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Newton, Massachusetts

Newton, Massachusetts
Official seal of Newton, Massachusetts
Nickname(s): "The Garden City"
Motto: "Liberty and Union"
Location in Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County, Massachusetts
Newton, Massachusetts is located in USA
Newton, Massachusetts
Location in the United States
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1630
Incorporated 1688
 • Type Strong Mayor–Board of Aldermen (to become City Council effective January 1, 2016)
 • Mayor Setti Warren
 • Total 18.2 sq mi (47.1 km2)
 • Land 18.1 sq mi (46.7 km2)
 • Water 0.2 sq mi (0.4 km2)
Elevation 100 ft (30 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 85,146
 • Density 4,600.6/sq mi (1,783.1/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 02458–02462, 02464–02468, 02495
Area code(s) 617 / 857
FIPS code 25-45560
GNIS feature ID 0617675
Emily Lavan, Heartbreak Hill, 2005 Boston Marathon

Newton is a suburban city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is approximately 7 miles (11 km) west of downtown Boston and is bordered by Boston's Brighton and West Roxbury neighborhoods to the east and south, respectively, and by the suburb of Brookline to the east, the suburbs of Watertown and Waltham to the north, and Wellesley and Needham to the west. Rather than having a single city center, Newton is a patchwork of thirteen villages. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the population of Newton was 85,146, making it the eleventh largest city in the state.

Newton's proximity to Boston along with its historic homes, good public schools, and safe and quiet neighborhoods make it a desirable community for those who commute to Boston.[1] Newton is served by three modes of mass transit run by the MBTA: light rail, commuter rail, and bus service.

Newton has consistently ranked as one of the best cities to live in in the country. In August 2012, Money magazine named Newton fourth best small city among places to live in America.[2]

Newton was settled in 1630 as part of "the newe towne", which became Cambridge in 1638; it became its own town in 1688. There are several historical sites of interest in the Newton area. These include Crystal Lake (which is fronted by several historical homes), the East Parish and West Parish Burying Grounds, and the Jackson Homestead, which now houses the Newton History Museum. Historian and local resident Diana Muir has written about the history surrounding Bullough's Pond; a scene from the 2008 production of The Women was also filmed there.


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Villages 2.1
    • Climate 2.2
  • Demographics 3
  • Government 4
    • City 4.1
    • County 4.2
    • State 4.3
    • National 4.4
  • Education 5
    • Preschools 5.1
    • Primary and secondary education 5.2
    • Higher education 5.3
    • Former colleges 5.4
      • Newton Junior College 5.4.1
      • Others 5.4.2
  • Hospitals 6
  • Houses of worship 7
  • Media 8
    • Newspapers 8.1
    • Television 8.2
  • Economy 9
    • Income 9.1
  • Transportation 10
  • Points of interest 11
  • Cemeteries 12
    • Notable grave sites 12.1
  • Notable people 13
  • In popular culture 14
    • Newton in literature 14.1
  • Sister City 15
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • Further reading 18
  • External links 19


Newton was settled in 1630 as part of "the newe towne", which was renamed Cambridge in 1638. Roxbury minister John Eliot convinced the Native American people of Nonantum, a sub-tribe of the Massachusetts led by a sachem named Waban, to relocate to Natick in 1651, fearing that they would be exploited by colonists.[3] Newton was incorporated as a separate town, known as Cambridge Village, in 1688, then renamed Newtown in 1691, and finally Newton in 1766.[4] It became a city in 1873. Newton is known as The Garden City.

In Reflections in Bullough's Pond, Newton historian Diana Muir describes the early industries that developed in the late 18th and early 19th centuries in a series of mills built to take advantage of the water power available at Newton Upper Falls and Newton Lower Falls. Snuff, chocolate, glue, paper and other products were produced in these small mills but, according to Muir, the water power available in Newton was not sufficient to turn Newton into a manufacturing city, although it was, beginning in 1902, the home of the Stanley Motor Carriage Company, the maker of the Stanley Steamer.

