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Nuclear reactor coolant

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Title: Nuclear reactor coolant  
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Subject: FLiBe, Gas-cooled reactor, Sodium-cooled fast reactor, Pressurized water reactor, Clean and Environmentally Safe Advanced Reactor
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Nuclear reactor coolant

Nuclear reactor coolants
Coolant Melting point Boiling point
Light water at 155 bar 345 °C
NaK eutectic -11 °C 785 °C
Sodium 97.72 °C 883 °C
FLiNaK 454 °C 1570 °C
FLiBe 459 °C 1430 °C
Lead 327.46 °C 1749 °C
Lead-bismuth eutectic 123.5 °C 1670 °C

A nuclear reactor coolant is a coolant in a nuclear reactor used to remove heat from the nuclear reactor core and transfer it to electrical generators and the environment. Frequently, a chain of two coolant loops are used because the primary coolant loop takes on short-term radioactivity from the reactor.

Water

Almost all currently operating nuclear power plants are light water reactors using ordinary water under high pressure as coolant and neutron moderator. About 1/3 are boiling water reactors where the primary coolant undergoes phase transition to steam inside the reactor. About 2/3 are pressurized water reactors at even higher pressure. Current reactors stay under the critical point at around 374 °C and 218 bar where the distinction between liquid and gas disappears, which limits thermal efficiency, but the proposed supercritical water reactor would operate above this point.

Heavy water reactors use deuterium oxide which has similar properties to ordinary water but much lower neutron capture, allowing more thorough moderation.

Molten metal

Fast reactors have a high power density and do not need neutron moderation. Most have been liquid metal cooled reactors using molten sodium. Lead, lead-bismuth eutectic, and other metals have also been proposed and occasionally used. Mercury was used in the first fast reactor.

Molten salt

Molten salts share with metals the advantage of low vapor pressure even at high temperatures, and are less chemically reactive than sodium. Salts containing light elements like FLiBe can also provide moderation. In the Molten-Salt Reactor Experiment it even served as a solvent carrying the nuclear fuel.

Gas

Gases have also been used as coolant. Helium is extremely inert both chemically and with respect to nuclear reactions but has a low heat capacity, necessitating rapid circulation. Carbon dioxide has also been used in Magnox and AGR reactors. Gases, however, need to be under pressure for sufficient density at high temperatures.

Hydrocarbons

Organically moderated and cooled reactors was an early power reactor concept studied. They were not successful.

References

  • Sodium as a Fast Reactor Coolant, Thomas Fanning, ANL Compares sodium favorably to lead and helium.
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