World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Matteo Renzi

Article Id: WHEBN0023388798
Reproduction Date:

Title: Matteo Renzi  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Democratic Party (Italy), Renzi Cabinet, Politics of Italy, Federica Mogherini, Graziano Delrio
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Matteo Renzi

Matteo Renzi
56th Prime Minister of Italy
Assumed office
22 February 2014
President Giorgio Napolitano
Preceded by Enrico Letta
Secretary of the Democratic Party
Assumed office
15 December 2013
Deputy Lorenzo Guerini
Debora Serracchiani
Preceded by Guglielmo Epifani
President of the Council of European Union
Assumed office
1 July 2014
Preceded by Antonis Samaras
Mayor of Florence
In office
22 June 2009 – 24 March 2014
Preceded by Leonardo Domenici
Succeeded by Dario Nardella
President of the Province of Florence
In office
14 June 2004 – 22 June 2009
Preceded by Michele Gesualdi
Succeeded by Andrea Barducci
Personal details
Born (1975-01-11) 11 January 1975
Florence, Italy
Political party Democratic Party (2007–present)
The Daisy (2002–2007)
People's Party (1996–2002)
Spouse(s) Agnese Landini (m. 1999)
Children Francesco
Alma mater University of Florence
Religion Roman Catholicism

Matteo Renzi (Italian pronunciation: ; born 11 January 1975) is an Italian politician who has been Prime Minister of Italy since 22 February 2014, President of the Council of the European Union since 1 July 2014 and the Secretary of the Democratic Party since 15 December 2013.[1][2] He was previously the President of the Province of Florence from 2004 to 2009 and the Mayor of Florence from 2009 to 2014.[3][4]

At the age of 39, Renzi overtook Benito Mussolini's record as the youngest person to become Prime Minister of Italy since unification in 1861.[5] He is also the first to be elected Prime Minister as a Mayor.

Matteo Renzi has been described as the de facto leader of the European Socialists, in opposition to Angela Merkel's Christian Democrats (the two leaders are together referred to as Merkenzi).[6][7] Moreover he was ranked as the third most influential under 40 person in the world, by the American magazine Fortune[8] and in the Top 100 Global Thinkers by Foreign Policy, for "bucking Bunga Bunga politics".[9]

Early life

Renzi was born in Florence, Tuscany; the second of four children, his father, Tiziano Renzi, was a Christian Democratic municipal councillor in Rignano sull'Arno.[10][11] Renzi grew up in Rignano sull'Arno, but he studied in Florence at the Classical Lyceum Dante Alighieri; during this time he was a scout in the Association of Catholic Guides and Scouts of Italy (AGESCI).[12]

In 1999 he graduated from the La Nazione.[13]

Before entering politics, Renzi was also a football referee in amateur levels and a futsal player.[14][15] In 1994, he participated as a competitor for five consecutive episodes in the television program Wheel of Fortune hosted by Mike Bongiorno, winning 48 million lire.[16]

Early political career

Renzi announcing the formation of his government.

Renzi's interest in politics began in high school.[17] In 1996 he was one of the founders of the committee in support of Romano Prodi's candidature as Prime Minister in the general election; that same year he joined the Italian People's Party, and became its Provincial Secretary in 1999. In the same year he married Agnese Landini, with whom he had three children.

In 2001 he joined Francesco Rutelli's The Daisy Party, composed by members of the disbanded People's Party. On 13 June 2004 he was elected President of the Province of Florence, with 59% of the vote, as the candidate of the centre-left coalition. He was the youngest President of the Province of Florence.[18] In the years as President of the Province, Renzi expressed his ideas against the "political caste", and during his mandate he succeeded in reducing taxes and decreasing the number of Province's employees and managers.[19]

Mayor of Florence

After five years as the President of the Province Florence, Renzi announced that he would seek election as the Mayor of Florence. On 9 June 2009, Renzi, by now a member of the Democratic Party, won the election with 48% of the vote, compared to 32% for Giovanni Galli.[20] As mayor he halved the number of city councilors, installed 500 free WiFi access points across the city, reduced kindergarten waiting lists by 90%, and increased spending on social welfare programs and schools.[21]

One year after being sworn in as Mayor, and with his popularity in national opinion polls increasing, Renzi organised a public meeting with another young party administrator Debora Serracchiani at the Leopolda station in Florence to discuss Italian politics, after stating that a complete change was also necessary in his party.[22] Others prominent Democratic Party members who aligned themseleves with Renzi's programme were Matteo Ricchetti, President of the Regional Council of Emilia-Romagna, Davide Faraone, a regional councillor from the Sicilian Regional Assembly, and Giuseppe Civati, a prominent member of the Democratic Party in Lombardy and member of the Lombard Regional Council.[23]

Following this public meeting, the Italian media gave Renzi the nickname "il Rottamatore", or "The Scrapper". In 2011, he organized a second meeting, also in Florence, where he wrote down one hundred topics of discussion. During this time he began to be strongly criticised by other members of his party closer to the then-Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, after his suggestion that Italian politicians of the same generation as then-Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi should retire.

In September 2012, Renzi announced that he would seek to lead the centre-left coalition in the 2013 general election; the other four candidates were Pier Luigi Bersani, Secretary of the Democratic Party, Nichi Vendola, Leader of the Left Ecology Freedom, Laura Puppato, a Democratic Deputy from Veneto and Bruno Tabacci, Leader of the Democratic Centre.[24] After the first round of the December election, Renzi gained 35.5% of the vote, finishing second behind Bersani and qualifying for the second ballot. Renzi eventually gained a total of 39% of the vote, against Bersani's 61%.[25]

During the subsequent campaign in the 2013 election in March, Renzi backed Bersani by organising large public rallies in Florence, but come the election the Democratic Party only gained 25.5% of the vote, despite opinion polls placing the party at almost 30%.

In April during the elections for the President of the Republic, Renzi caused a minor controversy by openly criticising the candidacies of both Franco Marini and Anna Finocchiaro, two long-standing members of his Democratic Party.[26][27]

Party Secretary

Matteo Renzi in 2013.