Newton, according to Muir, became one of America's earliest commuter suburbs. The Boston and Worcester, one of America's earliest railroads, reached West Newton in 1834. Wealthy Bostonian businessmen took advantage of the new commuting opportunity offered by the railroad, building gracious homes on erstwhile farmland of West Newton hill and on Commonwealth street. Muir points out that these early commuters needed sufficient wealth to employ a groom and keep horses, to drive them from their hilltop homes to the station.

Further suburbanization came in waves. One wave began with the streetcar lines that made many parts of Newton accessible for commuters in the late nineteenth century. The next wave came in the 1920s when automobiles became affordable to a growing upper middle class. Even then, however, Oak Hill continued to be farmed, mostly market gardening, until the prosperity of the 1950s made all of Newton more densely settled. Newton is not a typical "commuter suburb" since many people who live in Newton do not work in downtown Boston. Most Newtonites work in Newton and other surrounding cities and towns.

The city has two symphony orchestras, the New Philharmonia Orchestra of Massachusetts and the Newton Symphony Orchestra.

Each April on Patriots Day, the Boston Marathon is run through the city, entering from Wellesley on Route 16 (Washington Street) where runners encounter the first of the four infamous Newton Hills. It then turns right onto Route 30 (Commonwealth Avenue) for the long haul into Boston. There are two more hills before reaching Centre Street, and then the fourth and most infamous of all, Heartbreak Hill, rises shortly after Centre Street. Residents and visitors line the race route along Washington Street and Commonwealth Avenue to cheer the runners.


Union Street, Newton Centre

Newton is a suburban city approximately seven miles from downtown Boston, in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, at (42.337713, −71.209936).[5] The city is bordered by Waltham and Watertown on the north, Needham and the West Roxbury neighborhood of Boston on the south, Wellesley and Weston on the west, and Brookline and the Brighton neighborhood of Boston on the east.

From Watertown to Waltham to Needham and Dedham, Newton is bounded by the Charles River. The Yankee Division Highway, designated Interstate 95 but known to the locals as Route 128, follows the Charles from Waltham to Dedham, creating a de facto land barrier. The portion of Needham which lies east of 128 and west of the Charles, known as the Needham Industrial Park has become part of a Newton commercial zone and contributes to its heavy traffic, though the tax revenue goes to Needham.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.2 square miles (47.1 km2), of which 18.0 square miles (46.6 km2) is land and 0.2 square miles (0.5 km2) (0.82%) is water.


Rather than having a single city center, Newton is a patchwork of thirteen villages, many boasting small downtown areas of their own. The 13 villages are: Auburndale, Chestnut Hill, Newton Centre, Newton Corner, Newton Highlands, Newton Lower Falls, Newton Upper Falls (both on the Charles River, and both once small industrial sites), Newtonville, Nonantum (also called "The Lake"), Oak Hill, Thompsonville, Waban and West Newton. Oak Hill Park is a place within the village of Oak Hill that itself is shown as a separate and distinct village on some city maps (including a map dated 2010 on the official City of Newton website),[6] and Four Corners is also shown as a village on some city maps. Although most of the villages have a post office, they have no legal definition and no firmly defined borders. This village-based system often causes some confusion with addresses and for first time visitors.[7]


The record low temperature was −21 °F (−29 °C) in February 1934; the record high temperature was 101 °F (38 °C) in August 1975.[8]

Climate data for Newton, Massachusetts
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 68
Average high °F (°C) 34
Average low °F (°C) 17
Record low °F (°C) −14
Average precipitation inches (mm) 4.35
Source: [8]


As of the census[21] of 2010, there were 85,146 people, 32,648 households, and 20,499 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,643.6 people per square mile (1,793.2/km²). There were 32,112 housing units at an average density of 1,778.8 per square mile (686.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 79.6% White, 11.5% Asian, 2.5% African American, 0.07% Native American, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.71% from other races, and 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population (0.7% Puerto Rican, 0.6% Mexican, 0.4% Colombian, 0.3% Guatemalan, 0.3% Argentine). (2010 Census Report: Census report

Newton, along with neighboring Brookline, is known for its considerable Jewish and Asian populations. The Jewish population is estimated at roughly 28,000, about one-third of the total population.[22]

There were 31,201 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.2% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.3% were non-families. 25.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. As of the 2008 US Census, the average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 86.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.7 males.

