. After the conquest of China in the 17th century, although Manchus widely adopted Chinese folk religion, Shamanic traditions can still be found in the aspects of soul worship, totem worship, belief in nightmares and apotheosis of philanthropists.[171] Since the Qing rulers considered religion as a method of controlling other powers such as Mongolians and Tibetans,[172] there was no privilege for Shamanism, their native religion. Apart from the Shamanic temples in the Qing palace, no temples erected for worship of Manchu gods could be found in Beijing.[172] Thus, the story of competition between Shamanists and Lamaists was oft heard in Manchuria but the Manchu emperor helped Lamaists to persecute Shamanists which led to their considerable frustration and dissatisfaction.[172]

Buddhism

Jurchens, the predecessors of the Manchus, were influenced by the Buddhism of Balhae, Goryeo, Khitan and Song in the 10-13th centuries,[173] so it was not something new to the rising Manchus in the 16-17th centuries. Qing emperors were always entitled "Buddha". They were regarded as Mañjuśrī in Tibetan Buddhism[88] and had high attainments.[173] However, Buddhism was used by rulers to control Mongolians and Tibetans; it was of little relevance to ordinary Manchus in the Qing Dynasty.[172]

Folklore

Manchus were affected by Chinese folk religions for most of the Qing Dynasty.[172] Save for ancestor worship, the gods they consecrated were virtually identical to those of the Han Chinese.[172] Guan Yu worship is a typical example. He was considered as the God Protector of the Nation and was sincerely worshipped by Manchus. They called him "Lord Guan" (关老爷). Uttering his name was taboo.[172] In addition, Manchus worshipped Cai Shen and The Kitchen god just as the Han Chinese did. The worship of Mongolian and Tibetan gods has also been reported.[172]

Christianity

There were Manchu Christians in the Qing Dynasty. In Yongzheng and Qianlong's era, Depei, the Hošo Jiyan Prince, was a Catholic whose baptismal name was "Joseph". His wife was also baptised and named “Maria”.[174] At the same time, the sons of Doro Beile Sunu were devout Catholics, too.[174][175] In the Jiaqing period, Tong Hengšan and Tong Lan were Catholic Manchu Bannermen.[174] These Manchu Christians were proselytized and persecuted by Qing emperors but they steadfastly refused to convert.[174] There were Manchu Christians in modern times, too, such as Ying Lianzhi, Lao She and Philip Fugh.

Traditional holidays

Manchus have many traditional holidays. Some are derived from Chinese culture, such as "Spring Festival"[176] and Duanwu Festival.[177] Some are of Manchu origin:

  • Food Extermination Day (绝粮日):On every 26th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar. It is said[by whom?] that once Nurhaci and his troops were in a battle with enemies and almost running out of food. The villagers who lived near the battlefield heard the emergency and came to help. There was no tableware on the battlefield. They had to use perilla leaves to wrap the rice. Afterwards, they won the battle. So later generations could remember this hardship, Nurhaci made this day the "Food Extermination Day". Traditionally on this day, Manchu people eat perilla or cabbage wraps with rice, scrambled eggs, beef or pork.[178]
  • Banjin Inenggi (ᠪᠠᠨᠵᡳᠨ
    ᡳᠨᡝᠩᡤᡳ
    ): the anniversary of the name creation of Manchu on the 13th day of the tenth month of the lunar calendar.[84] This day in 1635, Qing Taizong Emperor, Hong Taiji, changed the ethnic name from Jurchen to Manchu.[49][179]

See also

China portal

Notes

References

Citations

Books

In Chinese

In English

In Manchu

Further reading

External links

  • Manchu (people) on Encyclopædia Britannica
  • Manchu Association of Republic of China (traditional Chinese)
  • Shenyang Manchu Sodality (simplified Chinese)
  • Hong Kong Manchu Culture Association (traditional Chinese)
  • An Academic Group Dedicated to Manchu Studies, including Translations from Manchu
  • Manjusa (simplified Chinese)
  • Solonju Manchu Language (simplified Chinese)
  • Taipei Manchu (traditional Chinese)
  • Fe Doro Manchu Archery
  • Map share of ethnic by county of China

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