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Northern Virginia

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Title: Northern Virginia  
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Subject: Virginia, Jim Moran, Fredericksburg, Virginia, Fairfax County, Virginia, Fairfax, Virginia
Collection: Northern Virginia, Proposed States and Territories of the United States, Regions of Virginia
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Northern Virginia

Reston, an internationally known planned community,[1] seen from the Dulles Toll Road

Northern Virginia comprises several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in a widespread region generally radiating southerly and westward from Washington, D.C. With 2.8 million residents (about a third of the state), it is the most populous region of Virginia and the Washington metropolitan area.[2][3][4] As the term is most often used, it excludes such areas as Warren County and Winchester; "Northeastern Virginia" more closely approximates the area usually meant.

Communities in the region form the Virginia portion of the Washington Metropolitan Area and the larger Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area. Northern Virginia is the highest-income region of Virginia, having seven of the 20 highest-income counties in the nation, including the three highest as of 2009.[5]

Northern Virginia's transportation infrastructure includes major airports Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Dulles International, several lines of the Washington Metro subway system, the Virginia Railway Express suburban commuter rail system, transit bus services, bicycle lanes and trails, and an extensive network of Interstate highways and expressways.

Notable features of the region include the Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency, and the many companies which serve them and the federal government. The area's attractions include various monuments and Colonial and Civil War-era sites such as Mount Vernon and Arlington National Cemetery. It is the most affluent region in the nation.[6]


  • Etymology 1
    • Defining "Northern Virginia" 1.1
  • History 2
    • Colonial period 2.1
    • Statehood, Civil War 2.2
    • 20th century and beyond 2.3
  • Regional organizations 3
    • Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments 3.1
  • Demographics 4
    • Racial and Ethnic Composure 4.1
    • Background 4.2
    • Educational attainment 4.3
    • Affluence 4.4
    • Crime 4.5
  • Economy 5
    • Notable companies 5.1
  • Attractions 6
  • Politics 7
    • Background 7.1
    • 21st century politics 7.2
  • Culture 8
    • Recreation 8.1
    • Secession 8.2
  • Transportation 9
  • Education 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • Further reading 13
  • External links 14


Northern Virginia megaprojects

The region is often spelled "northern Virginia", although according to the USGS Correspondence Handbook the 'n' in Northern Virginia should be capitalized as it is a place name rather than a direction or general area.[7]

The name "Northern Virginia" does not seem to have been used in the early history of the area.[8] According to Johnston, some early documents and land grants refer to the "Northern Neck of Virginia" (see Northern Neck Proprietary), and they describe an area which began on the east at the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay and includes a territory that extended west, including all the land between the Potomac and Rappahannock rivers, with a western boundary called the Fairfax line.[8] The Fairfax line, surveyed in 1746, ran from the first spring of the Potomac (still marked today by the Fairfax Stone) to the first spring of the Rappahannock, at the head of the Conway River.[8] The Northern Neck was composed of 5,282,000 acres (21,380 km2), and was larger in area than five of the modern U.S. states.[8]

Early development of the northern portion of Virginia was in the easternmost area of that early land grant, which encompasses the modern counties of Northern Neck, which is now considered a separate region from Northern Virginia.[9])

One of the most prominent early mentions of "Northern Virginia" (sans the word Neck) as a title was the naming of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia during the American Civil War (1861–1865).

Defining "Northern Virginia"

The most common definition of Northern Virginia includes those counties and Loudoun, Prince William, Spotsylvania, Stafford, and Warren, and the independent cities of Alexandria, Falls Church, Fairfax, Fredericksburg, Manassas, and Manassas Park.[10]

Most narrowly defined, Northern Virginia consists of the counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun and Prince William (plus the independent cities found therein), with a total population of roughly 2.3 million. Defining the area as that part of Virginia north of the Rappahannock River and east of the Blue Ridge would add the counties of Fauquier and Stafford, and an additional 200,000 people.

Businesses, governments and non-profit agencies may define the area considered "Northern Virginia" differently for various purposes. Beyond the areas closest to Washington, D.C., many communities also have close economic ties, as well as important functional ones regarding transportation issues such as roads, railroads, and airports.

Under broad and varying criteria, one might also consider Northern Virginia to include the counties of Frederick, Madison, Page, Rappahannock, Shenandoah, and independent city Winchester.