Following the resignation of Prime Minister Enrico Letta.[30]

The other two candidates for Party Secretary were Gianni Cuperlo, Member of the Chamber of Deputies and former Secretary of the Italian Communist Youth Federation, and Giuseppe Civati, a Deputy from Lombardy and former supporter of Renzi. In the December leadership election, Renzi was elected with 68% of the popular vote, compared to 18% for Gianni Cuperlo and 14% for Giuseppe Civati. He therefore became the new Secretary of the Democratic Party and the centre-left's prospective candidate for Prime Minister.

Throughout January and February 2014 there were multiple reports of persistent leadership tensions between Renzi and Prime Minister Enrico Letta, who had been the Deputy Secretary under Bersani, with many claiming that Renzi was pressuring Letta to resign in his favour. On 12 February Letta publicly demanded that Renzi make his position clear, and Renzi subsequently called a meeting of the Democratic Party leadership for the following evening. Just before the meeting took place, Renzi publicly called on Letta to resign and allow him to form a new government.[31] Letta initially resisted the demand, but following a vote on Renzi's proposal during the meeting, which Letta did not attend, he announced that he would tender his resignation as Prime Minister on 14 February.[32]

Under Renzi's leadership, the Democratic Party officially joined the Party of European Socialists (PES) as a full-time member on 28 February.[33]

Prime Minister

On 13 February 2014, following tensions between Prime Minister Giorgio Napolitano.

In an earlier speech, Renzi had paid tribute to Letta, saying the meeting was not intended to put him "on trial". But, without directly proposing himself as the next Prime Minister, he said the Eurozone's third-largest economy urgently needed "a new phase" and "radical programme" to push through badly-needed reforms. The motion he put forward made clear "the necessity and urgency of opening a new phase with a new executive". Speaking to party leaders, Renzi said Italy was "at a crossroads" and faced either holding fresh elections or a new government without a return to the polls.[34] On 14 February, President Napolitano accepted Letta's resignation from the office of Prime Minister.[35]

Following Letta's resignation, Renzi formally received the task of forming a new government from President Napolitano on 17 February.[36] Renzi held several days of talks with party leaders, all of which he broadcast live on the internet, before unveiling his Cabinet on 21 February, which contained members of his Democratic Party, the New Centre-Right, the Union of the Centre and the Civic Choice. His Cabinet is Italy's youngest government to date, with an average age of 47.[37] In addition, it is also the first in which the number of female ministers is equal to the number of male ministers, excluding the Prime Minister.[38][39]

The following day Renzi was sworn in as Prime Minister, becoming the youngest Prime Minister in the history of Italy.[40] His rise to become Prime Minister was widely seen as a sign of much-needed generational change, and at the time he took office he enjoyed by far the highest approval rating of any politician in the country.[41]

On 25 February the government won the vote of confidence with 169 votes in the Senate and 378 in the Chamber of Deputies.[42]

Domestic policy

Labour policies

Protesters of FIOM trade union against the labour reform in Rome.

On 12 March 2014, the Italian Cabinet issued a law-decree on fixed-term contracts, called the Poletti Decree, from the name of the Labour Minister Giuliano Poletti, as well as a Bill proposing a reform on the Italian labor market called "Jobs Act" [43] A reduction in the tax burden of about €80 was announced for those earning less than 1500 Euros per month.

On 18 April 2014, the Italian Cabinet approved a law-decree which provided for the reduction of Income Tax for employees and assimilated workers earning up to €24,000 gross per year. The net monthly salary was foreseen to increase by €80, through a tax credit from the month of May 2014.

On April 30, 2014. Matteo Renzi, together with the Minister for the Public Administration Marianna Madia, presented the guidelines for the reform of the Public Administration, subsequently approved by the Cabinet on June 13, 2014.

In September the government proposed a new labor reform, the Jobs Act by the Minister Giuliano Poletti, which provided, among others, the abolition of the Article 18 of the Workers' Statute, which protects workers from unlawful dismissal. The proposal was heavily criticized by the biggest Italian trade union the General Confederation of Labour (CGIL) and its leaders Susanna Camusso and Maurizio Landini (Secretary of CGIL metalworkers' wing, FIOM).[44] Moreover also the left-wing of the Democratic Party, led by the former National Secretary Pier Luigi Bersani, criticized the government for the reform, threatening to vote against it.[45] Renzi accused the trade unions and the left-wing faction of his party to be conservatives and to defend a policy which caused unemployment.[46]

On 29 September the National Committee of the Democratic Party voted the Jobs Act promoted by the government, and despite the disagreements within the party, the reform passed with 130 votes in favor, with 20 against and 11 abstained; during the assembly Renzi stated that he was ready to deal with the trade unions on the labour reform.[47]

In the night between 8 and 9 October the Italian Senate voted the confidence vote to approve the Jobs Act and the reform passed with 165 votes in favour with 111 against and 2 abstained, marking a first step for the most ambitious economic legislation of his eight-month-old government. Before the vote the Labour Minister Giuliano Poletti was forced to cut his speech short earlier due to the loud protests of the Five Star Movement and Lega Nord oppositions, some of whom threw coins and papers.[48] The German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who was also in Milan and has been among the most vocal about Italy’s need for speedy economic reforms, said the labour law marked an “important step” to reduce “employment barriers” in in the Eurozone’s third-largest economy.[49]

On 25 October almost one million people took part to a mass protest in Gianni Cuperlo, Stefano Fassina and Pippo Civati, participated to the protest.[50]

On 8 November more than 100,000 public employees protested in Rome in a demonstration organized by the three main trade unions of the country, CGIL, CISL and UIL, against the labour reform and the Stability Law.[51]

On November 25, the Chamber of Deputies approved the Jobs Act with 316 votes, but the Five Star Movement, Lega Nord and almost forty members of the PD minority had left the house, deserting the vote, to protest against the reform.[52]

On 3 December the Italian Senate finally approved the Jobs Act with 166 votes; even though the disagreements with the government, the left-wing minority of the PD voted the reform.[53]

Constitutional reforms

On 11 March, the Chamber of Deputies approved Renzi's flagship electoral reform law, a law that would see Italy's voting system overhauled and also significantly reform the Italian Senate.[54]

On 26 March 2014, despite the controversy raised by several parties belonging to the majority coalition, the government won a confidence vote in the Senate on the Delrio Bill reforming the provinces, with 160 voting in favour and 133 against.

