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Motu proprio

This article is part of the series:
Legislation and Legal System of the Catholic Church

A motu proprio (Latin for: "on his own impulse") is a document issued by the Pope (or by a monarch) on his own initiative and personally signed by him.[1]

When issued by the Pope, a motu proprio may be addressed to the whole Church, to part of it, or to some individuals.[1]

The first motu proprio was issued by Pope Innocent VIII in 1484. It continues to be a common form of Papal rescripts, especially when establishing institutions, making minor changes to law or procedure, and when granting favours to persons or institutions.[2]

Contents

  • Effect 1
  • Form 2
  • Notable examples 3
  • Other uses of the phrase "motu proprio" 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Effect

An important effect of the issue of a document in this way is that a rescript containing the clause "motu proprio" is valid and produces its effect even in cases where fraud would ordinarily have vitiated the document, since the Pope does not rely on the reasons alleged when he grants a favour.[2] Withholding of the truth in what, according to canonical law, style and practice, must for validity be expressed, normally renders a rescript invalid, but not if the rescript is issued "motu proprio".[3] Consequently, canonists traditionally called the clause the "mother of repose".[2]

However, a motu proprio has no effect in so far as it harms the acquired right of another or is contrary to a law[4] or approved custom, unless it expressly states that it is derogating from these matters.[5]

Form

A motu proprio rescript begins by giving the reasons for issuing it, and then indicates the law or regulation made or the favour granted. It is less formal than a constitution and carries no papal seal. Its content may be instructional (e.g., on the use of chant), administrative (e.g., concerning a church law or the establishment of a commission), or merely to confer a special favour.[6]

Notable examples

Other uses of the phrase "motu proprio"

More generically, the Latin phrase is used to indicate "of his own accord" and is thus similar to "sua sponte". It is used very rarely in legal opinions in the United States: the better known term "sua sponte" is preferred. As it relates to a monarch, the term motu proprio describes the condition of a royal decree being made expressly on the sovereign's initiative, a practice more usual in some nations than in others. The term "Proprio motu" is used to refer to a decision by the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court to initiate an investigation into a situation without a referral from the Security Council or a State Party; this power is granted by article 15(1) of the Rome Statute.

References

  1. ^ a b Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), s.v. motu proprio
  2. ^ a b c Catholic Encyclopedia, s.v. Motu Proprio
  3. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 63 §1
  4. ^ According to the article in the 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia, a motu proprio was at that time considered valid even if counter to ecclesiastical law.
  5. ^ Code of Canon Law, canon 38
  6. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica online, s.v. motu proprio
  7. ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/motu_proprio/documents/hf_ben-xvi_motu-proprio_20121111_caritas_en.html
  8. ^ Motu proprio on the jurisdiction of the juridical authorities of vatican city state in criminal matters
  9. ^ Vatican City State Law No. IX, of 11 July 2013, containing Amendments to the Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code
  10. ^ Vatican City State Law No. VIII, of 11 July 2013, containing Supplementary Norms on Criminal Law Matters

External links

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