Colonial period

Map of the Northern Neck Proprietary land grant c. 1737

Historically, in the British [11]

On February 25, 1673, a new charter was given to [16]

Legal claim to the land was finally established by Lord Culpeper's grandson,

  • Northern Virginia Regional Commission
  • Northern Virginia Transportation Authority

External links

Further reading

  1. ^ Rems, Janet (March 3, 2011). "City planners use Reston as a model". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 4, 2011. 
  2. ^ N.Va. leads the way in growth
  3. ^ Demographics & Workforce Data and Research for Virginia
  4. ^ a b American FactFinder
  5. ^ Matt Woolsey, America's Richest Counties,, 01.22.08, 6:00 PM ET website. Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  6. ^ Will Northern Virginia Become the 51st State?
  7. ^ USGS Correspondence Handbook
  8. ^ a b c d e Johnston, Wilbur S. (2006). "The Northern Neck in Colonial Context". Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society, Winchester Printers, Inc. 
  9. ^ The Official Guide of Virginia's Northern Neck (2007), Northern Neck Tourism Council
  11. ^ a b c d "Thomas, Lord Fairfax". The Fort Edwards WebPage. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  12. ^ Grant of the Office of Lieutenant and Governor-General, June 21, 1675, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, Great Britain Public Record Office, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1896
  13. ^ Letter from Nicholas Spencer to Secretary Thomas Coventry, August 20, 1680, reporting news of Culpeper's departure from Virginia, Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, Great Britain Public Record Office, Whitehall, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1890
  14. ^ History of the Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia, Charles Campbell, J. P. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1860
  15. ^ Letters of William Fitzhugh, The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. II, The Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, 1895
  16. ^ a b c "The Fairfax Grant". Virginia Places. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  17. ^ Grymes, Charles A. "The Fairfax Grant". Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  18. ^ "Lord Fairfax Land Records". Handley Regional Library: Winchester-Frederick County Historical Society. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  19. ^ "A Guide to the Lord Thomas Fairfax land grant to Robert Carter". Colonial Williamsburg Foundation's John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Library. 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  20. ^ "Phillips v. Payne, 92 U.S. 130". FindLaw. 1875. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  21. ^ citation needed
  22. ^
  23. ^ a b c War on Terror a Boon For Virginia
  24. ^ Northern Virginia
  25. ^ – About Us
  26. ^ – Transportation – TPB
  27. ^ a b "Population Estimates for Virginia, its counties, and its cities" (Excel). Weldon Cooper Center for Public Research. July 2013. Retrieved February 2014. 
  28. ^ No. Virginia Tops In Life Expectancy
  29. ^ Fairfax County, Virginia detailed profile – houses, real estate, agriculture, wages, work, ancestries, and more
  30. ^ Prince William County, Virginia detailed profile – houses, real estate, agriculture, wages, work, ancestries, and more
  31. ^ Loudoun County, Virginia detailed profile – houses, real estate, agriculture, wages, work, ancestries, and more
  32. ^ Arlington County, Virginia detailed profile – houses, real estate, agriculture, wages, work, ancestries, and more
  33. ^ "ACS: Ranking Table – Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-08-27. 
  34. ^ Seattle city, Washington – Educational Attainment
  35. ^ Arlington County, Virginia – Educational Attainment
  36. ^ Income, Earnings, and Poverty Data From the 2007 American Community Survey
  37. ^ Cost of Living Can Significantly Affect "Real" Median Household Income
  38. ^ Loudoun tops the nation in 25-to-34-year-olds with hefty incomes
  39. ^ Nielsen: The Young and Moneyed Dwell in D.C.
  40. ^ Potts, M. (1989) "The Swanky Side of Fairfax Square" The Washington Post
  41. ^ Tysons Galleria
  42. ^ Sotheby's International Realty opens shop in Northern Virginia
  43. ^ a b Gangs flee N.Va.for havens in Md., D.C., report says
  44. ^ Crime Drops for Fourth Straight Year in Fairfax County
  45. ^ 2 Counties: A Dangerous Difference; While Montgomery's Crime Rate Has Risen, Fairfax's Is Down Series: VULNERABLE SUBURBS: THE GROWTH OF VIOLENT CRIME Series Number: 2/2
  46. ^ Fairfax County Board of Supervisors Election
  47. ^ Gangs in Northern Virginia increasingly selling children for sex
  48. ^ High-Rises Approved That Would Dwarf D.C.
  49. ^ List of tallest buildings in DC, MD, VA, WV
  50. ^ Virginia's new governor keeps focus on jobs and technology
  51. ^ Best East Coast Cities for Defense Jobs
  52. ^ Industry dynamics in the Washington, DC, area: has a second job core emerged?
  53. ^ The CoStar Office Market Watch
  54. ^ Garber, Kent (March 24, 2009). "The Internet's Hidden Energy Hogs: Data Servers".  
  55. ^ After dramatic growth, Ashburn expects even more data centers
  56. ^ Estimate: Amazon Cloud Backed by 450,000 Servers
  57. ^ Amazon Adding Cloud Capacity in Northern Virginia
  58. ^ Unemployment state by state
  59. ^ Clabaugh, Jeff (October 26, 2008). "Northern Virginia still creating jobs". Washington Business Journal. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  60. ^ McCaffrey, Scott (October 26, 2008). "Arlington Jobs Picture Still Best in Virginia". Sun Gazette Newspapers. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  61. ^ March unemployment rate in Virginia holds steady
  62. ^ Unemployment Dips Slightly Across Arlington
  63. ^ Fortune 500 2011: Virginia
  64. ^ Cooper, Rachel. "Top 10 Northern Virginia Attractions". Retrieved April 12, 2010. 
  65. ^ Glasrud, Bruce; Ely, James W. (May 1977). "The Crisis of Conservative Virginia: The Byrd Organization and the Politics of Massive Resistance (book review)". The Journal of Southern History (The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 43, No. 2) 43 (2): 324–325.  
  66. ^ General Election- November 7, 2006
  67. ^ Tapper, Jake (October 18, 2008). "McCain Adviser Says Northern Virginia Not "Real" Virginia". Retrieved 2008-10-28. 
  68. ^ Tapper, Jake (October 5, 2008). "Joe McCain Makes Bad Joke". Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  69. ^ a b "County Results - Election Center 2008 - Elections & Politics from". CNN. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  70. ^ "Virginia Special Election Sends a Message to GOP". January 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-13. 
  71. ^ Washington Post: "Washington Post poll finds Virginians are split on gay marriage; support gay couple adoptions," May 10, 2011, accessed May 10, 2011
  72. ^ Virginia politics, Northern Virginia style
  73. ^ [Tysons Regional Chamber of Commerce, "Our Community"
  74. ^ Lindsay, Drew (November 1, 2008). "Will Northern Virginia Become the 51st State?". The Washingtonian. Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  75. ^ Johnson, Jonnie (March 3, 2002). "A solution to Northern Virginia's many problems: Forced secession". Retrieved April 18, 2010. 
  76. ^ Wiencek, Drew (June 3, 2003). "Why Isn't There An East Virginia". Virginia Places. Retrieved April 26, 2010. 
  77. ^ Fact Sheet – Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) Runway 1L/19R
  78. ^
  79. ^ Dawson, Christie (December 4, 2008). "Heavy Rail Rapid Transit Ridership Report, Third Quarter 2008" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. Retrieved 2009-01-27. 
  80. ^ – VRE riders breaking records – page 1 FLS
  81. ^ Trull, Armando (September 27, 2011). "D.C. Area Has Worst Traffic in U.S". Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  82. ^ Essley, Liz (December 2, 2011). "Top 10: The worst traffic bottlenecks in the Washington area". Retrieved December 3, 2011. 
  83. ^ Melton, R.H. (November 6, 2002). "Voters Reject Roads Tax". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  84. ^ a b America's Top Public High Schools