On May 6, 2014, the Constitutional Affairs Committee of the Senate approved the Government’s Bill on the reform of the Italian Senate.[55]

On 8 August the Senate approved the constitutional reform proposed by the government with 183 votes in favour, and 4 abstentions.[56]

Due to his ambitious reforms that provided for the abolition of the Senate, the increase of powers of the Prime Minister and a new electoral law,[57][58] Renzi was accused, by numerous politicians and constitutionalists like Stefano Rodotà or Fausto Bertinotti, to be an authoritarian leader who wants to reduce democracy.[59][60][61]

Economic policies

In March the Council of Ministers approved the auctioning of a large number of luxury cars that were used to transport heads of state, as he felt they were an unnecessary use of government money. The cars included nine Maseratis, two Jaguars, and various other cars such as BMWs and Alfa Romeos. Out of the 1500 cars put up for sale, 170 sold immediately over eBay.[62]

In April, as part of his industrial reforms, Renzi forced the chief executives of Italy's biggest state-owned companies, including Eni, Terna, Finmeccanica, Enel and Poste Italiane, to resign.[63] He subsequently appointed women to the majority of new positions, making it the first time any woman had served as a chief executive of a state-owned company in Italy.[63]

On 1 August 2014, the Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi explained in a press conference the guidelines of Law-decree called Sblocca Italia or "Unlock Italy", which, in the intentions of the Government, is to facilitate the implementation of major projects, civil works and infrastructure that are currently suspended, as well as achieve further administrative simplification. A month of public consultations would take place in relation to such guidelines.

On September 1, 2014, Renzi explained in a press conference that the site would allow citizens to monitor the progress of the Millegiorni (Thousand days) program .

On 9 October the Italian Prime Minister presented the Italian Finance Bill (or Legge di Stabilità), which was approved by the European Commission on 28 October.[64]

Social policies

On May 22, 2014, the Italian Cabinet of Ministers approved the Law-decree on culture for the preservation of the Italian historic, artistic and cultural heritage.

On August 8, 2014, the Italian Cabinet Cabinet approved a law-decree contrasting the phenomenon of lawlessness and violence at sporting events and provided for the international protection of migrants.

On 3 September during a press conference after the Council of Ministers' reunion, Renzi announced an online consultation with students, teachers and common citizens, ahead of the school reform promoted by the Education Minister Stefania Giannini.[65][66]

Foreign affairs

Since the beginning of his presidency, Renzi maintained good relationships with the United States of Barack Obama, supporting the military intervention against the Islamic State, with hundreds of troops and four Panavia Tornado aircraft,[67] and the international sanctions against Russia after the invasion of East Ukraine. Matteo Renzi often criticized the austerity measures imposed in the Eurozone by Angela Merkel and the European People's Party; with the other leaders of the European Socialists, but also with the Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, demanded the cessation of the austerity and the creation of a new policy focused on economic growth and sustainability.[68] Renzi had also good relationships with the Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, who praised the economic policies of Renzi's government. A key ally of Renzi in the Mediterranean is the Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi; the two leaders had many bilateral meetings where they discussed about the problem of immigration to Italy and the increasing tensions in the Middle East and North Africa.[69]


On 2 March 2014, following Russian military intervention in Ukraine, Renzi accused President Vladimir Putin of having committed "an unacceptable violation".[70][71] On 19 March, during a speech in the Chamber of Deputies, Renzi stated that the Crimean status referendum was illegal and that the G8 countries must start cooperating to solve the crisis and prevent a return to the Cold War.[72]

On 4 and 5 June, he subsequently participated in the G7 summit in Brussels, the first one held after the suspension of Russia from the G8 following the annexation of Crimea in March.[73][74]

On 15 March Renzi met in Paris the President of the French Republic, François Hollande; the two leaders agreed in starting a common economic policy focused not only on the austerity measures imposed by the European Union but also on more flexible policies to promote the economic growth in the EU.[75][76]

On 17 March he had a meeting in Berlin with the German Chancellor Angela Merkel, with whom Renzi talked about the important reforms that his government planned to approve in Italy and in the European Union.[77]

On 1 April, the Italian Prime Minister went to London where he met his British counterpart David Cameron; the leader of the United Kingdom stated that the reforms planned by Renzi were "ambitious" and that together they will change the EU.[78][79] On the same day Renzi met also the former UK Prime Minister Tony Blair, who is considered an example and an inspiration by the Italian leader.[80]

On 1 August Renzi officially proposed the Italian Foreign Minister, Federica Mogherini, as the new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, in the European Commission led by Jean-Claude Juncker, former Prime Minister of Luxembourg.[81][82]

On 28 August, after the Russian military intervention in East Ukraine, Matteo Renzi phoned to Vladimir Putin asking him to stop the "intolerable escalation" and to reach a peace agreement with the Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko to stop the pro-Russian conflict in that regions.[83]

On 4 and 5 September Renzi participated in the NATO summit in Wales; before the official start of the summit, he had a discussion with the Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko, US President Barack Obama and the other three leaders of the European G4, to discuss the crisis with Russia.[84] This summit was the first after the Russian military intervention in Ukraine and the offensive by the Islamic State of the Caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.[85]

In 2 October Renzi return to London, in 10 Downing Street, where with the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, expressed their policies to reform the European Union and overcome the crisis.[86]

On 16 and 17 October Renzi hosted, as head of the Italian government, the Asia–Europe Meeting (ASEM) in Milan, with other 53 leaders of the world.[87]

United States

Matteo Renzi with the President of the United States Barack Obama.

