World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0003400648
Reproduction Date:

Title: Mirative  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Grammatical mood, Animacy, Clusivity, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Mirativity, initially proposed by Scott DeLancey, is a grammatical category in a language, independent of evidentiality, that encodes the speaker's surprise or the unpreparedness of their mind. Grammatical elements that encode the semantic category of mirativity are called miratives (abbreviated MIR).

DeLancey (1997) first promoted the mirative as a cross-linguistic category, identifying Turkish, Hare, Sunwar, Lhasa Tibetan, and Korean as languages exhibiting this category. Citing DeLancey as a predecessor, many researchers have reported miratives in other languages, especially Tibeto-Burman languages. However, Lazard (1999) and Hill (2012) question the validity of this category, Lazard finding that the category cannot be distinguished from a mediative, and Hill finding the evidence given by DeLancey and by Aikhenvald (2004) either incorrect or insufficient. DeLancey (2012) promotes Hare, Kham, and Magar as clear cases of miratives, conceding that his analysis of Tibetan had been incorrect. He makes no mention of Turkish, Sunwar, or Korean. Hill (2015) provides an alternative analysis of Hare, re-analyzing DeLancey's evidence for 'mirativity' as direct evidentiality.

Albanian has a series of verb forms called miratives or admiratives. These may express surprise on the part of the speaker, but may also have other functions, such as expressing irony, doubt, or reportedness.[1] They may therefore sometimes be translated using the English "apparently".


  1. ^ Friedman, Victor A. (1986). "Evidentiality in the Balkans: Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian" (PDF). In Chafe, Wallace L.; Nichols, Johanna. Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Ablex. pp. 168–187.   p. 180.
  • Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. (2004). Evidentiality. Oxford University Press.  
  • DeLancey, Scott (1997). "Mirativity: The grammatical marking of unexpected information". Linguistic Typology 1: 33–52.  
  • DeLancey, Scott (2001). "The mirative and evidentiality". Journal of Pragmatics 33 (3): 369–382.  
  • DeLancey, Scott (2001). "Still mirative after all these years". Journal of Pragmatics 33 (3): 529–564.  
  • Dickinson, Connie (2000). "Mirativity in Tsafiki". Studies in Language 24 (2): 379–422.  
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2012). Mirativity' does not exist: ḥdug in 'Lhasa' Tibetan and other suspects"'". Linguistic Typology 16 (3): 389–433.  
  • Hill, Nathan W. (2015). "Hare lõ: the touchstone of mirativity.". SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics 13 (2): 24–31. 
  • Lazard, Gilbert. 1999. (2009). "Mirativity, evidentiality, mediativity, or other?". Linguistic Typology 3 (1): 91–109.  
  • Slobin, Dan I.; Aksu, Ayhan A. (1982). "Tense, aspect and modality in the use of the Turkish evidential" (PDF). In Hopper, Paul J. Tense-aspect: Between semantics & pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. pp. 185–200.  

External links

  • Summary of mirative postings at LinguistList (includes bibliography)

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.