See also

Other higher education institutions include Virginia Commonwealth University Health Systems has a satellite campus in Fairfax at the INOVA healthcare system.

Although Northern Virginia contains a large portion of the Commonwealth's population, there are only a handful of colleges and universities in the region. The largest and most well-known is Fairfax, the largest university in Virginia.

Fairfax County's public school system includes the Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, an award-winning magnet school. Nineteen of the region's schools appear in the top 200 of Newsweek‍ '​s 'America's Top Public High Schools', and Thomas Jefferson is ranked number one.[84] In comparison, Washington, D.C., Maryland, and the rest of Virginia have 10 schools between them in the top 200.[84]

George Mason University, the largest university in the state by student population.


Two major regional bottlenecks, the Southern Maryland, thus creating tremendous traffic congestion on the Potomac bridges. This situation is much like metropolitan areas of California. Furthermore, localities such as Great Falls, Dranesville, and Clifton impose low-density, large-acreage residential zoning, which forces developers to leapfrog into Loudoun and Prince William counties to build housing, thus increasing commuters' driving distances.

The Washington metropolitan area has the worst traffic in the nation,[81] and Northern Virginia is home to six of the ten worst Dulles Toll Road. High-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes are used for commuters and buses on I-66, I-95/395, and the Dulles Toll Road.

Commuters are served by the Washington Metro subway and the Virginia Railway Express, a commuter railroad. Metro is the second-busiest subway system in the nation; only New York City's subway system carries more passengers.[79] A planned expansion project will extend the system past Dulles Airport into Loudoun County. VRE service is significantly more limited, but nevertheless saw over a year of continuous ridership increase from 2007 into 2008.[80] Bus service is provided by WMATA's Metrobus and several local jurisdictions.

The area has two major airports, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport. While flights from the older National Airport (a focus city for US Airways) are restricted for distance, frequency, and flight paths due to the proximity to federal facilities, Dulles is the region's busiest airport[77] in both passenger loadings and aircraft movements, and the sixteenth-busiest airport[78] in the United States by takeoffs and landings in 2007. Dulles is the region's primary international gateway, serves as a hub for United Airlines, and has recently improved its low-cost carrier offerings with the addition of multiple flights by Southwest and jetBlue.


A tongue in cheek editorial in a Fredericksburg weekly paper suggested the rest of Virginia would like to separate Northern Virginia from the remainder of the commonwealth.[75] Nevertheless, there is no serious secessionist movement.[76]

Many people consider the idea of secession a rhetorical one used to express frustration with the treatment of Northern Virginia by the state government as well as the occasional opposing political sentiments between it and the rest of Virginia. Critics often point out that all states include regions of varying income and political discrepancies within their borders. Nevertheless, the Northern Virginia suburbs of Washington D.C. are often seen as an extension of the more urbanized Mid-Atlantic and the Boston-Washington corridor, even though Virginia as a whole is considered a Southern state. This perception is especially fueled by the region's growing cultural diversity as well as an influx of Northern transplants.

