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One party dominant state

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One party dominant state

A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organizations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future."[1] A wide range of parties have been cited as being dominant at one time or another, including the Kuomintang in the Republic of China, the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan and the Indian National Congress in India.[1] Such dominance has not always been a matter of concern, with for example the dominance of the Indian National Congress being seen by some as source of stability supportive of the consolidation of democracy.[1]

Opponents of the "dominant party" system or theory argue that it views the meaning of democracy as given, and that it assumes that only a particular conception of representative democracy (in which different parties alternate frequently in power) is valid.[1] One author argues that "the dominant party 'system' is deeply flawed as a mode of analysis and lacks explanatory capacity. But it is also a very conservative approach to politics. Its fundamental political assumptions are restricted to one form of democracy, electoral politics and hostile to popular politics. This is manifest in the obsession with the quality of electoral opposition and its sidelining or ignoring of popular political activity organised in other ways. The assumption in this approach is that other forms of organisation and opposition are of limited importance or a separate matter from the consolidation of their version of democracy."[1]

One of the dangers of dominant parties is "the tendency of dominant parties to conflate party and state and to appoint party officials to senior positions irrespective of their having the required qualities."[1] However, in some countries this is common practice even when there is no dominant party.[1] In contrast to single-party systems, dominant-party systems can occur within a context of a democratic system. In a single-party system other parties are banned, but in dominant-party systems other political parties are tolerated, and (in democratic dominant-party systems) operate without overt legal impediment, but do not have a realistic chance of winning; the dominant party genuinely wins the votes of the vast majority of voters every time (or, in authoritarian systems, claims to). Under authoritarian dominant-party systems, which may be referred to as "electoralism" or "soft authoritarianism", opposition parties are legally allowed to operate, but are too weak or ineffective to seriously challenge power, perhaps through various forms of corruption, constitutional quirks that intentionally undermine the ability for an effective opposition to thrive, institutional and/or organizational conventions that support the status quo, or inherent cultural values averse to change.

In some states opposition parties are subject to varying degrees of official harassment and most often deal with restrictions on free speech (such as press club), lawsuits against the opposition, rules or electoral systems (such as gerrymandering of electoral districts) designed to put them at a disadvantage. In some cases outright electoral fraud keeps the opposition from power. On the other hand, some dominant-party systems occur, at least temporarily, in countries that are widely seen, both by their citizens and outside observers, to be textbook examples of democracy. The reasons why a dominant-party system may form in such a country are often debated: Supporters of the dominant party tend to argue that their party is simply doing a good job in government and the opposition continuously proposes unrealistic or unpopular changes, while supporters of the opposition tend to argue that the electoral system disfavors them (for example because it is based on the principle of first past the post), or that the dominant party receives a disproportionate amount of funding from various sources and is therefore able to mount more persuasive campaigns. In states with ethnic issues, one party may be seen as being the party for an ethnicity or race with the party for the majority ethnic, racial or religious group dominating, e.g., ANC in South Africa (governing since 1994) has strong support amongst Black South Africans, the Ulster Unionist Party governed Northern Ireland from its creation in 1921 until 1972 with the support of the Protestant majority.

Sub-national entities are often dominated by one party due the area's demographic being on one end of the spectrum. For example the District of Columbia has been governed by Democrats since its creation, Bavaria by the Christian Social Union since 1957, Alberta by Progressive Conservatives since 1971. In contrast some sub-national entities have comparatively more conservative or liberal forms of the parties in their entity, for example an Oklahoma Democrat is likely to be at least as conservative as a Minnesota Republican.

During the 20th century, the Christian Democracy in Italy governed for over 50 years; this party was considered a party-state.