According to 2010 income statistics the city of Newton had a median household income of $112,230. With an average household income of $167,013 and a per capita household income of $65,049.[23]

According to a 2008 estimate, the median income for a household was $108,228, and the median income for a family was $137,493.[24] Males had a median income of $65,565 versus $46,885 for females. The per capita income for the city was $45,708. About 2.1% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 5.0% of those age 65 or over.



Newton has an elected strong mayor-council form of government. The council is called the Board of Aldermen. The mayor is Setti Warren, a former Naval officer and White House staffer who is the first African American to be elected Mayor of Newton. On September 28, 2015, Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker signed into law a bill changing the name of Newton's legislative council, the Board of Aldermen, to a more gender neutral name, the City Council. The new name will become effective when newly elected officials are sworn in on January 1, 2016. [25]

The elected officials are:

  • Mayor: Setti Warren, the city's chief executive officer and appoints the Chief Administrative Officer.
  • The Board of Aldermen, Newton's legislative branch of municipal government, is made up of 24 members – sixteen at-large Aldermen and eight Ward Aldermen. Aldermen are elected every two years.

Note: Aldermen for 2014 and 2015 are listed below. The first listed person in each ward is the ward alderman, while the other two are elected at large.

    • Ward One: Alison Leary, Scott F. Lennon and Allan Ciccone Jr.;
    • Ward Two: Emily Norton, Marcia T. Johnson and Susan Albright;
    • Ward Three: Anthony Salvucci, Ted Hess-Mahan and James Cote;
    • Ward Four: Jay Harney, Leonard J. Gentile and Amy Mah Sangiolo;
    • Ward Five: John Rice, Deborah Crossley and Brian E. Yates;
    • Ward Six: Richard Blazar, Greg Schwartz and Victoria L. Danberg;
    • Ward Seven: R. Lisle Baker, Ruthanne Fuller and Marc Laredo; and
    • Ward Eight: Cheryl Lappin, Richard A. Lipof and David Kalis.

Newton also has a school committee which decides on the policies and budget for Newton Public Schools. It has nine voting members, consisting of the Mayor of Newton and eight at-large Ward representatives, who are elected by citizens.[26] In addition to these voting members, there are two non-voting student representatives; one from each high school.

School Committee members for 2014 and 2015 are listed below.

    • Ward One: Ellen Gibson;
    • Ward Two: Margaret Albright;
    • Ward Three: Angela Pitter-Wright;
    • Ward Four: Diana Fisher-Gomberg;
    • Ward Five: Steve Siegel;
    • Ward Six: Ruth Goldman;
    • Ward Seven: Matt Hills;
    • Ward Eight: Margie Ross-Decter.

The City of Newton Police Department is one of the most progressive departments in the state and has 139 sworn officers. The Newton Fire Department is fully paid and operates three ladder companies and six engine companies from six stations.


Mismanagement of Middlesex County's public hospital in the mid-1990s left the county on the brink of insolvency, and in 1997 the Massachusetts legislature stepped in by assuming all assets and obligations of the county. The government of Middlesex County was officially abolished on July 11, 1997. The sheriff and some other regional officials with specific duties are still elected locally to perform duties within the county region, but there is no county council or commission. However, communities are now granted the right to form their own regional compacts for sharing services.

These are the remaining elected officers for Middlesex County:

  • Clerk of Courts: Michael A. Sullivan[27]
  • County Treasurer: Position eliminated
  • District Attorney: Marian T. Ryan[28]
  • Register of Deeds: Maria C. Curtatone[29]
  • Register of Probate: Tara E. DeCristofaro[30]
  • County Sheriff: Peter J. Koutoujian, Jr.[31]


House of Representatives:

  • John J. Lawn, Democrat of Watertown: Tenth Middlesex District, includes Precincts 1 and 4 of Ward 1, Newton.[32]
  • Kay S. Khan, Democrat of Newton: Eleventh Middlesex District, includes precincts 2 and 3 of Ward 1, All precincts in Wards 2, 3 and 4 and precinct 2 of Ward 7, Newton.[33]
  • Ruth B. Balser, Democrat of Newton: Twelfth Middlesex District, includes all precincts in Wards 5 and 6, precincts 1, 3 and 4 of Ward 7; and all precincts in Ward 8, Newton.[34]


