Contrary to conventional thought as expressed in this diagram, brain functions are not confined to certain fixed locations.

Neuroplasticity, also known as brain plasticity, is an

  • Neuroplasticity at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
  • Neuro Myths: Separating Fact and Fiction in Brain-Based Learning by Sara Bernard

External links

  • Chorost, Michael (2005). Rebuilt: how becoming part computer made me more human. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.  
Other readings
  • Ramachandran. Phantom Limb Syndrome.  about consciousness, mirror neurons, and phantom limb syndrome
  • Pinaud, Raphael; Tremere, Liisa A.; De Weerd, Peter, eds. (2006). Plasticity in the visual system: from genes to circuits. New York: Springer.  
  • Pinaud, Raphael; Tremere, Liisa A., eds. (2006). Immediate early genes in sensory processing, cognitive performance and neurological disorders. New York: Springer.  
  • Begley, Sharon (5 November 2004). "Scans of Monks' Brains Show Meditation Alters Structure, Functioning". The Wall Street Journal (Washington D.C.). p. B1. Archived from the original on 2008-02-02. 
  • Donoghue, John P. (2002). "Connecting cortex to machines: recent advances in brain interfaces" (PDF). Nature Neuroscience 5: 1085–1088.  
  • Flor, H. (July 2002). "Phantom-limb pain: characteristics, causes, and treatment". The Lancet Neurology (Elsevier) 1 (3): 182–189.  
  • Cohen, Wendy; Hodson, Ann; O'Hare, Anne; Boyle, James; Durrani, Tariq; McCartney, Elspeth; Mattey, Mike; Naftalin, Lionel; Watson, Jocelynne (June 2005). "Effects of Computer-Based Intervention Through Acoustically Modified Speech (Fast ForWord) in Severe Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: Outcomes From a Randomized Controlled Trial". Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 48 (3): 715–729.  
  • Giszter, Simon F. (January 2008). "SCI: Present and Future Therapeutic Devices and Prostheses". Neurotherapeutics (Elsevier) 5 (1): 147–162.  
  • Mahncke, Henry W.; Connor, Bonnie B.; Appelman, Jed; Ahsanuddin, Omar N.; Hardy, Joseph L.; Wood, Richard A.; Joyce, Nicholas M.; Boniske, Tania; et al. (15 August 2006). "Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: A randomized, controlled study". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 103 (33): 12523–12528.  
  • Stein, Donald G.; Hoffman, Stuart W. (July–August 2003). "Concepts of CNS Plasticity in the Context of Brain Damage and Repair". Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 18 (4): 317–341.  
  • Nudo, Randolph J.; Milliken, Garrett W. (1996). "Reorganization of Movement Representations in Primary Motor Cortex Following Focal Ischemic Infarct in Adult Squirrel Monkeys". Journal of Neurophysiology 75 (5): 2144–149.  
  • Wieloch, Tadeusz; Nikolich, Karoly (June 2006). "Mechanisms of neural plasticity following brain injury". Current Opinion in Neurobiology 16 (3): 258–264.  

