World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Ol Doinyo Lengai

Ol Doinyo Lengai
Image of 1966 eruption
Elevation 3,188 m (10,459 ft)[1]
Location
Ol Doinyo Lengai is located in Tanzania
Ol Doinyo Lengai
Ol Doinyo Lengai
Tanzania
Range East African Rift
Coordinates
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption 2011 to 2013
Climbing
Easiest route Scramble

Ol Doinyo Lengai, "Mountain of God" in the Maasai language,[2] is an active volcano located in the Gregory Rift, south of Lake Natron within the Arusha Region of Tanzania. Part of the volcanic system of the East African Rift, it uniquely produces natrocarbonatite lava.

Contents

  • Geology 1
    • Lava 1.1
  • Ecology 2
  • Eruptive activity 3
    • 1883-1915 3.1
    • 1917 3.2
    • 1926 3.3
    • 1940 3.4
    • 1950s 3.5
    • 1960s 3.6
    • 2007 3.7
    • 2008 3.8
    • 2010 3.9
    • 2013 3.10
  • Gallery 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Geology

Ol Doinyo Lengai is unique among active volcanoes in that it produces natrocarbonatite lava, a unique occurrence of volcanic carbonatite. A few older extinct carbonatite volcanoes are located nearby, including Homa Mountain.

Lava

Whereas most lavas are rich in silicate minerals, the lava of Ol Doinyo Lengai is a carbonatite. It is rich in the rare sodium and potassium carbonates, nyerereite and gregoryite. Due to this unusual composition, the lava erupts at relatively low temperatures of approximately 510 °C (950 °F). This temperature is so low that the molten lava appears black in sunlight, rather than having the red glow common to most lavas. It is also much more fluid than silicate lavas, often less viscous than water. The sodium and potassium carbonate minerals of the lavas erupted at Ol Doinyo Lengai are unstable at the Earth's surface and susceptible to rapid weathering, quickly turning from black to grey in colour. The resulting volcanic landscape is different from any other in the world.

Ecology

The carbonatite ash spread over the surrounding grasslands leads to a uniquely succulent, enriched pasture. This makes the area a vital stage on the annual wildebeest beast migration, where it becomes the nursery for the birth of several thousand calves.

Eruptive activity

1883-1915

The record of eruptions on the mountain dates to 1883. Flows were recorded between 1904 and 1910 and between 1913 and 1915.

1917

A major eruption in June 1917 deposited volcanic ash up to 48 kilometres (30 mi) away.

1926

An eruption took place for several months in 1926.

1940

An eruption between July and December 1940 deposited ash as far as Loliondo, 100 kilometres (62 mi) away.

1950s

Several minor eruptions of lava were observed in 1954, 1955, and 1958.

1960s

Minor eruptions of lava were observed in the early 1960s.

A major eruption occurred on 14 August 1966. Geologists J. B. Dawson and G. C. Clark visited the crater a week later and reported seeing "a thick column of black ash" that rose for approximately three thousand feet above the volcano and drifted away northwards towards Lake Natron. When they climbed the cone-shaped vent, they reported seeing a continuous discharge of gas and whitish-grey ash and dust from the centre of the pit.

2007

Volcanic activity in the mountain caused daily earth tremors in Kenya and Tanzania from 12 July 2007 until 18 July 2007 at 8.30pm in Nairobi. The strongest tremor measured 6.0 on the Richter scale. Geologists suspected that the sudden increase of tremors was indicative of the movement of magma through the Ol Doinyo Lengai. The volcano erupted on 4 September 2007, sending a plume of ash and steam at least 18 kilometres (11 mi) downwind and covering the north and west flanks in fresh lava flows.

2008

The 2007 eruption continued intermittently into 2008. At the end of February it was reported to be gathering strength, with a major outburst taking place on 5 March. Periods of inactivity were followed by eruptions on 8 and 17 April. Eruptive activity continued until late August 2008. A visit to the summit in September 2008 discovered that lava emission had resumed from two vents in the floor of the new crater. Visits to the crater in March/April 2009 showed that this activity appeared to have ceased.[3]

2010

In October 2010, two separate lava flows and a small lava lake were photographed in an overflight.

2013

The volcano resumed natrocarbonatite lava flow which started to fill the large crater from the 2007-2008 eruption. As of July 2013, there is a large active hornito on the western edge of the crater floor. During June, residents near the volcano reported several earthquakes. The new crater is inaccessible and climbers have only occasionally glimpsed into it.

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Tanzania in figures 2012, National Bureau of Statistics, Ministry of Finance, June 2013, page 9
  2. ^ Northern Tanzania with Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar by Phillip Briggs 2006 page 194 ISBN 1-84162-146-3
  3. ^ Ol Doinyo Lengai, The Mountain of God, Website maintained by Frederick A. Belton.

External links

  • Ol Doinyo Lengai at nationalgeographic.com
  • Ol Doinyo Lengai at Stromboli Online
  • Ol Doinyo Lengai at Volcano World
  • Oldoinyo LengaiSt Lawrence University
  • Fred Belton's Ol Doinyo Lengai site
  • Ol Doinyo Lengai Photos 2001
  • Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano, TanzaniaVolcano Discovery
  • Video of molten carbonatite lava flow eruptions at Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.