Examples

Current dominant-party systems

Africa

 Angola[2][3]
  • Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola (MPLA)
  • In power since independence, 11 November 1975; sole legal party, 1975–91
  • Led by President José Eduardo dos Santos, in office since 10 September 1979
  • In the presidential election of 1992, dos Santos (MPLA-PT) won 49.6% of the vote. As this was not an absolute majority, a runoff against Jonas Savimbi (40.1%) was required, but did not take place. Dos Santos remained in office without democratic legitimacy.
  • Parliamentary election, 1992: MPLA 53.7% and 129 of 220 seat
  • Parliamentary election, 2008: MPLA 81.6% and 191 of 220 seats
  • New constitution, 2010: popular election of president abolished in favour of a rule that the top candidate of the most voted party in parliamentary elections becomes president.
  • New parliamentary elections held on August 31, 2012: MPLA 71% and 175 of 220 seats, José Eduardo dos Santos (as head candidate) automatically confirmed as state president (holding now this office for the first time in accordance with the constitution).
 Botswana
 Burkina Faso
 Cameroon
 Chad
 Republic of the Congo
  • Congolese Party of Labour (Parti Congolais du Travail, PCT)
  • Led by President Denis Sassou-Nguesso, in office from 8 February 1979 to 31 August 1992 and since 15 October 1997
  • In power, under various names, from 1963 to 1992 and since 1997 (Sole legal party, 1963–1990)
  • Presidential election, 2002: Denis Sassou-Nguesso (PCT) 89.4%
  • Parliamentary election, 2002: PCT 53 of 137 seats
 Djibouti
  • People's Rally for Progress (Rassemblement Populaire pour de Progrès, RPP)
  • Led by President Ismail Omar Guelleh, in office since 8 May 1999
  • In power since its formation in 1979 (Sole legal party, 1979–1992)
  • Presidential election, 2005: Ismail Omar Guelleh (RPP) re-elected unopposed
  • Parliamentary election, 2003: RPP in coalition, 62.4% and 65 of 65 seats
 Equatorial Guinea
  • Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (Partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial, PDGE)
  • Led by President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, in office since 3 August 1979
  • In power since its formation in 1987 (Sole legal party, 1987–1991)
  • Presidential election, 2002: Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo (PDGE) 97.1%
  • Parliamentary election, 2004: PDGE 47.5% and 68 of 100 seats (91.9% and 98 of 100 seats including allies)
 Ethiopia
 Gabon
 The Gambia
 Mozambique
 Namibia
 Nigeria
  • People's Democratic Party (PDP)
  • Led by President Goodluck Jonathan, in office since 5 May 2010
  • In power since 29 May 1999
  • Presidential election, 2011: Goodluck Jonathan (PDP) 58.9%
  • Parliamentary election, 2003: PDP 54.8% and 198 of 318 seats
 Rwanda
 Seychelles
 South Africa
 South Sudan
  • Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM)
  • Led by President Salva Kiir Mayardit, in office since 9 July 2011; and was President of Southern Sudan since 30 July 2005
  • In power since independence, 9 July 2011; and in the autonomous Government of Southern Sudan since formation, July 9, 2005
  • Presidential election, 2010: Salva Kiir Mayardit (SPLM) 92.99%
  • Parliamentary election, 2010: SPLM 160 of 170 seats
 Sudan
  • National Congress (NC)
  • Led by President Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir, in office since 30 June 1989
  • In power since its formation, 16 October 1993
  • Presidential election, 2010: Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir (NC) 68.24%
  • Parliamentary election, 2010: NC 306 of 450 seats
 Tanzania
  • Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM)
  • Led by President Jakaya Kikwete, in office since 21 December 2005
  • In power, under various names, since independence, 9 December 1961 (Sole legal party, 1964–1992)
  • Presidential election, 2005: Jakaya Kikwete (CCM) 80.3%
  • Parliamentary election, 2005: CCM 206 of 232 seats
 Togo
 Uganda
 Zimbabwe
  • Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF)
  • Led by President Robert Mugabe, in office since 18 April 1980 (as president since 31 December 1987)
  • In power since independence, 17 April 1980
  • Presidential election, 2002: Robert Mugabe (ZANU-PF) 56.2%
  • House of Assembly election, 2005: ZANU-PF 59.6% and 78 of 120 elective seats (30 additional seats reserved for appointees)
  • Senate election, 2005: ZANU-PF 73.7% and 43 of 50 elective seats (16 additional seats reserved for appointees and traditional chiefs)

Americas (except the United States)

Template:Country data Antigua & Barbuda

  • The Barbuda People's Movement has ruled the island of Barbuda since 1979, and has won every election for the island's seat in the national House of Representatives.

 Brazil

  • The Brazilian Social Democratic Party has ruled the state of São Paulo since 1995; the current term is due to end on January 1, 2015. On the other hand, its main rival, the Workers' Party has ruled the state of Acre since 1999, with a term also due to end on January 1, 2015. The Brazilian Democratic Movement Party has ruled the state of Goiás from March 15, 1983 until January 1, 1999. On the municipal level, the Workers' Party has ruled the city of Porto Alegre for sixteen years from January 1, 1989 to January 1, 2005.