Further reading

  1. ^ Pascual-Leone A., Freitas C., Oberman L., Horvath J. C., Halko M., Eldaief M.; et al. (2011). "Characterizing brain cortical plasticity and network dynamics across the age-span in health and disease with TMS-EEG and TMS-fMRI". Brain Topography 24: 302–315.  
  2. ^ Pascual-Leone A., Amedi A., Fregni F., Merabet L. B. (2005). "The plastic human brain cortex". Annual Review of Neuroscience 28: 377–401.  
  3. ^ a b Rakic, P. (January 2002). "Neurogenesis in adult primate neocortex: an evaluation of the evidence". Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3 (1): 65–71.  
  4. ^ Hubel, D.H.; Wiesel, T.N. (1 February 1970). "The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens". The Journal of Physiology 206 (2): 419–436.  
  5. ^ a b Ponti, Giovanna; Peretto, Paolo; Bonfanti, Luca; Reh, Thomas A. (2008). Reh, Thomas A., ed. "Genesis of Neuronal and Glial Progenitors in the Cerebellar Cortex of Peripuberal and Adult Rabbits". PLoS ONE 3 (6): e2366.  
  6. ^ Chaney, Warren, Dynamic Mind, 2007, Las Vegas, Houghton-Brace Publishing, pp 33–35, ISBN 0-9793392-0-0 [4]
  7. ^ Chaney, Warren, Workbook for a Dynamic Mind, 2006, Las Vegas, Houghton-Brace Publishing, page 44, ISBN 0-9793392-1-9 [5]
  8. ^ a b Bos, I; De Boever, P; Int Panis, L; Meeusen, R (August 2014). "Physical Activity, Air Pollution and the Brain". Sports Medicine.  
  9. ^ Buonomano, Dean V.;  
  10. ^ Merzenich, M.M.; Nelson, R.J.; Stryker, M.P.;  
  11. ^ Wall, J.T.; Xu, J.; Wang, X. (September 2002). "Human brain plasticity: an emerging view of the multiple substrates and mechanisms that cause cortical changes and related sensory dysfunctions after injuries of sensory inputs from the body". Brain Research Reviews (Elsevier Science B.V.) 39 (2–3): 181–215.  
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Doidge, Norman (2007).  
  13. ^ Interview with Merzenich, 2004
  14. ^ Draganski et al. "Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Brain Structure Changes during Extensive Learning" The Journal of Neuroscience, 7 June 2006, 26(23):6314–6317
  15. ^ "Remembering Leaders in the Field of Blindness and Visual Impairment." National Center for Leadership in Visual Impairment. Salus University. 20 November 2008
  16. ^ "BrainPort, Dr. Paul Bach-y-Rita, and ... - Mind States -". 30 March 2005. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  17. ^ "Wisconsin Alumni Association – Balancing Act". Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  18. ^ a b Frost, S.B.; Barbay, S.; Friel, K.M.; Plautz, E.J.; Nudo, R.J. (2003). "Reorganization of Remote Cortical Regions After Ischemic Brain Injury: A Potential Substrate for Stroke Recovery" (PDF).  
  19. ^ Young J. A., Tolentino M.; Tolentino (2011). "Neuroplasticity and its Applications for Rehabilitation". American Journal of Therapeutics 18 (1): 70–80.  
  20. ^ a b Jain, Neeraj; Qi, HX; Collins, CE; Kaas, JH (22 October 2008). "Large-Scale Reorganization in the Somatosensory Cortex and Thalamus after Sensory Loss in Macaque Monkeys". The Journal of Neuroscience 28 (43): 11042–11060.  
  21. ^ "Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering: BME Faculty". Archived from the original on 2008-06-24. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  22. ^ a b c Stein, Donald. "Plasticity." Personal interview. Alyssa Walz. 19 November 2008.
  23. ^ Traumatic Brain Injury (a story of TBI and the results of ProTECT using progesterone treatments) Emory University News Archives
  24. ^ Cutler, Sarah M.; Hoffman, Stuart W.; Pettus, Edward H.; Stein, Donald G. (October 2005). "Tapered progesterone withdrawal enhances behavioral and molecular recovery after traumatic brain injury". Experimental Neurology (Elsevier) 195 (2): 423–429.  
  25. ^ a b Cutler, Sarah M.; Cekic, Milos; Miller, Darren M.; Wali, Bushra; VanLandingham, Jacob W.; Stein, Donald G. (24 September 2007). "Progesterone Improves Acute Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Aged Rats". Journal of Neurotrauma 24 (9): 1475–1486.  
  26. ^ Progesterone offers no significant benefit in traumatic brain injury clinical trial, Emory University, Atlanta, GA
  27. ^ Dominick M. Maino: Neuroplasticity: Teaching an Old Brain New Tricks, Review of Optometry, January 2009
  28. ^ Indu Vedamurthy; Samuel J. Huang; Dennis M. Levi; Daphne Bavelier; David C. Knill (27 December 2012). "Recovery of stereopsis in adults through training in a virtual reality task". Journal of Vision 12 (14).   Article 53
  29. ^ Robert F. Hess; Benjamin Thompson (February 2013). "New insights into amblyopia: binocular therapy and noninvasive brain stimulation". Journal of AAPOS 17 (1). pp. 89–93.  
  30. ^ Marshall, Abigail (August 18, 2013). The Everything Parent's Guide to Children with Dyslexia. Adams Media; Second Edition edition (August 18, 2013). p. 136.  
