World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Media of Kazakhstan

Article Id: WHEBN0001306441
Reproduction Date:

Title: Media of Kazakhstan  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kazakhstan, Kazakhstanskaya Pravda, Zhas Alash, List of newspapers in Kazakhstan, Kazpost
Collection: European Broadcasting Union Members, Kazakh-Language Media, Kazakhstani Media
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Media of Kazakhstan

Media in Kazakhstan include television and radio, newspapers and the internet. Despite the freedom of the press being an established part of Kazakhstan's constitution, privately owned and opposition media have been subject to steadily increasing harassment and censorship. In 2004 the International Federation of Journalists identified a "growing pattern" of intimidation of the media, and in 2012 several opposition media outlets were ordered to be shut down on charges of promoting "extremism".

All media are required to register with the Ministry of Culture, Information and Sports, with the exception of websites.


  • Newspapers 1
    • Intimidation and government-ordered closures 1.1
      • A magazine and two other newspapers 1.1.1
      • International reaction to assaults on journalists 1.1.2
  • Television 2
    • Satellite TV in Kazakhstan (with US&EU TV-Channels) 2.1
    • Digital Cable TV (with US&EU TV-Channels) 2.2
    • IP-TV 2.3
  • Radio 3
  • Media websites 4
  • Lawsuits with governmental plaintiffs and defendants from media 5
    • Punishment for defaming a news agency 5.1
  • Media-related legal code 6
  • See also 7
  • External links 8
  • Notes 9


A wide range of publications, mostly supportive of the government, are available. The authorities operates one of the two national Russian-language newspapers and the only regular national Kazakh language newspaper. There were 990 privately owned newspapers and 418 privately owned magazines. Those supportive of the opposition face harassment and lawsuits.

Online news websites include:

Intimidation and government-ordered closures

Respublika is possibly the main opposition publication . (A number of its issues were printed as, Golos Respubliki.)

Increasingly, owners of printing presses refused to print the publication, after a failed attempt by a government representative to buy a controlling stake in Respublika in November 2001.[1] (One owner found a human skull placed on his doorstep.[1])

A mid-March 2002 court order to stop printing for three months, was evaded by printing under other titles, such as Not That Respublika.[1]

On another occasion, a decapitated dog was hung from Respublika building with a screwdriver sticking into its side and a note reading "there will be no next time"[2] the dog's head was left outside Irina Petrushova's home.[3] Three days later, the newspaper's offices were firebombed and burned to the ground.[4] In July, Petrushova was given an eighteen-month jail sentence on tax charges, but served no time after a judge ruled that the case fell under an amnesty.[5] (Petrushova eventually left the country for Russia, where she continued to publish via the Internet, living apart from her family for their safety.[2] In recognition of her work, she was awarded a 2002 International Press Freedom Award by the Committee to Protect Journalists, a US-based NGO.[4])

In May 2005 the Kazakh Information Ministry ordered the paper to be closed, accusing it of inciting ethnic hatred by publishing an interview with a Russian politician who made derogatory remarks about ethnic Kazakhstanis. The paper's deputy editor Galina Dyrdina claimed the closure was politically motivated, and vowed to appeal.[6] The paper continued to be published under a variety of titles.[7]

In November 2012, before the anniversary of the Mangystau riots, Kazakh authorities raided and searched Respublika's office and again suspended its publication while a verdict on criminal charges was still pending.[8][9] Respublika was again ordered closed, "along with seven sister titles and 23 news websites, plus another opposition newspaper and a satellite TV station [...] for ‘propagating extremism’, inciting unrest and urging the overthrow of the government."[10] Reporters Without Borders described this as a "pretext" and said it would be the end of pluralism in Kazakhstan.[10]

A magazine and two other newspapers

Other media experienced difficulties during the November 2012 case against media sources in Kazakhstan; Altyn Tamyr, Tortinshi Bilik and DAT (with its website——inaccessible as of December 2012).

International reaction to assaults on journalists

In 2012 the International Press Institute called for the government to investigate an assault on Ularbek Baitailaq—a contributor to opposition media DAT and Tortinshi Bilik, and archivist of the Kazakh National Archive).[11] The Committee to Protect Journalists called for investigations into the assault of both Maksim Kartashov and Baitailaq.[12]


Kazakhstan is the State Television Channel of Kazakhstan. Other country-wide television stations are Khabar and Yel Arna. Khabar is owned by the President's daughter, and rarely broadcasts criticism of his policy.