  • Cynthia Stone Creem, Democrat of Newton: 1st Middlesex District and Norfolk, since 1998.[35]



Voter Registration and Party Enrollment as of October 15, 2008[36]
Party Number of Voters Percentage
  Democratic 25,873 46.74%
  Republican 4,642 8.39%
  Unaffiliated 24,574 44.40%
  Minor Parties 264 0.48%
Total 55,353 100%



Primary and secondary education

Public: Newton Public Schools

Public elementary schools include:

  • Angier Elementary School[60]
  • Bowen Elementary School[61]
  • Burr Elementary School[62]
  • Cabot School[63]
  • Countryside[64]
  • Franklin[65]
  • Horace Mann[66]
  • Lincoln Eliot[67]
  • Mason Rice[68]
  • Memorial Spaulding[69]
  • Peirce[70]
  • Ward[71]
  • Williams[72]
  • Zervas[73]

Newton has four public middle schools:

  • Bigelow Middle School[74]
  • Brown Middle School
  • Oak Hill Middle School[75]
  • F.A. Day Middle School[76]

Brown Middle School and Oak Hill Middle School graduates go on to Newton South while Frank A. Day Middle School and Bigelow Middle School graduates go on to Newton North. There are exceptions based on exact location of the student's home.

Newton has two public high schools:

Higher education

Colleges and universities located in Newton include:

Former colleges

Newton Junior College

Newton Junior College, operated by the Newton Public Schools, opened in 1946 to serve the needs of returning veterans who otherwise would not have been able to continue their education due to the overcrowding of colleges and universities at that time. It used the facilities of Newton High School (now Newton North High School) until its own adjacent campus was built. It closed in 1976 due to declining enrollment and increased costs.[83] The availability of such places as UMass Boston contributed to its demise. According to the city, its former campus is now "Claflin Park," a 25 unit multi-family development.


Other former colleges include Aquinas College (1961–1999), Mount Alvernia College (1959–1973) and Newton College of the Sacred Heart (1946–1975).[83]


Newton-Wellesley Hospital is located at 2014 Washington Street in Newton. U.S. News & World Report ranks the hospital 13th best in the Boston metro area.

Houses of worship



The city's community newspaper is The Newton Tab, now published by the Community Newspaper Company. The Newton community is also served by its high school publications, including Newton North High School's Newtonite and Newton South High School's Lion's Roar and Denebola.


Residents of Newton have access to a state-of-the-art television studio and community media center, NewTV, located 23 Needham Street in Newton Highlands. Newton is also the headquarters for NECN, a regional news network.


Newton's largest employers include Boston College and Newton-Wellesley Hospital. Companies based in Newton include TechTarget and Upromise. Until July 2015, Newton was also home to the global headquarters of TripAdvisor, the world's largest travel site, reaching nearly 280 million unique monthly visitors.[97] TripAdvisor moved into a newly built headquarters in neighboring Needham.[98]


Data is from the 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates.[99][100][101]

Rank ZIP code (ZCTA) Per capita
Population Number of
1 02468 $86,528 $201,731 $213,958 5,267 1,868
2 02465 $75,857 $139,763 $163,898 11,673 4,251
3 02462 $74,279 $83,438 $211,779 1,412 682
4 02459 $71,128 $133,801 $173,613 18,339 6,694
Newton $63,872 $119,148 $154,787 86,241 31,295
5 02460 $61,686 $102,276 $139,917 9,046 3,625
6 02461 $61,088 $122,283 $146,343 6,808 2,526
7 02458 $59,071 $95,216 $132,207 11,602 4,791
8 02467 $55,288 $115,493 $151,495 23,092 6,575
9 02464 $51,744 $81,771 $83,816 2,947 1,337
10 02466 $47,551 $105,893 $131,705 9,105 3,098
Middlesex County $42,861 $82,090 $104,032 1,522,533 581,120
Massachusetts $35,763 $66,866 $84,900 6,605,058 2,530,147
United States $28,155 $53,046 $64,719 311,536,594 115,610,216


Newton's proximity to Boston, along with its good public schools and safe and quiet neighborhoods, make it a very desirable community for those who commute to Boston or work in Newton's businesses and industries.