On 27 March Matteo Renzi met the [88] Obama stated that he had remained impressed by the reforms that the Italian government wants to undertake.[89][90] The US President is considered by Renzi an example for his policy.[91]

On 22 September Renzi visited the [93] Than he dined at the Stanford University, guest of the University President John L. Hennessy.[94]

On the following day Matteo Renzi spoke at the United Nations summit in New York City, focused on the problem of the climatic change.[95]

After the summit Renzi met the former President of the United States, Bill Clinton and his wife, the former Secretary of State, Hillary Rodham Clinton.[96] At the end of his trip Renzi participated in a reception offered by the US President Barack Obama.[97]

On 24 September Renzi took part at the Council on Foreign Relations talking about the reforms implemented and proposed by his government.[98]

On the following day the Italian Prime Minister spoke at the United Nations General Assembly, focusing his speech on the threat of the Islamic State and the problem of the illegal immigration to Italy, which counted more than 100,000 refugees since the beginning of 2014.[99] After his speech Renzi met the Italian American Mayor of New York, Bill de Blasio.[100]


On 4 March Matteo Renzi went to Tunis where he had a bilateral meeting with the Prime Minister of Tunisia, Mustapha Ben Jafar. With Jafar Renzi discussed about the problem of the illegal immigration to Italy from the coasts of North Africa.[101]

On 19 July Matteo Renzi started his Presidential trip in Africa, meeting the President of Mozambique, Armando Guebuza.[102] Renzi signed with Guebuza some economic pacts to create investments by the Italian government-onwned oil company Eni in the African country for 50 bilion dollars.[103][104][105]

On 20 July he visited the Republic of Congo where he met the President Denis Sassou Nguesso,[106] with whom Renzi signed a cooperation for the extraction of oil in the country.[104][107] Some journalists criticized the meeting with Sassou Nguesso, who is considered one of the worst and more corrupted dictators of Africa.[108] On the following day Renzi met the President of Angola, José Eduardo dos Santos, in Luanda.[109][110] During the visit Renzi placed a wreath in the mausoleum of the 1st Angolan President Agostinho Neto.[111]

On 24 July, under the direction of the Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini, the Italian government has worked for the release of Mariam Ibrahim, a Sudanese woman sentenced to death for being Christian. After some weeks of imprisonment, thank to the good relations between Sudan and Italy, Mrs. Ibrahim was finally allowed to fly to Italy on a government plane.[112][113]

On 2 December, Renzi went to Algiers, where he met the Algerian President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and the Prime Minister Abdelmalek Sellal. With the two leaders of the country, Matteo Renzi discussed about the 2014 Libyan crisis, the immigration from North Africa, but also about the gas imports from Algeria in alternative to the Russian one, following the tensions between the European Union and the Russian Federation in 2014.[114][115]

Middle East

On 2 August Matteo Renzi met Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, President of Egypt, in Cairo, with whom talked about the Israel-Gaza conflict. Renzi stated that Italy will support the Egyptian truce proposal;[116][117] moreover the two leaders asked an immediate cease-fire and the beginning of the peace treaties.[118] Renzi was the first Western world leader to visit Egypt after el-Sisi election as President.

On 20 August Renzi visited Iraq, during the insurgency of the Islamic State.[119] The Italian Prime Minister met in Baghdad the Head of the State Fuad Masum, the Prime Minister designated Haider al-Abadi and his predecessor Nouri al-Maliki.[120] On the same day Renzi went to Erbil to met the President of the Iraqi Kurdistan Mas'ud Barzani and the Prime Minister Nechervan Barzani.[121] While Renzi was in Iraq, the Italian Parliament approved the proposal to armed the Peshmerga soldiers who were fighting against the Islamic State of the Caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi.[122]

On 23 September, during the 69th General Assembly of the United Nations, Renzi had a bilateral meeting with the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, with whom the Italian Prime Minister talked about the problem of the climate change and the increasing tensions in the Middle East.[123]


Renzi with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam Nguyễn Phú Trọng, in Hanoi.

On 6 June Matteo Renzi met in Rome the Prime Minister of Japan, Shinzō Abe. Abe congratulates Renzi for the economic and constitutional reforms promised by the Italian government. The two leaders also discussed about the relations with China and the stability of the East Asia area.[124]

On 9 June, Renzi travelled to Hanoi, Vietnam to meet with the President Trương Tấn Sang the Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng and the General Secretary of the Communist Party Nguyễn Phú Trọng to sign economic treaties worth some 5 billion US dollars.[125][126] He was the first Italian Prime Minister to officially visit Vietnam since 1973, when diplomacy first began between Italy and North Vietnam.[127][128] During the visit Renzi placed a wreath in the mausoleum of the former North Vietnamese President Ho Chi Minh.[129]

On 11 June Renzi met Chinese President Xi Jinping in Beijing, who congratulated him for the "important reforms" undertaken by his Government.[130] Xi also stated that China would continue cooperation with Italy ahead of Expo 2015 in Milan.[131][132] On the following day he met in Astana the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev,[133] with whom Renzi talked about the withdrawal of the Italian troops from Afghanistan.[134]

On 14 October Renzi signed, in Rome, with the Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang twenty treaties for 8 billion euros.[135]

On 15 November, during the G-20 summit in Brisbane, Matteo Renzi had a bilateral meeting with the President of Russian Federation, Vladimir Putin; the two leaders focused their talk on the Ukrainian crisis, where Russia has been accused of supporting the rebels and having invaded Ukraine, but also on the civil wars in Libya and Syria.[136]

On 18 November, Renzi went to Ashgabat, the capital city of Turkmenistan, where with the Turkmen President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow signed economic pacts for gas supply.[137]


On 15 November Renzi took part to the G20 summit in Brisbane, where he had a bilateral meeting with the Australian Prime Minister Tony Abbott. The main topics of the meeting were the economic growth and the fight against the Islamic terrorism.[138]


2009 Florence mayoral election

On 6 June 2009 Renzi run in the municipal election to become Mayor of Florence; in the first round he arrived first, with 97,882 votes and 47.4%, not enough to have been elected in the first ballott.