Former Republican delegate Jeannemarie Devolites Davis expressed a common sentiment when she said "The formula for funding school construction in Northern Virginia requires that we pay 500 percent more than the actual cost of a project. We have to pay 500 percent because we give 400 percent away to the rest of the state." The state government's funding level for transportation projects in Northern Virginia is a perennial issue that often causes consternation from the region's politicians and citizens.[74]


It is home to the Northern Virginia Swim League, which comprises 102 community pools, and NVSL-Dive, which is composed of 47 teams in Fairfax and Arlington counties. The swim and dive teams compete over the course of 5–6 weeks from the end of June through the first weekend in August.

Northern Virginia is home to many activities for families and individuals, including biking/walking trails, sports leagues, recreation facilities, museums, historic homes, and parks.


Since the mid-1990s, Loudoun County has been known as America's fastest-growing county, having grown by almost 50% from 2000 though 2005. Since the 2000 census, both Loudoun and Fairfax counties are the top large U.S. counties by median household income. Loudoun County has branches of at least five higher education institutions.

Tysons Corner Center ("Tysons I") is one of the largest malls in the country and is a hub for shopping in area. Tysons Galleria ("Tysons II"), its counterpart across Route 123, carries more high-end stores. Tysons Corner itself is the 12th largest business district in the United States.[73] Other malls include Springfield Mall, Fair Oaks Mall, Manassas Mall, and The Fashion Centre at Pentagon City. Dulles Town Center is the region's newest mall, serving the eastern Loudoun County area. Reston Town Center is a high-density mixed-use retail, commercial, and residential development located just off the 267 Toll Road in Reston. Potomac Mills, located in Prince William County, is the largest outlet mall in the region. The town of Leesburg in Loudoun County contains the Leesburg Corner Premium Outlets outlet mall.

The Pentagon City and Tysons Galleria (pictured) malls are both attached to their own Ritz-Carlton hotels.

Due to the proximity to the capital, many Northern Virginians go to Washington, D.C. for cultural outings and nightlife. The Fairfax, and the Verizon Center in Washington serve as popular concert venues, and the Verizon Center also serves as the home of sporting events. Smithsonian museums also serve as local cultural institutions with easy proximity to Northern Virginia, and the new Udvar-Hazy center of the National Air and Space Museum in Chantilly is popular as well.


A 2011 Washington Post poll found that 47% of Virginians favored the legalization of same-sex marriage, while 43% opposed it and 10% had no opinion. It found 55% favored allowing same-sex couples to adopt children, while 35% opposed that and 10% had no opinion.[71] The same poll found that 64% of residents Arlington, Alexandria, Fairfax, Fairfax County support same-sex marriage, 63% of residents of Loudoun, Prince William, Manassas, Manassas Park, Stafford, Fauquier, Culpeper, Madison, Rappamannock, Warrenton, Clarke County, Frederick, and Winchester support same-sex marriage, while only 42% of the rest of Virginia supports same-sex marriage.[72]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, though Arlington, Alexandria, and Falls Church would back Democratic state Senator Creigh Deeds in his unsuccessful run for governor, Republican former state Attorney General, and future Governor, Bob McDonnell, who overwhelmingly defeated Deeds 59% to 41% across the state as a whole, won Fairfax County, Loudoun County, Manassas, and Prince William County. However, a January 2010 special state Senate election in the Fairfax county based 37th State Senatorial district, which was held following Ken Cuccinelli's (R) resignation from the Senate of Virginia upon his election as state Attorney General two months earlier, was won by then-Delegate David W. Marsden (D). Marsden's victory would suggest that despite McDonnell's performance in northern Virginia during the 2009 gubernatorial election, the Democratic trend in the region has not been reversed.[70]

In the 2008 presidential election, the majority of Northern Virginia voters voted for Democratic presidential candidate Barack Obama. Over 70% of registered voters in Arlington, Alexandria and Falls Church voted for Obama.[69] Fairfax County, Loudoun County, Manassas and Prince William County also went to Obama, with Obama receiving 60% of the vote in Fairfax County compared to Republican candidate John McCain's 39%.[69] Obama's win in Fairfax County, the most populous county in the state, marks the second time a Democrat has carried that county since the 1964 breakdown of Democratic predominance in the South (the other being the 2004 presidential elections when the county went to John Kerry). Obama's victory in Northern Virginia continues the trend of Northern Virginia favoring Democrats over Republicans.