Newton is well-served by three modes of mass transit run by the MBTA: light rail, commuter rail, and bus service. The Green Line "D" Branch, (also known as the Riverside branch) is a light rail line running through the center of the city that makes very frequent trips to downtown Boston, ranging from 10 to 30 minutes away. The Green Line "B" Branch ends across from Boston College on Commonwealth Avenue, virtually at the border of Boston's Brighton neighborhood and the City of Newton (an area which encompasses an unincorporated suburban village referred to as Chestnut Hill). The MBTA Worcester commuter rail, serving the northern villages of Newton that are proximate to Waltham, offers less frequent service to Boston. It runs from every half-an-hour during peak times to every couple of hours otherwise. The northern villages are also served by frequent express buses that go to downtown Boston via the Massachusetts Turnpike as well as Waltham.

Newton Centre, which is centered around the Newton Center MBTA station, has been lauded as an example of transit-oriented development.[102]

The Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90), which basically follows the old Boston and Albany Railroad main line right-of-way, runs east and west through Newton, while Route 128 (Interstate 95) slices through the extreme western part of the city in the Lower Falls area. Route 30 (Commonwealth Avenue), Route 16 (Watertown Street west to West Newton, where it follows Washington Street west) and route 9 (Worcester Turnpike or Boylston Street) also run east and west through the city. Another major Boston (and Brookline) street, Beacon Street, runs west from the Boston city line to Washington Street west of the hospital, where it terminates at Washington Street.

There are no major north-south roads through Newton: every north-south street in Newton terminates within Newton at one end or the other. The only possible exception is Needham Street, which is north-south at the border between Newton and Needham, but it turns east and becomes Dedham Street, and when it reaches the Boston border, it goes south-east.

There are some north-south streets that are important to intra-Newton traveling. Centre Street runs south from the Watertown town line to Newton Highlands, where it becomes Winchester Street and terminates at Nahanton Street. Walnut Street runs south from Newtonville, where it starts at Crafts Street, down to Newton Highlands, where it ends at Dedham Street.[103]

Points of interest

The Jackson Homestead
  • Crystal Lake is a 33-acre (130,000 m2) natural lake located in Newton Centre. Its shores, mostly lined with private homes, also host two small parks, a designated swimming area, and a bath house. The public is not allowed to swim outside of the small swimming area. The name Crystal Lake was given to the pond by a nineteenth-century commercial ice harvester that sold ice cut from the pond in winter. It had previously been called Baptist Pond.
  • The Jackson Homestead, now the Newton History Museum at the Jackson Homestead, is best known for its history as a stop on the Underground Railroad. It was built in 1809 as a farmhouse designed in the Federal style, and is now a museum with paintings, costumes, photographs, manuscripts, maps and historical artifacts.
  • Heartbreak Hill, notably challenging stretch of the Boston Marathon, on Commonwealth Avenue between Centre Street and Boston College.
  • Newton is home to many exclusive golf courses such as Woodland Country Club, Charles River Country Club, and Brae Burn Country Club, which held the United States Open in 1919.
  • Route 9 in Newton Upper Falls.
  • Norumbega Park was located in Auburndale on the Charles River. Opening in 1897 as a trolley park, it was a popular amusement park through the 1950s before closing in 1963. Its Totem Pole Ballroom became a well-known dancing and entertainment venue for big bands touring during the 1940s. The park is now a popular dog-walking site with hills, meadows, woods, and access to the river.
Chestnut Hill Reservoir
    • Auburndale Cove is a multipurpose picnic and recreational area on the Charles River just down the walking path from Norumbega Park.[104][105]
  • Chestnut Hill Reservoir is a very popular park with residents of Newton, Brookline, and the Brighton section of Boston. Although completely within the Boston city limits, it is directly contiguous to the Newton city limits. Designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of Central Park in New York City and the Emerald Necklace in Boston, the park offers beautiful views of the Boston skyline, and is framed by stately homes and the campus of Boston College. Although not generally used to supply water to Boston, the reservoir was temporarily brought back online on May 1, 2010, during a failure of a connecting pipe at the end of the MetroWest Water Supply Tunnel.
  • Bullough's Pond is an old mill pond transformed into a landscape feature when Newton became a suburban community in the late nineteenth century. It has been the subject of two books, Reflections in Bullough's Pond: Economy and Ecosystem in New England, by Diana Muir, and Once Around Bullough's Pond: A Native American Epic, by Douglas Worth. It was long maintained by the city as an ice skating venue, but skating is no longer allowed. A scene from the 2008 remake of The Women was filmed there.
  • The city of Newton has designated several roads in the city as "scenic". Along with this designation come regulations aimed at curbing tree removal and trimming along the roads, as well as stemming the removal of historic stone walls.[106] The city designated the following as scenic roads: Hobart Rd., Waban Ave., Sumner St., Chestnut St., Concord St., Dudley Rd., Fuller St., Hammond St., Valentine St., Lake Ave., Highland St., and Brookside Ave.[107]
  • The First Baptist Church in Newton Centre, built in 1888, was designed by John Lyman Faxon in the Richardsonian Romanesque style pioneered by architect Henry Hobson Richardson.[108]
  • The WHDH-TV tower is one of the tallest free-standing lattice towers in USA.