In the second round, on 20 June, a Renzi gained the 59.5% of votes against the 40.4% of the People of Freedom candidate, Giovanni Galli and he was elected mayor.[139]

2012 Centre-left primary election

The 2012 primary election determined the leader of the coalition Italy. Common Good, who will stand as common candidate for the office of Prime Minister in the subsequent general election, which will take place on 24 and 25 February 2013.

Renzi announced his candidacy in September; the other four candidates were Pier Luigi Bersani, Secretary of the Democratic Party, Nichi Vendola, Leader of the Left Ecology Freedom, Laura Puppato, a Democratic Deputy from Veneto and Bruno Tabacci, Leader of the Democratic Centre.[24]

On the first round, held on 25 November, Renzi gained 35.5% of the vote, finishing second behind Bersani and qualifying for the second ballot. In the second ballot, on 2 December Renzi eventually gained a total of 39% of the vote, against Bersani's 61%.[25]

2013 Democratic Party leadership election

Altre the resignation of Pier Luigi Bersani, due to the result of 2013 general election, in April 2013 Renzi announced that he would run as party's leader in the primary election of December.

The other two candidates for Party Secretary were Gianni Cuperlo, Member of the Chamber of Deputies and former Secretary of the Italian Communist Youth Federation supported by the social democratic establishment and Giuseppe Civati, a Deputy from Lombardy and former supporter of Renzi.[140]

In the December leadership election, Renzi was elected with 68% of the popular vote, compared to 18% for Gianni Cuperlo and 14% for Giuseppe Civati.[141]

2014 European election

Matteo Renzi speaks with journalists in Brussels, after the 2014 election.

In the European Parliament election held on 25 May 2014, the first national election Renzi had faced since becoming Prime Minister, his Democratic Party (PD) won 40.8% of the vote with 11,203,231 votes, becoming by far the largest party in the country with 31 MEPs.[142] The PD won the most votes of any single party across the whole of the European Union and became the largest social-democrat parliamentary group.[143]

The Democratic Party's score was the best result for an Italian party in a nationwide election since the 1958 general election, when the Christian Democracy won 42.4% of the vote.

Thanks to the good electoral result, Renzi succeeded in nominating the Italian Foreign Minister Federica Mogherini as new High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, after the British Catherine Ashton.[144]

Political views

Renzi speaks at the General Assembly of the United Nations, 2014.

Renzi has regularly advocated for a generational replacement of the current Italian ruling class. He also supports various battles to reduce the cost of politics, including the practical elimination of one of the two houses of the Italian Parliament, the abolition of public financing for political parties, the abolition of annuities, direct election of politicians by citizens, and the deletion of state contributions to political party newspapers.[145] Renzi has also in the past stated that he is in favour of civil partnerships and that, from a political perspective, marriage should not be viewed as a sacrament.[146]

Moreover under Renzi's secretariat, the Democratic Party took a strong stance in favour of constitutional reform and of a new electoral law, on the road toward a two-party system.

Anyway it is not an easy task to find the exact political trend represented by Renzi and his supporters, who have been known as Renziani. The nature of Renzi's progressivism is a matter of debate and has been linked both to liberalism and populism.[147][147][148] According to Maria Teresa Meli of Corriere della Sera, Renzi "pursues a precise model, borrowed from the Labour Party and Bill Clinton's Democratic Party", comprising "a strange mix (for Italy) of liberal policy in the economic sphere and populism. This means that, on one side, he will attack the privileges of trade unions, especially of the CGIL, which defends only the already protected, while, on the other, he will sharply attack the vested powers, bankers, Confindustria and a certain type of capitalism."[149]

Renzi has occasionally been compared to former British Prime Minister Tony Blair for his political views.[150] Renzi himself has previously claimed to be as supporter of Blair's ideology of the Third Way, regarding an objective to synthesise liberal economics and left-wing social policies.[151][152]

In an interview for the most famous Italian talk show, Che tempo che fa by Fabio Fazio, Renzi stated that the meeting with Bill and Hillary Clinton was the most interesting part of his trip to the United States, because he considered them as models for the world's progressive left-wing.[153]


After the winning in the Democratic Party leadership election in December 2013, Renzi was accused by the party's minority to led the party in an authoritarian way.[154]

Due to the constitutional reforms that provided for the abolition of the Senate, the increase of powers of the Prime Minister and a new electoral law,[155] Renzi was accused, by numerous politicians and constitutionalists but also by the Five Star Movement and Left Ecology Freedom oppositions to be an authoritarian leader who wants to reduce democracy.[156][157]

On 18 September, Tiziano Renzi, father of the Prime Minister, was inquired for fraudulent bankruptcy of the CHIL Srl, a marketing company owned by Renzi family.[158]

Personal life

Matteo Renzi is married since 1999 to a teacher, Agnese Landini, with whom he has two sons, Francesco and Emanuele, and a daughter, Ester.[159] Renzi is a regular Mass-goer and was active in a Catholic branch of the Scouts.[160]

Moreover Renzi is a supporter of ACF Fiorentina, the football team of Florence, his hometown.[161]

After the 2014 local elections, his sister Benedetta has been elected municipal councillor and assessor for the Democratic Party, in Castenaso, a small comune near Bologna.[162]

In October 2014 Matteo Renzi was ranked third in the List of the most influential under 40 people in the world, by the American magazine Fortune.[8]

On 17 November he was listed in the Top 100 Global Thinkers List by Foreign Policy, for his efforts to innovate the Italian politics.[163]


The Renzi Cabinet is the 63rd Cabinet of the Italian Republic and was sworn in on 22 February 2014.

