World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ocaina language

Article Id: WHEBN0018045740
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ocaina language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Bora–Witoto languages, List of endangered languages in South America
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Ocaina language

Ocaina
Native to Peru, Colombia
Native speakers
190  (1998–2000)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 oca
Glottolog ocai1244[2]

Ocaina is an indigenous American language spoken in western South America.

Classification

Ocaina belongs to the Witotoan language family. It is its own group within the Huitoto-Ocaina sub-family.

Geographic distribution

Ocaina is spoken by 54 people in northeastern Peru and by 12 more in the Amazonas region of Colombia. Few children speak the language.

Dialects/Varieties

There are two dialects of Ocaina: Dukaiya and Ibo'tsa.

Phonology

Consonants

Ocaina consonant phonemes
  Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar/
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Nasal lenis m n ɲ
fortis ɲː
Plosive p b t r k ɡ ʔ
Affricate ts dz
Fricative ɸ β s ʃ ʒ x h

Vowels

Ocaina vowel phonemes
  Front Central Back
High i, ĩ ɨ, ɨ̃
Low e a, ã o, õ

Tone

Syllables in Ocaina may be marked with one of two tones: high or low.

Syllables

Syllables in Ocaina consist of a vowel; single consonants may appear on either side of the vowel: (C)V(C).

Writing System

Ocaina is written using a Latin alphabet. A chart of symbols with the sounds they represent as is follows:

Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA Latin IPA
a /a/ b /b/ c /k/ ch /tʃ/ ds /dz/ dy /dʲ/ e /e/ f /ɸ/ g /ɡ/ h /ʔ/ i /i/
j /h/ k /k/ ll /dʒ/ m /m/ /mː/ n /n/ /nː/ ñ /ɲ/ ñ̈ /ɲː/ o /o/ p /p/
q /k/ r /r/ s /s/ sh /ʃ/ t /t/ ts /ts/ ty /tʲ/ u /ɨ/ v /β/ x /x/ y /ʒ/
  • Because the Ocaina alphabet is based on Spanish, c is used to indicate /k/ before a, o, and u, qu is used before e and i, and k is used in loan words, such as kerosene kerosene.
  • Nasalization is indicated by inserting n after a vowel. Compare: tya tyója [tʲa tʲóha] hang it vs. tya tyonjan [tʲa tʲṍhã] clean it.
  • High tone is indicated with the acute accent: á, é, í, ó, ú.

References

  1. ^ Ocaina at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Ocaina". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  • Agnew, Arlene; Evelyn G. Pike (January 1957). "Phonemes of Ocaina (Huitoto)". International Journal of American Linguistics 23 (1): 24–27. doi:10.1086/464385. 
  • Leach, Ilo M. (2008). Mary Ruth Wise, ed. Vocabulario Ocaina (PDF). Serie Lingüística Peruana (in Spanish) 4 (2nd ed.). Yarinacocha, Peru: Instituto Lingüístico de Verano. 
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.