There are several cemeteries in Newton, three of which are owned by the City of Newton, while the rest are privately owned,[109] as follows:

Notable grave sites

Notable people

In popular culture

  • The Fig Newton cookie is named after the city. In 1991, Newton and Nabisco hosted a celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Fig Newton. A 100-inch (2,500 mm) Fig Newton was served, and singer and guitarist Juice Newton performed.[112]
  • In The Big Bang Theory episode "The Gorilla Experiment," Penny (Kaley Cuoco) asks about the relationship between Isaac Newton and Fig Newtons. Sheldon tells her they have no relationship and that the Fig Newton was, "Named after Newton, a small town in Massachusetts."
  • The only Melkite Greek Catholic eparchy in America, the Eparchy of Newton, is named for Newton although its cathedral, headquarters and exarchial residence are located in the Roslindale section of Boston.
  • In the television series Falling Skies West Newton is mentioned as a destination where survivors might be able to acquire food.
  • In the Louie episode "Dad", many scenes are filmed in Newtonville where Louie C.K. grew up.

Newton in literature

Sister City

Comune di San Donato Val di Comino

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^ "Best Places To Live". Money Magazine. 
  3. ^ McAdow, Ron (1992). The Charles River. Marlborough, Mass: Bliss Publishing Company, Inc.,. pp. 171–174.  
  4. ^ Ritter, Priscilla R.; Thelma Fleishman (1982). Newton, Massachusetts 1679–1779: A Biographical Directory. New England Historic Genealogical Society. 
  5. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990".  
  6. ^ Newton's Geographic Information System: City of Newton, Massachusetts
  7. ^ The Thirteen Villages of Newton
  8. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Newton, MA (02458)".  
  9. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  10. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  11. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  12. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  13. ^ "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  15. ^ "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  17. ^ "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  18. ^ "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  19. ^ "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21–7 through 21-09, Massachusetts Table 4. Population of Urban Places of 10,000 or more from Earliest Census to 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  20. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  21. ^ "American FactFinder".  
  22. ^ "Jewish Population in the United States 2002" (PDF). Center for Judaic Studies and Contemporary Jewish Life. p. 14. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  23. ^ "Newton, MA Household Income Statistics". CLRSearch. Retrieved September 12, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Newton 2008 Income Estimates". Retrieved 2010-05-17. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ "index". Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  27. ^ Middlesex Superior Court Clerk's Office
  28. ^ Marian Ryan was appointed by Gov. Deval Patrick in April 2013 to fill the unexpired term of DA Gerry Leone, who resigned. See
  29. ^
  30. ^ "Middlesex Probate and Family Court Division of the Massachusetts Court System – Main Page". May 24, 2012. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  31. ^ "Welcome to the Middlesex Sheriff's Office". Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  32. ^ John J. Lawn. 188th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  33. ^ Kay S. Khan. 188th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  34. ^ Ruth B. Balser. 188th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  35. ^ Cynthia Stone Creem. 188th General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  36. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 15, 2008" (PDF). Massachusetts Elections Division. Retrieved 2010-05-08. 
  37. ^ Jewish Creative Preschool
  38. ^ Family ACCESS Early Learning Center
  39. ^ Suzuki Preschool of Newton
  40. ^ Newton Creative Start
  41. ^ Saplings Pre-School
  42. ^ Presbyterian Church Nursery School
  43. ^ Bowen Cooperative Nursery School
  44. ^ Brookline Infant Toddler Center
  45. ^ Temple Beth Avodah Nursery School