The Cabinet is composed of members of the Democratic Party (PD), New Centre-Right (NCD), Civic Choice (SC), the Union of the Centre (UdC) and three independents. The Cabinet is Italy's youngest government to date, with an average age of 47.[37] In addition, it is also the first in which the number of female ministers is equal to the number of male ministers, excluding the Prime Minister.[38][39]

Ministry First
(22 February 2014)
Prime Minister Matteo Renzi Democratic Party
Minister of the Interior Angelino Alfano New Centre-Right
Minister of Foreign Affairs Federica Mogherini Democratic Party
Paolo Gentiloni Democratic Party
Minister of Economy and Finances Pier Carlo Padoan Independent
Minister of Defence Roberta Pinotti Democratic Party
Minister of Justice Andrea Orlando Democratic Party
Minister of Economic Development Federica Guidi Independent
Minister of Labour Giuliano Poletti Independent
Minister of Infrastructure and Transport Maurizio Lupi New Centre-Right
Minister of Agriculture Maurizio Martina Democratic Party
Minister of Education Stefania Giannini Civic Choice
Minister of Health Beatrice Lorenzin New Centre-Right
Minister of the Environment Gian Luca Galletti Union of the Centre
Minister of Culture Dario Franceschini Democratic Party
Minister of Regional Affairs Maria Carmela Lanzetta Democratic Party
Minister of Constitutional Affairs Maria Elena Boschi Democratic Party
Minister of Public Administration Marianna Madia Democratic Party
Secretary of the Council of Ministers Graziano Delrio Democratic Party