There are 116 private channels, including Channel 31, KTK and Perviy Kanal Evraziya.

Satellite TV in Kazakhstan (with US&EU TV-Channels)

Digital Cable TV (with US&EU TV-Channels)



The state-owned Kazakh Radio broadcasts in both official languages. A wide number of private radio stations are also available including Europa Plus, Russkoye Radio, Hit FM, Radio Azattyq and Radio Karavan. Similarly to the television market, the President's daughter controls the majority of the sector.

Media websites

The country had 5.4 million internet users in 2011—up[13] from 2010. "Twitter, Facebook and YouTube audience share is less than 0.4%",[13] according to BBC in 2012.

The censorship of online publications has become routine and arbitrary.

In 2003 the state telecom firm KazakhTelecom was ordered to block access to a dozen websites it said were 'destructive'. The pages either supported the opposition or provided neutral news coverage.

In July, 2009, the government passed amendments to laws on the Internet which some critics claimed unduly restrictive. The law made internet content subject to existing laws on expression, such as criminal libel. It also widened the scope of 'banned media content' to cover political matters, such as coverage of the election campaign.[14]

A broadcasting bill implemented in December 2011 was aimed at improving the content of the national media, and to 'protect' it from external influence. According to the government, the bill would “eliminate low quality content that inflicts psychological or emotional damage on views.” [15]

The country had 5.4 million internet users and 362,000 Facebook users as of December 31, 2011.

Lawsuits with governmental plaintiffs and defendants from media

In November 2012, Google, Facebook, Twitter, and LiveJournal were cited in a lawsuit filed by Kazakh prosecutors seeking to shutdown opposition media outlets. The prosecutors demanded the websites stop publishing material from Kazakh opposition sources.[16]

The following month a court in Almaty ruled that a number of opposition media outlets, such as the television channels Stan TV and K+ and newspapers Vzglyad and Respublika, had to close due to their "extremist" views. These were the same outlets who reported on the Mangystau riots in 2011.[17]

Punishment for defaming a news agency

Increasingly, censorship is imposed by means of civil legal action, such as defamation suits. On 13 June 2005 a court in Almaty ordered former Information Minister Altynbek Sarsenbaev (the opposition leader assassinated in January 2006) to pay 1 million tenge ($7,500) in damages for 'defaming' Khabar news agency. Sarsenbaev was also ordered to publicly retract comments he made in an interview with the opposition newspaper Respublika. He had alleged that Khabar was part of a monopolistic media holding controlled by Dariga Nazarbayev. The case is believed to be in response to his resignation after the 2004 elections. At the time he stated "The election was not fair, honest, or transparent; the authorities showed that from the beginning they didn't want honest elections.

Media-related legal code

Media watchdog groups such as ARTICLE 19 have voiced their concern over the government's moves in the past few years to silence the opposition.[18] Recent changes in media-related laws in Kazakhstan appear to target non-governmental media outlets. Criticism of government employees can lead to lawsuits, and news laws against "extremism" have been used to shut down opposition media sources.

According to opposition source Adil Soz the Kazakh legal code is stringent on defamation, allowing even for cases where the defamation is true. "One can seek compensation for true statements damaging his/her reputation – for example, a government official who is of accused of abuse of State funds, can claim compensation even if the statement damaging his/her reputation is true". This also means that an Internet Service Provider could attract liability "by unwittingly providing access to insulting or defamatory information published through the Internet".[18]

See also

External links

  • Reporters Without Borders report, 2004
  • IFEX: Monitoring Media Freedom Violations in Kazakhstan
  • KAZINFORM: National Information Agency
  • Newspapers and news sources from Kazakhstan
  • Radio and Television of Kazakhstan
  • Radio and Television of Kazakhstan live watch online
  • Kommerceskiyi Televizioniyi Kanal in Kazakhs
  • Kommerceskiyi Televizioniyi Kanal in Russian
  • Kommerceskiyi Televizioniyi Kanal live watch online
  • Central Asian News Service News in English
  • Central Asian News Service News in Russian
  • News in English 24/7


  1. ^ a b c Wines 2012
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ Al Jazeera English: Kazakh media fights against new restrictions on YouTube
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b Kazakhstan country profile
  14. ^ Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Asia
  15. ^ Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Asia
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ a b
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.