In 2008 economist Nancy Pfotenhauer, a spokesperson and adviser for the John McCain presidential campaign, created controversy by referring to the areas of Virginia not included in Northern Virginia as "real Virginia", picking up on a Republican talking point that Sarah Palin promoted; namely that red states are the "real America" and more "pro-America".[67] Joe McCain, brother of John McCain, also called Arlington and Alexandria in Northern Virginia "communist country".[68]

In 2006 Democrat Mark Herring swept every precinct in the 33rd state Senate District on January 31, en route to beating Republican Loudoun County Supervisor Mick Staton by a margin of 62 to 38 percent, providing evidence for the claim that Loudoun is transforming into a liberal county. The district sits primarily in Loudoun County but also includes nine precincts in western Fairfax County: Floris, Fox Mill, Frying Pan, McNair, Franklin, Kinross, Navy, Lees Corner East, and Lees Corner West.

In the 2005 gubernatorial election, the entire region continued to move away from the Republicans. Fairfax County, Arlington County, the cities of Alexandria, Fairfax City, and Falls Church, and for the first time, Loudoun County and Prince William County, went to Tim Kaine, the Democratic candidate. The area continued to be more Democratic the closer it was to Washington, D.C., but Richmond resident Kaine was able to accomplish what Northern Virginian Mark Warner had been unable to do just four years earlier in 2001: carry Loudoun County and Prince William County (as well as win over 60% of the vote in Fairfax County).

In the 8th, the 10th, and the 11th congressional districts lie within Northern Virginia. The current congressman from the 8th district is Don Beyer (D), the current congresswoman from the 10th district is Barbara Comstock (R), and the current congressman from the 11th district is Gerry Connolly (D). All three districts voted for Jim Webb in the 2006 Senate election.

, winning the latter two only by the narrow margins of 3.54% and 2.38%, respectively. Manassas Park and Manassas. Allen's sole wins in Northern Virginia were the cities of Falls Church, and Alexandria, Arlington, as well as the more urban areas of Loudoun County, and Prince William County, Fairfax County However, that margin increased to 58.1% to 40.7% in favor of the Democratic challenger in the counties and cities of Northern Virginia, whereas Webb ran behind Allen somewhat, 46.1% to 52.7%, in the remainder of the Commonwealth. Webb carried [66] Democrat Jim Webb defeated incumbent Senator

In the 21st century, Northern Virginia is becoming increasingly known for favoring candidates of the Democratic Party at both the state and national level. Fairfax County supported John Kerry in the 2004 presidential election, and also voted heavily for Barack Obama in the 2008 presidential election, the first time a Democratic candidate for President carried the Commonwealth of Virginia since Lyndon Johnson in 1964. The area also voted for Democrats Jim Webb in 2006 for U.S. Senate, Tim Kaine in 2005 for governor, and Mark Warner in 2001 for governor. In these three races for statewide office, the margins tallied in Northern Virginia provided the Democratic candidate with a winning margin of victory.

Counties and cities in red voted for McDonnell while counties and cities in blue supported Deeds. The counties of Fairfax, Loudoun, Prince William (located in the northeastern part of the state), which, even though they have been trending Democratic in Presidential, U.S. Senatorial, U.S. House, and gubernatorial elections recently, voted for McDonnell (R). However Democrat Dave Marsden would win in a 2010 special state senate election to the seat previously held by former state Attorney General Ken Cuccinelli (R).
Counties and cities in blue voted for Kaine while counties and cities in red supported Kilgore.
Former Senator from Virginia Jim Webb

21st century politics

For a number of years, the recurring Republican theme was to reduce waste in state government and taxes. However, this seemed to reach a peak during the administration of Jim Gilmore, with a move to repeal an unpopular car tax accompanied by a failure to provide promised replacement funds to the counties, cities and towns. Subsequently, two Democrats were elected consecutively as governor, and control in the General Assembly shifted back to a more bipartisan balance of power. As governor, both Mark Warner and Tim Kaine were confronted with stabilizing state economics and dealing with a deteriorating transportation funding situation partially caused by the state's failure to index state fuel taxes to inflation, with a "cents per gallon" tax rate unchanged since the administration of Democratic Governor Gerald Baliles in 1986.

During the last quarter of the 20th century, Virginia's Republicans gained ground against the Democrats. Republican John Warner from Northern Virginia gained one of the seats in the U.S. Senate in 1978. After longtime state senator L. Douglas Wilder became governor in 1989, the first African American to become a governor in the United States, Republicans subsequently gained control of the Governor's mansion after the 1993 election. Republicans finally gained control of the General Assembly in the 1999 elections.

When Senator Byrd resigned in 1965 he was replaced by his son Mills E. Godwin. To the amazement of many observers, Godwin changed parties and was elected again as governor in 1973, but as a Republican.

[65] Rulings by both state and federal courts that "Massive Resistance" was unconstitutional and a move to compliance with the court orders in early 1959 by Governor

The period following World War II saw substantial growth of Virginia's suburban areas, notably in the regions of Northern Virginia, Richmond, and Republican Party of Virginia began making inroads.

From the mid-1880s until the mid-1960s Virginia politics were dominated by Reconstruction. Although a member of the Democratic Party and an initial supporter of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Senator Byrd became a bitter opponent of the New Deal and related national policies, particularly those involving fiscal and social issues. He became Virginia's senior senator after the death of Senator Carter Glass of Lynchburg in 1946.



