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Mid back rounded vowel

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Title: Mid back rounded vowel  
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Subject: Hebrew diacritics, Hejazi Arabic, Hebrew alphabet, Near-close near-back vowel, Near-close central unrounded vowel
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Mid back rounded vowel

Mid back rounded vowel
IPA number 307 430
Entity (decimal) o​̞
Unicode (hex) U+006F U+031E

The mid back rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. While there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the exact mid back rounded vowel between close-mid [o] and open-mid [ɔ], it is normally written o. If precision is desired, diacritics may be used, such as or ɔ̝, the former being more common. A non-IPA letter is also found.

Note that just because a language has only one non-close non-open back vowel, it still may not be a true-mid vowel. The Sulawesian language Tukang Besi, for example, has a close-mid [o], whereas the Moluccan language Taba has an open-mid [ɔ]; in neither language does this contrast with another mid (true-mid or close-mid) vowel. The Kensiu language spoken in Malaysia and Thailand is highly unusual in that it contrasts true-mid vowels with close-mid and open-mid vowels without differences in other parameters such as backness or roundedness.


  • Its vowel height is mid, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a close vowel and an open vowel.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned as far back as possible in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Note that unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Hejazi[1] فوق [fo̞ːg] 'up' Typically transcribed in IPA as .
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hga [ho̞ːɡa] 'steam'
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2]
Catalan Algherese soc [ˈso̞k] 'clog' /ɔ/ and /o/ merge into [o̞] in these dialects. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[3][4][5][6][7][8][9] monolog [mo̞no̞ˈlo̞ːˀ] 'monologue' Described variously as mid back,[6][7] mid near-back.[4][5][9] and slightly lowered mid back.[8] Typically transcribed in IPA as ɔ(ː). See Danish phonology
Dutch Amsterdam[10] och [o̞χ] 'alas' Corresponds to open-mid [ɔˁ] in standard Dutch. See Dutch phonology
Hasselt [o̞x]
Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[11] mot [mo̞t] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA as ɔ. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English Cardiff[12] thought [θo̞ːt] 'thought' Some speakers, for others it is [ʌ̈ː]. See English phonology
South African[13]
Close-mid [] for other speakers.
Geordie[14] Typically transcribed in IPA as ɔː.
Received Pronunciation[16] May be as open as [ɔː] for older speakers, and is most often transcribed as such. See English phonology
Estuary[17] coat [kʰo̟ːʔ] 'coat' Rare; commonly a diphthong.[17] It corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Yorkshire[18] [kʰo̟t] Corresponds to /əʊ/ in other British dialects. See English phonology
Estonian[19] tool [to̞ːlʲ] 'chair' See Estonian phonology
Finnish[20][21] kello [ˈke̞llo̞] 'clock' See Finnish phonology
German Standard[22] Pavillon [ˈpʰävɪljõ̞] 'pavilion' Nasalized.[22] Present only in loanwords. See German phonology
Zurich dialect[23] do [d̥o̞] 'so' Allophone of /o/; reported to occur only in this word.[23]
Greek okeanós [o̞ˌce̞ɐˈno̞s] 'ocean' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[24] [ʃäˈlo̞m] 'peace' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script. See Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Inuit West Greenlandic[25] Allophone of /u/ before and especially between uvulars.[25] See Inuit phonology
Japanese[26] / [ko̞] 'child' See Japanese phonology
Korean[27] / [po̞ˈɾi] 'barley' See Korean phonology
Limburgish Hasselt dialect[28] [mo̞k] 'mug' Typically transcribed IPA as ɔ.[28]
Norwegian Standard Eastern[29] [lo̞ːʋ] 'law' May be diphthongized to [o̞ə̯]. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian [po̞ɾo̞ˈɾɔ̞kɐ] 'pororoca' Unstressed vowel.[30] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian [ko̞ˈpil] 'child' See Romanian phonology
Russian[31]     'dry' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[32] / [t͡ʃʋô̞ːr] 'knot' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak Standard[33][34][35] [ˈo̞ɦu̞ric̟] 'to stun' See Slovak phonology
Slovene[36] [o̞ˈɡlá̠s̪] 'advertisement' Unstressed vowel,[36] as well as an allophone of /o/ before /ʋ/ when a vowel does not follow within the same word.[37] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[38] [ˈt̪o̞ð̞o̞] 'all' See Spanish phonology
Turkish[39] [kʰo̞ɫ] 'arm' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian [ˈpo̞jiz̪d̪] 'train' See Ukrainian phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[40] do [d̪o̞] 'corn tassel'



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