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Mongol invasion of Thrace

The Mongol invasion of Thrace took place in the winter of 1264/1265, under the leadership of Nogai Khan.

Invasion

The Seljuk Sultan Kayqubad II appealed to Berke, khan of the Golden Horde to attack the Byzantine Empire in order to free his brother Kaykaus II. So, with the assistance of the Second Bulgarian Empire (then vassal of the Golden Horde), around 2 tumens under the leardership of Nogai Khan crossed the Danube river and invaded Byzantine Thrace. Nogai defeated the armies of the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos in the spring of 1265. And then most of the defeated army fled, while the Byzantine Emperor fled with the assistance of Italian merchants. After that Thrace was plundered by Nogai's army.

Aftermath

After that, Michael VIII was forced to release Kaykaus, as well signed a treaty with Berke, giving one of his daughters, Euphrosyne Palaiogina, in marriage to Nogai. Berke gave to Kaykus Crimea as appanage and him marry a Mongol woman. Michael also sent tributes to the Horde.

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