Arlington National Cemetery is located in the area, as is the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, an annex of the National Air and Space Museum that contains exhibits that cannot be housed at the main museum in Washington due to space constraints. Many concerts and other live shows are held at the Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts, a setting which has attracted many famous productions over the years.[64]

The region's large shopping malls, such as Potomac Mills and Tysons Corner Center, attract many visitors, as do the region's Civil War battlefields, which include the sites of both the First and Second Battle of Bull Run in Manassas. Old Town Alexandria is known for its historic churches, townhouses, restaurants, gift shops, artist studios, and cruise boats. The waterfront and outdoor recreational amenities such as biking and running trails (the Washington and Old Dominion Rail Trail is the longest paved path in the U.S.; the Mount Vernon Trail and trails along various stream beds are also popular), whitewater and sea kayaking, and rock climbing areas are focused along the Potomac River, but are also found at other locations in the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area. Scenic Great Falls Park and historic Mount Vernon (which opened a new visitor center in 2006) are especially noteworthy. Woodbridge is home to two minor-league sports franchises, the Northern Virginia Royals soccer team and the Potomac Nationals baseball team.

The National Air and Space Museum's Udvar-Hazy Center


Additionally, Verisign, the manager of the .com and .net top-level domains is based in the region. Companies formerly headquartered in the region include AOL, Mobil, Nextel/Sprint, PSINet, Sallie Mae, MCI Communications, and UUNET.

Northern Virginia is home to half of the state's Fortune 500 companies:[63]

Gannett Company headquarters in Tysons Corner

Notable companies

In September 2008 the unemployment rate in Northern Virginia was 3.2%, the lowest of any metropolitan area if ranked.[58][59] The national unemployment rate in September 2008 was 6.2%. While the U.S. as a whole had negative job growth from September 2007 to September 2008, Northern Virginia gained 12,800 jobs, representing half of Virginia's new jobs.[60] After months of increases, the unemployment rate of Northern Virginia held steady at 5.2% in March 2008.[61] As of July 2010 the unemployment rate of the region 5.2%, down from 5.3% in the previous month.[62]

Northern Virginia's data centers currently carry more than 50% of the nation's Internet traffic, and by 2012 Dominion Power expects that 10% of all electricity it sends to Northern Virginia will be used by the region's data centers alone.[54] Loudoun County has 4,000,000 square feet (370,000 m2) of data center space and currently has 800,000 square feet (74,000 m2) approved or under construction.[55] An estimated 70% of Amazon's EC2 servers are located in their Northern Virginia zone, which have notably been affected by power outages.[56][57]

As of 2007 the Northern Virginia office submarkets contain 172,000,000 square feet (16,000,000 m2) of office space, 33% more than those in Washington, D.C. and 55% more than those in its Maryland suburbs. 8,000,000 square feet (740,000 m2) of office space is under construction in Northern Virginia. 60% of the construction is occurring in the Dulles Corridor submarket.[53]

Government contracting is an important part of the region's economy. Arlington alone is home to over 600 federal contractors, and has the highest weekly wages of any major jurisdiction in the Washington metropolitan area.[51][52]

Former Virginia Governor Bob McDonnell described Northern Virginia as "the economic engine of the state" during a January 2010 Northern Virginia Technology Council address.[50] The federal government is a major employer in Northern Virginia, which is home to numerous government agencies; these include the Central Intelligence Agency headquarters and the Pentagon (headquarters of the Department of Defense), as well as Fort Myer, Fort Belvoir, Marine Corps Base Quantico, the United States Patent and Trademark Office, and the United States Geological Survey.

Arlington is home to the tallest high rise buildings in the Washington metropolitan area.[48][49]


While the region has extremely low violent crime rates, it is an emerging hub for teen sex trafficking, with regional gangs finding it more profitable than selling drugs or weapons.[47]

A 2009 report by the Northern Virginia Regional Gang Task Force suggests that anti-gang measures and crackdowns on illegal immigrants by local jurisdictions are driving gang members out of Northern Virginia and into more immigrant-friendly locales in Maryland, Washington, D.C., and the rest of Virginia.[43] The violent crime rate in Northern Virginia fell 17% from 2003 to 2008.[43] Fairfax County has the lowest crime rate in the Washington metropolitan area, and the lowest crime rate amongst the 50 largest jurisdictions of the United States.[44][45][46]


In 1988 the Tysons Galleria mall opened across Virginia Route 123 from Tysons Corner Center with high-end department stores Neiman Marcus and Saks 5th Avenue, hoping to become the Washington area's upscale shopping destination. The mall had trouble with sales and attracting high-end boutiques well into the 1990s and faced competition from Fairfax Square, which opened nearby in 1990 with the largest Tiffany & Co. boutique outside of New York City.[40] The Galleria was able to attract high-end stores after a 1997 renovation, and in 2002 National Geographic described it as "the Rodeo Drive of the East Coast".[41] In 2008 luxury home service Sotheby's International Realty – which had three offices in Virginia serving the rest of the state, and two in the District of Columbia serving the Washington metropolitan area – opened a new office in McLean to sell more high end real estate in Northern Virginia.[42]