Authored books


  1. ^ City of Florence
  2. ^ "Elezioni Comunali Turno di ballottaggio 21–22 giugno 2009" (in Italian). Comune di Firenze. 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  3. ^ Roe, Alex. "Matteo Renzi takes Florence". Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  4. ^ "Italy to swear in new Prime Minister Matteo Renzi". BBC News. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  5. ^ At the age of 39 years and one month, he took this record from Benito Mussolini who had entered in office at the age of 39 years and three months.
  6. ^ Matteo Renzi coi leader del Pse a Bologna per il lancio della nuova "terza via". In dote, il Jobs act
  7. ^ Merkenzi
  8. ^ a b Renzi, al terzo posto tra gli under 40 più influenti al mondo
  9. ^ Matteo Renzi: For bucking bunga-bunga politics
  10. ^ Il sistema Renzi: amici, famiglia, potere. E un fascicolo sull’uso dei fondi pubblici
  11. ^ "Benvenuti in casa Renzi: il sostegno online della famiglia".  
  12. ^ Matteo story: Renzi, lo scout che studiava da sindaco
  13. ^ Chi sono
  14. ^ Biografia di Matteo Renzi
  15. ^ Matteo Renzi e l’aneddoto sull’arbitro di calcio
  16. ^ E Renzi girò la ruota della fortuna
  17. ^ Biografia di Matteo Renzi
  18. ^ Matteo Renzi in Palazzo Medici Riccardi con il 58.8% dei voti
  19. ^ "Assunti senza qualifiche" Renzi condannato dalla Corte dei Conti Il sindaco: "Fantasiosa ricostruzione"
  20. ^ "Center-Left Candidate Matteo Renzi holds 47.6% of the Vote to Giovanni Galli's 32% two weeks before ballotaggio". The Florence Newspaper. 9 June 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  21. ^ Matteo Renzi Sweeps Away Italy’s Old Guard
  22. ^ Pd, una “Carta” da Firenze. Renzi: risorsa non pericolo
  23. ^ Il Big bang incassa le firme di Ichino
  24. ^ a b """Renzi lancia la sua sfida: "Chi è deluso da Berlusconi venga da noi.  
  25. ^ a b Aresu, Alessandro; Andrea Garnero (December 2012). "Why Italy matters?". Los Pazio della Politica. Retrieved 6 June 2013. 
  26. ^ Scontro Renzi-Bersani, terremoto nel Pd Ex dc in rivolta. Già si contano i franchi tiratori
  27. ^ Renzi alla guerra con Bersani e silura Marini e Finocchiaro nella corsa per il Quirinale in la Repubblica
  28. ^ Renzi e Veltroni per un Pd «cool» che faccia dimenticare Bersani
  29. ^ Fassino: “Renzi motiva anche i delusi, Cuperlo? È il candidato della nostalgia”
  30. ^ Primarie Pd, candidati depositano le firme. Si allunga lista dei lettiani pro Renzi
  31. ^ Willey, David (13 February 2014). "Italy PM Letta's rival Renzi calls for new government". BBC News. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  32. ^ Willey, David (14 February 2014). "Italian Prime Minister Enrico Letta resigns". BBC. Retrieved 14 February 2014. 
  33. ^ Italian Partito Democratic officially welcomed PES family
  34. ^ Lizzy Davies in Rome. "Italian PM Enrico Letta to resign | World news". Retrieved 13 February 2014. 
  35. ^ Правительственный кризис в Италии: премьер Летта ушел в отставку (in Russian).  
  36. ^ "39 Year Old Matteo Renzi becomes, at 39, Youngest Italian Prime Minister". IANS. Retrieved 17 February 2014. 
  37. ^ a b "Renzi: con 47, 8 anni di media, è il governo più giovane di sempre". Corriere Della Sera. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  38. ^ a b """Matteo Renzi presenta il governo: "Metà sono donne, mi gioco la faccia. TGCOM24. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  39. ^ a b "Matteo Renzi unveils a new Italian government with familiar problems". Guardian. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014. 
  40. ^ "Matteo Renzi sworn in as Italy's new PM in Rome ceremony". BBC. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014. 
  41. ^ "Sondaggi, Matteo Renzi non-fa boom" (in Italian). 20 January 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  42. ^ Renzi alla Camera: abbiamo un’unica chance Passa la fiducia con 378 sì e 220 no
  43. ^ "The Job Act arrives at Italian Senate". TheRword September Editorial. Retrieved 21 October 2014. 
  44. ^ Lavoro, la battaglia sull'articolo 18, Cgil a Renzi: 'Basta insulti'
  45. ^ Jobs Act, Bersani: "Articolo 18 è dignità. Renzi governa col mio 25%"
  46. ^ Articolo 18, Renzi avverte il Pd: "La riforma dà diritti”. Da Brunetta “soccorso azzurro"
  47. ^ Jobs act, sì da direzione Pd. Minoranza divisa. Renzi: "Pronto a confronto con i sindacati"
  48. ^ Italy’s Renzi Wins Senate Confidence Vote on Labor Proposals
  49. ^ Victory for Matteo Renzi as Italy’s senate backs labour reforms
  50. ^ Italy job reforms: CGIL union organises mass protest
  51. ^ Roma, statali in piazza contro governo: Siamo in 100mila
  52. ^ Jobs act, Camera approva testo. Fuori dall’Aula Fi, Lega, M5s e 40 deputati Pd
  53. ^ Via libera al Senato, il Jobs act è legge: abolito l’articolo 18
  54. ^ "Italian PM Matteo Renzi's electoral reform law clears first hurdle". Guardian. 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  55. ^ "The Senate Reform,". TheRword October Editorial. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  56. ^ "The Senate Reform,". TheRword October Editorial. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  57. ^ Renzi: “Abolizione Senato il 10 giugno”. Riforma Pa: “Beccare fannulloni”
  58. ^ Renzi progetta un premierato forte e già lo pratica
  59. ^ Riforme, Rodotà: “Avremo un governo padrone del sistema costituzionale
  60. ^ Bertinotti: «L’ordine nuovo di Renzi. Autoritario, non di sinistra»
  61. ^ Bertinotti: "Con Renzi la sinistra non esiste più..."
  62. ^ Auksjonerer bort regjeringens luksusbiler på Ebay
  63. ^ a b "Matteo Renzi forces sweeping change at state companies". Financial Times. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  64. ^ "The New Legge di Stabilità 2015,". TheRword News. Retrieved 22 October 2014. 
  65. ^ Scuola, Renzi: "Riforma non del premier o ministro, ma di tutti"
  66. ^ Scuola: Renzi, non ennesima riforma ma patto educativo. Stop supplentite, scatti basati su merito
  67. ^ M5s: "Il governo invia caccia contro l'Is senza autorizzazione". Fonti esercito: solo ricognizione
  68. ^ Renzi: "Europa, stop austerità. Serve la crescita". E sul dissesto del territorio attacca le Regioni
  69. ^ Gaza, Renzi: "L'Italia appoggia la proposta egiziana". Appello con Al-Sisi per il cessate il fuoco
  70. ^ Renzi ammonisce la Russia: "Una violazione inacettabile"
  71. ^ L'Italia: “Sovranità violata in Crimea, inaccettabile”
  72. ^ Matteo Renzi alla Camera: "Illegittimo il referendum in Crimea"
  73. ^ "G7 leaders warn Russia of fresh sanctions over Ukraine". 2014-06-05. 
  74. ^ Renzi al G7: "Chiusa fase austerity. Italia protagonista idee, non nei ruoli "
  75. ^ Parte il tour europeo di Renzi, oggi da Hollande
  76. ^ Asse Renzi – Hollande: “Cambiamo l'Europa”
  77. ^ Matteo Renzi Angela Merkel: il vertice a Berlino
  78. ^ Renzi: “Lavoro, serve più flessibilità” E incassa la benedizione di Cameron
  79. ^ Renzi: investimenti stanno tornando
  80. ^ Renzi a Londra incontra anche Blair. Cameron: «Matteo ha un piano ambizioso»
  81. ^ Ue: Renzi, Mogherini candidata ufficiale a Lady Pesc
  82. ^ Ue, lettera di Matteo Renzi a Juncker: “Mogherini candidata Pesc per l’Italia”
