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Mid front rounded vowel

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Title: Mid front rounded vowel  
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Subject: Near-close central unrounded vowel, Near-close near-back vowel, Vowel diagram, Korean phonology, Turkish phonology
Collection: Vowels
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Mid front rounded vowel

Mid front rounded vowel
IPA number 310 430
Entity (decimal) ø​̞
X-SAMPA 2_o or 9_r

The mid front rounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. Acoustically it is a mid front-central rounded vowel.[1]

Although there is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the "exact" mid front rounded vowel between close-mid [ø] and open-mid [œ], ø is generally used. If precision is desired, diacritics can be used, such as ø̞ or œ̝.


  • Mid front compressed vowel 1
    • Features 1.1
    • Occurrence 1.2
  • Mid front protruded vowel 2
    • Features 2.1
    • Occurrence 2.2
  • References 3
  • Bibliography 4

Mid front compressed vowel



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bavarian Amstetten dialect[2] Near-front.[2]
Catalan Northern[3] fulles [ˈfø̞jəs] 'leaves' Found in Occitan and French loanwords and interferences. See Catalan phonology
Danish Standard[4][5][6][7][8] høne [ˈhø̞̈ːnə] 'hen' Near-front.[4][5][6][7][8] Described variously as mid[4][5][6][7] and somewhat lowered mid.[8] Most often, it is transcribed [œ(ː)]. See Danish phonology
Dutch Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[9] mùl [mø̞l] 'well' Typically transcribed in IPA as œ. See Orsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect phonology
English New Zealand[10] bird [bø̞̈ːd] 'bird' Near-front.[10] May be [ɵ̟ː] or [œ̈ː] instead. See English phonology
Southeastern Welsh[11][12] Near-front.[11][12][13]
West Midlands[13]
Estonian[14] köök [kø̞̈ːk] 'kitchen' Near-front.[14] See Estonian phonology
Finnish[15][16] rölli [ˈrø̞̈lːi] 'Common bent' Near-front.[16] See Finnish phonology
German Standard[17] schön     'beautiful' Near-front;[17] also described as close-mid [ø̈ː].[18][19] See German phonology
Hungarian[20] öl [ø̞̈l] 'kill' Near-front.[20] See Hungarian phonology
Korean[21] [sø̞̈ː] 'iron' Near-front;[21] Typically transcribed in IPA with ø. Diphthongized to [we] in modern standard Korean. See Korean phonology
Limburgish Maastrichtian[22] [bø̞̈s] 'bus' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with œ.[22]
Weert dialect[23] [blø̞̈ts] 'bump' Near-front; typically transcribed in IPA with ʏ.[23]
Romanian [blø̞] 'light blue' Found only in loanwords. See Romanian phonology
Slovak Standard[24] [ˈjø̞t̻e̞bo̞rk] 'Göteborg' Only in loanwords; may be closer to [] or [] instead. Reported only by one source from 1988.[24] See Slovak phonology
[25] [ɟø̞̈z] 'eye' Near-front;[25] may be transcribed as /œ/. See Turkish phonology

Mid front protruded vowel

Mid front protruded vowel

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, ø̞ʷ (a mid front rounded vowel modified by endolabialization) will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded mid front vowels.



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[26][27]     'worn' (past part. s.) Near-front,[26] typically transcribed in IPA as œ. See Swedish phonology


  1. ^ Geoff Lindsey (2013) The vowel space, Speech Talk
  2. ^ a b Traunmüller (1982), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:290)
  3. ^ Recasens (1996:80–81)
  4. ^ a b c Grønnum (1998:100)
  5. ^ a b c Grønnum (2005:268)
  6. ^ a b c Grønnum (2003)
  7. ^ a b c Ladefoged & Johnson (2010:227)
  8. ^ a b c Allan, Holmes & Lundskær-Nielsen (2000:17)
  9. ^ Peters (2010:241)
  10. ^ a b Roca & Johnson (1999:188)
  11. ^ a b Coupland (1990:95)
  12. ^ a b Wells (1982:381)
  13. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:299)
  14. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009:368)
  15. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:60 and 66)
  16. ^ a b Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008:21)
  17. ^ a b Mangold (2005:37)
  18. ^ Kohler (1999:87)
  19. ^ Lodge (2009:87)
  20. ^ a b Szende (1994:92)
  21. ^ a b Lee (1999:121)
  22. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  23. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:110)
  24. ^ a b Kráľ (1988:64)
  25. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)
  26. ^ a b Engstrand (1999:140)
  27. ^ Elmquist (1915:33)


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