The region is known in Virginia and the Washington, D.C. area for its relative affluence. Of the large cities or counties in the nation that have a median household income in excess of $100,000, the top two are in Northern Virginia, and these counties have over half of the region's population.[36] However, considering that Northern Virginia has one of the highest costs of living in the nation, the actual purchasing power of these households is considerably less than in other less "affluent" areas.[37] According to Nielsen Claritas, Loudoun County and Arlington County have the highest concentration of 25–34-year olds with incomes of $100,000+ in the nation.[38][39]


The core Northern Virginia jurisdictions of Alexandria, Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William comprising a total population of 1,973,513 is highly educated, with 55.5% of its population 25 years or older holding a bachelor's degree or higher. This is comparable to Seattle, the most educated large city in the U.S., with 53.4% of residents having at least a bachelor's degree.[33][34] The number of graduate/professional degree holders in Arlington is relatively high at 34.3%, nearly quadruple the rate of the U.S. population as a whole.[35]

Educational attainment

Of those born in the U.S. and living in Northern Virginia's four largest counties, their place of birth by Census region is 60.5% from the South, 21.0% from the Northeast, 11.5% from the Midwest, and 7.0% from the West. 33.7% were born in Virginia, which is categorized as part of the Southern United States along with neighboring Maryland and Washington, D.C. by the Census Bureau.[29][30][31][32]

There is a sizable Hispanic American population, primarily consisting of Salvadoran Americans, Peruvian Americans, Puerto Rican Americans, Cuban Americans, Bolivian Americans, Mexican Americans, and Colombian Americans. Arlington is the center of the largest Bolivian American community in North America (mostly immigrants from Cochabamba). Many of these immigrants work in transportation-related fields, small businesses, hospitality/restaurants, vending, gardening, construction, and cleaning.

Northern Virginia is home to people from diverse backgrounds, with significant numbers of Arab Americans, Palestinian Americans, Uzbek Americans, Afghan Americans, Ethiopian Americans, Korean Americans, Indian Americans, Iranian Americans], Thai Americans, Pakistani Americans, and Vietnamese Americans, along with other Americans of Asian descent especially a growing Chinese American and Filipino American population concentrated in the eastern part of Fairfax County. Annandale, Chantilly, and Fairfax City have large Korean American communities. Falls Church has a large Vietnamese American community. Northern Virginia is also home to a small Tibetan American community as well.

Demographics in Northern Virginia's five largest jurisdictions[4]
Household income No. VA U.S.
($200k+) 13.6% 3.7%
$100k+ 46.1% 19.0%
$75k-100k 15.1% 12.1%
$50k-75k 16.3% 18.8%
$25k-50k 14.2% 25.6%
$25k or less 8.4% 24.5%
Race No. VA U.S.
White 67.2% 74.1%
Black or African American 11.6% 12.4%
Asian 12.5% 4.3%
(Hispanic or Latino) 13.9% N/A
Some other race N/A 6.2%
Two or more races 2.4% 2.1%
Educational attainment No. VA U.S.
(Graduate/professional) 25.2% 9.9%
Bachelor's or higher 55.5% 27.0%
Associate's 5.7% 7.4%
Some college 14.8% 19.5%
High school/equivalent 15.8% 30.2%
Less than high school 8.1% 15.9%


  • 55.41% White
  • 11.28% Black
  • 10.46% Asian
  • 0.19% American Indian or Alaska Native
  • 0.07% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander
  • 0.30% Some Other Race
  • 2.98% Two or More Races
  • 16.30% Hispanic (of any race)

The 2010 U.S. Census shows that the racial and ethnic makeup of the 2,230,623 people that reside in the counties of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William as well as the cities of Alexandria, Falls Church, Fairfax, Manassas, and Manassas Park are as follows:

Racial and Ethnic Composure

Virginia's 8th congressional district, representing 643,503 people in Northern Virginia, has the highest life expectancy rate in the nation.[28]

As of July 2013 there were 2,775,354 people in Northern Virginia; almost exactly a third of the state's population.[27] This figure includes the exurban Clarke, Fauquier, Spotsylvania, Stafford, and Warren counties, as well as the independent city of Fredericksburg. Together, these jurisdictions account for 407,749 residents. The combined population of Arlington, Fairfax, Loudoun, and Prince William counties and the independent cities of Alexandria, Fairfax, Falls Church, Manassas, and Manassas Park is 2,367,605, which was 28.66% of Virginia's population in July 2013.[27]


[26] The National Capital Region Transportation Planning Board, a component of MWCOG, is the federally designated