  83. ^ Ucraina, Renzi a Putin: "Intollerabile escalation". Obama: "Gravi costi per Russia"
  84. ^ Poroshenko to brief world leaders before NATO summit
  85. ^ Vertice Nato su Ucraina e Isis Renzi "sostegno concreto a Kiev"
  86. ^ Renzi alla City di Londra: "Sono qui a portare risultati riforme"
  87. ^ Vertice Asem, a Milano 53 tra Capi di Stato e di Governo per il 10° summit tra Europa e Asia
  88. ^ Obama a Roma: “Emozionato dal Papa” A Renzi: fiducia nelle riforme italiane
  89. ^ «Yes we can, vale oggi per l’Italia». L’incontro Renzi-Obama a Roma
  90. ^ Obama: “Su Difesa si può risparmiare. Ma Ue spende poco rispetto a Usa”
  91. ^ Renzi: «Obama per noi un modello
  92. ^ cervelli italiani emigrati nella Silicon Valley: “Spiegheremo a Renzi come attirare i talenti
  93. ^ Cena a Stanford per Renzi, poi un tour digitale nelle sedi di Twitter, Yahoo e Google
  94. ^ Il Presidente Renzi durante il suo intervento alla Stanford University
  95. ^ Renzi al summit di New York: "I cambiamenti climatici sono la sfida del nostro tempo
  96. ^ Renzi a New York, incontro con i coniugi Clinton e l'assemblea dell'Onu
  97. ^ Renzi a New York: Via al vertice Onu su clima e incontro con Ban Ki-moon
  98. ^ Renzi: "Anche l'Italia nella coalizione anti-Isis"
  99. ^ Renzi all’Onu: «Il Mediterraneo non sia un cimitero»
  100. ^ Renzi: per il cambiamento pronti a sfidare i poteri forti. Nessun pasticcio sul Jobs Act
  101. ^ Renzi a Tunisi per la sua prima visita ufficiale all'estero: Mediterraneo al centro della presidenza italiana della Ue
  102. ^ Renzi in Africa: visita in Mozambico, Congo-Brazzaville e Angola
  103. ^ Renzi in Mozambico: «Da Eni un investimento da 50 miliardi». Descalzi assicura: «Non andremo via da Gela»
  104. ^ a b Renzi in Africa. Obiettivo: risorse energetiche ed export
  105. ^ Matteo Renzi in Mozambico: "Più investimenti nel Paese da parte dell'Italia"
  106. ^ Renzi arrivato in Congo Brazaville
  107. ^ Africa: Eni firma accordo in Congo, stasera Renzi in Angola
  108. ^ Renzi fa squadra con Eni e va in Congo dal dittatore Nessou Nguesso
  109. ^ Renzi in Angola, rafforzare cooperazione economica
  110. ^ Renzi rafforza i rapporti economici con l'Angola. Ma a che prezzo?
  111. ^ Italia-Africa: al via missione Renzi, tra politica e 'business'
  112. ^ "Sudan: amb. in Italia, Meriam a Roma grazie a amicizia tra nostri paesi". Adnkronos (in Italian). Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  113. ^ "Woman who faced death for faith is free". CNN website. 
  114. ^ Italy’s Renzi pivots to Africa for alternatives to Russian gas
  115. ^ Renzi in Algeria: "Il Mediterraneo al centro della politica estera italiana"
  116. ^ Renzi al Cairo: «Su Gaza, l’Italia appoggia la proposta egiziana»
  117. ^ Renzi e' al Cairo, tra crisi di Gaza e rapporti bilaterali
  118. ^ Gaza, Israele valuta ritiro unilaterale. Hamas: “Soldato ucciso da bombe”
  119. ^ Iraq, Iran pronto ad agire contro l'Isis se verranno revocate le sanzioni sul nucleare: ma da Teheran arriva la smentita
  120. ^ Renzi in Iraq: "L'Europa deve essere qui" "Vinceremo battaglia contro terrorismo"
  121. ^ Visita di Renzi in Iraq
  122. ^ Sì del Parlamento alle armi ai peshmerga. Renzi ai curdi: "Insieme batteremo i terroristi"
  123. ^ New York: partecipazione al Vertice ONU
  124. ^ Matteo Renzi incontra Shinzo Abe: Tokyo cerca “solidarietà” contro Pechino
  125. ^ Storica visita di Renzi in Vietnam, prima volta di un premier italiano
  126. ^ Renzi ad Hanoi: obiettivo interscambio da 5 miliardi di dollari
  127. ^ Renzi e la missione Asia, tappa ad Hanoi
  128. ^ Renzi in Vietnam, la prima volta di premier italiano
  129. ^ Renzi in Vietnam, le foto anche sui social network
  130. ^ Renzi-Xi Jinping, un altro idillio
  131. ^ Renzi in Cina: dobbiamo aprirci di più
  132. ^ Renzi incontra Xi Jiping: costruiamo nuove occasioni di collaborazione
  133. ^ Mr. Renzi va in Kazakistan
  134. ^ Cosa è andato a fare Renzi in Kazakistan
  135. ^ Italia- Cina, Renzi: "20 accordi per oltre 8 miliardi"
  136. ^ G20, Renzi:"L'Europa cambi gioco". E incassa il sostegno di Obama
  137. ^ Turkmenistan: Renzi, con Ashgabat "amicizia" anche oltre il gas
  138. ^ Bilaterale Renzi-Abbott precede il G20
  139. ^ Renzi è il nuovo sindaco. Vince con il 60 per cento.
  140. ^ Milano, sfida Renzi-Cuperlo anteprima del congresso pd
  141. ^ Primarie PD 2013
  142. ^ Definitive results in
  143. ^ Scherer, Steve (26 May 2014). "Renzi's triumph in EU vote gives mandate for Italian reform". Reuters. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  144. ^ Nomine Ue, Renzi la spunta: Mogherini è Alto Rappresentante agli esteri
  145. ^ Primarie Pd, Fassina contro Renzi: copia le proposte di Bersani
  146. ^ Matteo Renzi: Il matriomonio è per tutti, o quasi
  147. ^ a b Concita De Gregorio (2011-10-31). "IL POPULISTA DI CENTRO - la" (in Italiano). Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  148. ^ "La cura omeopatica Renzi per battere Berlusconi | Europa Quotidiano". Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  149. ^ "Ma Renzi pensa che il premier punti a un futuro in Europa". Retrieved 2014-05-17. 
  150. ^ Tony Blair: "Renzi mio erede, con la sua corsa alle riforme cambierà l'Italia"
  151. ^ Intervista a Matteo Renzi di Claudio Sardo
  152. ^ Irpef, Imu e la Terza via di Gutgeld, “guru” economico di Renzi
  153. ^ Renzi: la presidenza Clinton ha cambiato l'America ed è punto di riferimento per la sinistra riformista mondiale
  154. ^ Pd, Civati a Guerini e Renzi: ‘No a ricatti, c’è problema di democrazia interna’
  155. ^ Cosa prevede la riforma del senato annunciata da Matteo Renzi
  156. ^ Pansa: attenti a Renzi, aspirante dittatore
  157. ^ Riforme, Beppe Grillo attacca: "Si va verso la dittatura. Mussolini meno sfacciato di Napolitano-Renzi-Berlusconi"
  158. ^ Renzi’s Father Investigated for Fraudulent Bankruptcy
  159. ^ Thubron, Dario (21 February 2014). "Matteo Renzi: from Florence mayor to Italy PM". AFP. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  160. ^ "Italy’s young leader captures politics of Pope Francis".  
  161. ^ Fiorentina: Renzi-Della Valle scatenati in tribuna.
  162. ^ Doppia vittoria in casa Renzi. La sorella Benedetta è assessore a Castenaso
  163. ^ Matteo Renzi: For bucking bunga-bunga politics

External links

  • Official website of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers (Italian)
  • Renzi's personal website (Italian)
  • Renzi on his party's website (Italian)
Political offices
Preceded by
Michele Gesualdi
President of Florence Province
Succeeded by
Andrea Barducci
Preceded by
Leonardo Domenici
Mayor of Florence
Succeeded by
Dario Nardella
Preceded by
Enrico Letta
Prime Minister of Italy
Party political offices
Preceded by
Guglielmo Epifani
Secretary of the Democratic Party
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Laura Boldrini
as President of the Chamber of Deputies
Order of Precedence of Italy
as President of the Council of Ministers
Succeeded by
Gaetano Silvestri
as President of the Constitutional Court

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.