  46. ^ Burr Cooperative Nursery School
  47. ^ The Teddy Bear Club
  48. ^ Bernice B. Godine JCC Early Learning Center
  49. ^ Jewish Community Centers of Greater Boston. "Jewish Community Centers of Greater Boston – Early Learning Centers". Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  50. ^ The Children's Cooperative Nursery School
  51. ^ Walnut Park Montessori School
  52. ^ [7] Archived May 23, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Parkside Preschool
  54. ^ Second Church Nursery School. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  55. ^ Upper Falls Nursery School
  56. ^ Bilingual Beginnings at Pine Village Preschool
  57. ^ West Newton Children's Center
  58. ^ Little Red Wagon Playschool
  59. ^ Hills and Falls Nursery School
  60. ^ Angier Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  61. ^ Bowen Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  62. ^ Burr Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  63. ^ Cabot School PTOI. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  64. ^ Countryside Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  65. ^ Franklin Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  66. ^ Horace Mann Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  67. ^ Lincoln Eliot Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  68. ^ Mason Rice Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  69. ^ Memorial Spaulding Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  70. ^ Peirce Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  71. ^ Ward Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  72. ^ Williams Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  73. ^ Zervas Elementary School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  74. ^ Bigelow Middle School. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  75. ^ Oak Hill. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  76. ^ Day. Retrieved January 14, 2013.
  77. ^ Fessenden School
  78. ^ Jackson School
  79. ^ Newton Country Day School
  80. ^ Solomon Schechter Day School of Greater Boston
  81. ^ Newton Montessori School
  82. ^ Mount Alvernia High School
  83. ^ a b "Massachusetts Closed Colleges". Closed College Consortium. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  84. ^ Beth Menachem Chabad
  85. ^ Christ the King Presbyterian Church-Newton
  86. ^ Congregation Beth El-Atereth Israel
  87. ^ Congregation Dorshei Tzedek
  88. ^ Congregation Shaarei Tefillah
  89. ^ Corpus Christi Catholic Church
  90. ^ Eliot Church of Newton
  91. ^ Parish of Saint Paul
  92. ^ Grace Episcopal Church
  93. ^ Newton Presbyterian Church
  94. ^ Parish of the Good Shepherd
  95. ^ Saint Bernard's Parish
  96. ^ Temple Beth Avodah
  97. ^ Largest 100 Employers in Newton
  98. ^
  99. ^ "SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-01-12. 
  100. ^ "ACS DEMOGRAPHIC AND HOUSING ESTIMATES 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-01-12. 
  101. ^ "HOUSEHOLDS AND FAMILIES 2009-2013 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-01-12. 
  102. ^ Newton Centre – A Case Study
  103. ^ AAA Map of Boston, Massachusetts, including Arlington, ... Newton, etc, 2007, Heathrow, Florida: AAA
  104. ^ "Auburndale Cove Picnic Areas & Building". City of Newton. Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  105. ^ "Charles River Canoe & Kayak in Newton". Retrieved 17 April 2014. 
  106. ^ [8] Archived May 8, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  107. ^ [9] Archived May 9, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  108. ^ [10] Archived December 26, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  109. ^ [11] Archived May 8, 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  110. ^ [12] Archived June 28, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  111. ^ "The Union Generals". Historic La Mott, PA. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  112. ^ Barbara L. Fredricksen (March 21, 2003). "For Juice, it's been a sweet ride". St. Petersburg Times.

Further reading

  • Directory of the town of Newton: containing a general directory of the citizens, and a business directory. 1871 Google books

External links

  • City of Newton official website
  • Newton Citizens (general info)
  • Newton/Needham Chamber of Commerce
  • Newton Tab (Newspaper)
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