Nonclassical logics (and sometimes alternative logics) is the name given to formal systems that differ in a significant way from standard logical systems such as propositional and predicate logic. There are several ways in which this is done, including by way of extensions, deviations, and variations. The aim of these departures is to make it possible to construct different models of logical consequence and logical truth.^{[1]}
Philosophical logic, especially in theoretical computer science, is understood to encompass and focus on nonclassical logics, although the term has other meanings as well.^{[2]}
Examples of nonclassical logics
Classification of nonclassical logics
In Deviant Logic (1974) Susan Haack divided nonclassical logics into deviant, quasideviant, and extended logics.^{[3]} The proposed classification is nonexclusive; a logic may be both a deviation and an extension of classical logic.^{[4]} A few other authors have adopted the main distinction between deviation and extension in nonclassical logics.^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]} John P. Burgess uses a similar classification but calls the two main classes anticlassical and extraclassical.^{[8]}
In an extension, new and different logical constants are added, for instance the "\Box" in modal logic, which stands for "necessarily."^{[5]} In extensions of a logic,

the set of wellformed formulas generated is a proper superset of the set of wellformed formulas generated by classical logic.

the set of theorems generated is a proper superset of the set of theorems generated by classical logic, but only in that the novel theorems generated by the extended logic are only a result of novel wellformed formulas.
(See also Conservative extension.)
In a deviation, the usual logical constants are used, but are given a different meaning than usual. Only a subset of the theorems from the classical logic hold. A typical example is intuitionistic logic, where the law of excluded middle does not hold.^{[8]}^{[7]}
Additionally, one can identify a variations (or variants), where the content of the system remains the same, while the notation may change substantially. For instance manysorted predicate logic is considered a just variation of predicate logic.^{[5]}
This classification ignores however semantic equivalences. For instance, Gödel showed that all theorems from intuitionistic logic have an equivalent theorem in the classical modal logic S4. The result has been generalized to superintuitionistic logics and extensions of S4.^{[9]}
The theory of abstract algebraic logic has also provided means to classify logics, with most results having been obtained for propositional logics. The current algebraic hierarchy of propositional logics has five levels, defined in terms of properties of their Leibniz operator: protoalgebraic, (finitely) equivalential, and (finitely) algebraizable.^{[10]}
References

^ Logic for philosophy, Theodore Sider

^

^

^

^ ^{}a ^{b} ^{c}

^ Seiki Akama (1997). Logic, language, and computation. Springer. p. 3.

^ ^{}a ^{b} Robert Hanna (2006). Rationality and logic. MIT Press. pp. 40–41.

^ ^{}a ^{b} John P. Burgess (2009). Philosophical logic. Princeton University Press. pp. 1–2.

^ Dov M. Gabbay; Larisa Maksimova (2005). Interpolation and definability: modal and intuitionistic logics. Clarendon Press. p. 61.

^ D. Pigozzi (2001). "Abstract algebraic logic". In M. Hazewinkel. Encyclopaedia of mathematics: Supplement Volume III. Springer. pp. 2–13.
Further reading
External links

Video of Graham Priest & Maureen Eckert on Deviant Logic
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