  31. ^ Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Carmena, Jose M.; O'Doherty, Joseph E.; Zacksenhouse, Miriam; Henriquez, Craig S.; Principe, Jose C.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L. (11 May 2005). "Cortical Ensemble Adaptation to Represent Velocity of an Artificial Actuator Controlled by a Brain-Machine Interface". The Journal of Neuroscience 25 (19): 4681–4693.  
  32. ^ Kral A, Sharma A; Sharma (2012). "Developmental Neuroplasticity after Cochlear Implantation". Trends Neurosci 35 (2): 111–122.  
  33. ^ Kral A, O'Donoghue GM (2010). "Profound Deafness in Childhood". New England J Medicine 363: 1438–50.  
  34. ^ Beaumont, Geneviève; Mercier, Pierre-Emmanuel; Malouin, Jackson (2011). "Decreasing phantom limb pain through observation of action and imagery: A case series". Pain Medicine 12 (2): 289–299.  
  35. ^ Flor H, Elbert T, Knecht S, Wienbruch C, Pantev C, Birbaumer N; Elbert; Knecht; Wienbruch; Pantev; Birbaumer; Larbig; Taub; et al. (1995). "Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation". Nature 375 (6531): 482–484.  
  36. ^ Flor H, Cortical Reorganization And Chronic Pain: Implications For Rehabilitation, J Rehabil Med, 2003, Suppl.41:66–72
  37. ^ Moseley, Brugger, Interdependence of movement and anatomy persists when amputees learn a physiologically impossible movement of their phantom limb, PNAS, 16 September 2009,[6]
  38. ^ Seifert F., Maihöfner C. (2011). "Functional and structural imaging of pain-induced neuroplasticity". Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology 24: 515–523.  
  39. ^ Maihöfner C., Handwerker H.O., Neundorfer B., Birklein F. (2003). "Patterns of cortical reorganization in complex regional pain syndrome". Neurology 61: 1707–1715.  
  40. ^ Apkarian A.V., Sosa Y., Sonty S; Sosa; Sonty; Levy; Harden; Parrish; Gitelman; et al. (2004). "Chronic back pain is associated with decreased prefrontal and thalamic gray matter density". J Neurosci 24 (46): 10410–10415.  
  41. ^ Karl A., Birbaumer N., Lutzenberger W.; Birbaumer; Lutzenberger; Cohen; Flor; et al. (2001). "Reorganization of motor and somatosensory cortex in upper extremity amputees with phantom limb pain". J Neurosci 21 (10): 3609–18.  
  42. ^ Flor H., Braun C., Elbert T.; et al. (1997). "Extensive reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in chronic back pain patients". Neurosci Lett 224: 5–8.  
  43. ^ Napadow V., Kettner N., Ryan A.; Kettner; Ryan; Kwong; Audette; Hui; et al. (2006). "Somatosensory cortical plasticity in carpal tunnel syndrome: a cross-sectional fMRI evaluation". Neuroimage 31 (2): 520–530.  
  44. ^ Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Cekic, Milos (28 July 2007). "Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation.". Neurobiology of Aging 28 (10): 1623–1627.  
  45. ^ Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; van Beek, Martijn; Skewes, Joshua; Bjarkam, Carsten R; Stubberup, Michael; Bertelsen, Jes; Roepstorff, Andreas (28 January 2009). "Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem.". NeuroReport 20 (2): 170–174.  
  46. ^ Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W.; Lepore, Natasha; Gaser, Christian (14 January 2009). "The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of gray matter.". Neuroimage 45 (3): 672–678.  
  47. ^ Lazar, S.; Kerr, C.; Wasserman, R.; Gray, J.; Greve, D.; Treadway, Michael T.; McGarvey, Metta; Quinn, Brian T.; et al. (28 November 2005). "Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness". NeuroReport 16 (17): 1893–97.  
  48. ^ Lutz, A.; Greischar, L.L.; Rawlings, N.B.; Ricard, M.; Davidson, R. J. (16 November 2004). "Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice". PNAS 101 (46): 16369–73.  
  49. ^ Sharon Begley (20 January 2007). "How Thinking Can Change the Brain". 
  50. ^ Davidson, Richard; Lutz, Antoine (January 2008). "Buddha's Brain: Neuroplasticity and Meditation" (PDF). IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. 
  51. ^ Chris Frith (17 February 2007). "Stop meditating, start interacting".  
  52. ^ Liu Yu-Fan, Chen Hsuin-ing, Wul Chao-Liang, Kuol Yu-Min, Yu Lung, Huang A-Min, Wu Fong-Sen, Chuang Jih-Ing, Jen Chauying J.; et al. (2009). "Differential effects of treadmill running and wheel running on spatial or aversive learning and memory: Roles of amygdalar brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synaptotagmin I.". Journal of Physiology 587 (13): 3221–3231.  
  53. ^ Gretchen Reynolds (16 September 2009). "Phys Ed: What Sort of Exercise Can Make You Smarter?".  
  54. ^ "Human Echolocation". Journal of Vision 10 (7): 1050. 2010.  
  55. ^ "Neural Correlates of Natural Human Echolocation in Early and Late Blind Echolocation Experts". PLOS ONE 6: e20162. 2011.  
  56. ^ Thaler, L; Arnot, S.R.; Goodale, M.A (2011). "Neural correlates of natural human echolocation in early and late blind echolocation experts". Public Library of Science 6 (5). 
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