Northern Virginia constitutes a considerable portion of the population and number of jurisdictions that comprise the Maryland and Virginia state legislatures, the U.S. Senate, and the U.S. House of Representatives. MWCOG provides a forum for discussion and the development of regional responses to issues regarding the environment, transportation, public safety, homeland security, affordable housing, community planning, and economic development.[25]

Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments

Regional organizations

History was made in early 2001 when local Internet company America Online bought Time Warner, the world's largest traditional media company, near the end of the dot-com bubble days. After the bubble burst, Northern Virginia office vacancy rates went from 2% in 2000 to 20% in 2002.[23] After 2002, vacancy rates fell below 10% due to increased defense spending after the September 11 attacks, and the Afghanistan and Iraq wars causing the government's continued and increasing reliance on private defense contractors.[23]

The Department of Defense's increasing reliance on information technology companies during the Cold War started the modern Northern Virginia economy and spurred urban development throughout the region.[23] After the Cold War, prosperity continued to come as the region positioned itself as the "Silicon Valley" of the Eastern United States. The Internet was first commercialized in Northern Virginia, having been home to the first Internet service providers.[24]

The Pentagon, headquarters of the Department of Defense

20th century and beyond

As a result of the formation of West Virginia, part of Lord Fairfax's colonial land grant which defined Northern Virginia was ceded in the establishment of that state in 1863. Now known as the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia, the area includes Berkeley County and Jefferson County, West Virginia.

Virginia split during the American Civil War, as was foreshadowed by the April 17, 1861 Virginia Secession Convention. Fifty counties in the western, mountainous, portion of the state, who were, for the most part, against secession in 1861, would break away from the Confederacy in 1863 and enter the Union as a new state, West Virginia. Unlike the eastern part of the state, West Virginia did not have fertile lands tilled by slaves and was geographically separated from the state government in Richmond by the Appalachian Mountains. During this process, a provisional government of Virginia was headquartered in Alexandria, which was under Union control during the war.[21] Notably, Arlington, Clarke, Fairfax, Frederick, Loudoun, Shenandoah, and Warren Counties voted in favor of Virginia remaining in the Union in 1861 but did not eventually break away from the state.[22]

In addition, several schools are named for Civil War battles, including Bull Run Middle School and Antietam Elementary School in Prince William County.

Well after the war, the conflict remained popular among the region's residents, and many area schools, roads, and parks were named for Confederate generals and statesmen, including:

Robert E. Lee

In addition, Northern Virginia was the operating area of the famed Confederate partisan, John Singleton Mosby, and several small skirmishes were fought throughout the region between his Rangers and Federal forces occupying Northern Virginia.

With barely 100 miles (160 km) separating the two capital cities, Northern Virginia found itself in the center of much of the conflict. The area was the site of many battles and saw great destruction and bloodshed. The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary army for the Confederate States of America in the east. Owing to the region's proximity to Washington, D.C. and the Potomac River, the armies of both sides frequently occupied and traversed Northern Virginia. As a result, several battles were fought in the area.

The plaintiff in error is estopped from raising the point which he seeks to have decided. He cannot, under the circumstances, vicariously raise a question, nor force upon the parties to the compact an issue which neither of them desires to make.[20]

The Supreme Court of the United States has never issued a firm opinion on whether the retrocession of the Virginia portion of the District of Columbia was constitutional. In the 1875 case of Phillips v. Payne, the Supreme Court held that Virginia had de facto jurisdiction over the area returned by Congress in 1847, and dismissed the tax case brought by the plaintiff. The court, however, did not rule on the core constitutional matter of the retrocession. Writing the majority opinion, Justice Noah Swayne stated only that:

Slavery, states' rights, and economic issues increasingly divided the northern and southern states during the first half of the 19th century, eventually leading to the American Civil War from 1861–1865. Although Maryland was a slave state, it remained with the Union, while Virginia seceded and joined the newly formed Confederate States of America, with its new capital established at Richmond.

However, as the federal city grew, land in the portion contributed by Maryland proved best suited and adequate for early development, and the impracticality of being on both sides of the Potomac River became clearer. Not really part of the functioning federal city, many citizens of Alexandria were frustrated by the laws of the District government and lack of voting input. Slavery also arose as an issue. To mitigate these issues, and as part of a "deal" regarding abolishment of slave trading in the District, in 1846, the U.S. Congress passed a bill retro-ceding to Virginia the area south of the Potomac River, which was known as Alexandria County. That area now forms all of Arlington County (which was renamed from Alexandria County in 1922) and a portion of the independent city of Alexandria.

With his guidance, a new federal city (now known as the Georgetown, was located.

Following the American Revolutionary War, when the canals for transportation earlier in the 18th century. He was also a great proponent of the bustling port city of Alexandria, which was located on the Potomac River below the fall line, not far from his plantation at Mount Vernon in Fairfax County.

George Washington

Statehood, Civil War

Lord Fairfax stayed neutral during the [11]

Not long thereafter, he built a hunting lodge near the [11]

Lord Fairfax was a lifelong bachelor, and became one of the more well-known persons of the late colonial era. In 1742 the new county formed from [16]


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