 Canada

  • The Canadian province of Alberta has been ruled continuously by the Progressive Conservative Party since 1971. Prior to that, the Social Credit Party held power for 36 years from 1935 to 1971.

 Costa Rica

 Iroquois

  • The Seneca Party is the dominant party in the elections of the Seneca Nation of New York and has won every presidential election in recent memory. Only since the mid-2000s have there been any serious challenges to the party's dominance, all of which have failed.
 Venezuela

Asia / Oceania

 Azerbaijan
 Cambodia
 Kazakhstan
 Malaysia
  • Barisan Nasional (National Front), a coalition of 14 parties led by the United Malays National Organization (UMNO)
  • Led by [1]
  • In power since independence, 28 August 1957
  • Parliamentary election, 2008: UMNO 29.33% and 79 out of 222 seats, total for Barisan Nasional 50.27% and 140 out of 222 seats
 Samoa'
 Singapore
 Syria
  • National Progressive Front (NPF), a coalition of 10 parties led by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region (Baath Party)
  • Led by President Bashar al-Assad, in office since 17 July 2000
  • In power since 8 March 1963
  • Parliamentary election, 2012: Baath Party won 135 out of 250 seats, total for NPF 168 of 250 seats
 Tajikistan
 Turkmenistan
 Turkey
 Yemen

Europe

 Armenia
 Germany
  • Christian Social Union has dominated politics in the state of Bavaria since 1957. Forming the government on their own for most of this period, they are now in a coalition government.
 Hungary
  • Fidesz won the 53% of the popular vote in 2010, which translated into 68% of the seats. Since the Fidesz embarked on an extraordinary project of passing over 200 laws and revising the constitution. The new constitution has been widely criticized.
 Luxembourg
  • The Christian Social People's Party (CSV), with its predecessor Party of the Right, has governed Luxembourg continuously since 1917, except for 1974–79. However, Luxembourg has a coalition system, and the CSV has been in coalition with at least one of the two next two leading parties for all but four years. It has always won a plurality of seats in parliamentary elections, although it has lost the popular vote in 1964 and 1974.
 Malta
  • The Partit Nazzjonalista was for a period of almost 26 years (from 1987 to 2013) the democratically-elected sole governing party in Malta, except for a brief 22-month period between 1996 and 1998. It won elections held in 1987, 1992, 1998, 2003 and 2008, each time defeating the left-of-centre Malta Labour Party. It was defeated in elections held in 2013. Since 1966 there have only been these two parties represented in the Maltese Parliament.
 Montenegro
 Russia
  • United Russia
  • Led by President Vladimir Putin (President 2000-2008, and since 2012; Prime Minister 1999–2000, 2008–2012), nominated President Dmitry Medvedev (2008–2012)
  • In power since 2003
  • Presidential election, 2012: Vladimir Putin 63.60%
  • Parliamentary election, 2011: 49.32% and 238 of 450 seats
 Wales (United Kingdom) [4]

The United States

The  United States as a whole has a two-party system, with the main parties since the mid-1800s being Democratic Party and the Republican Party. However, some states and cities have been dominated by one of these parties for up to several decades:

Dominated by the Democratic Party
  •  Arkansas has been dominated by Democrats but they are more conservative than the national party is in general, the last Democratic presidential nominee to win Arkansas's electoral votes was native son Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996 respectively.
Dominated by the Republican Party

Former dominant parties

North America

  •  Canada: The Liberal Party of Canada was the dominant party in the federal government of Canada for so much of its history that it is sometimes given the moniker "Canada's natural governing party".[5] The party experienced several long uninterrupted periods in power, including 1896 to 1911, 1935 to 1957, 1963 to 1979 and 1993 to 2006.
  • The South (usually defined as coextensive with the former Confederacy, with the exception of western and sometimes central Texas) was known until the era of the civil-rights movement as the "Solid South" due to its states' reliable support of the United States' Democratic Party.

Caribbean and Central America

South America

Europe

  • The Portuguese Republican Party, during most of the Portuguese First Republic's existence (1910–1926): After the coup that put an end to Portugal's constitutional monarchy in 1910, the electoral system, which had always ensured victory to the party in government, was left unchanged. Before 1910, it had been the reigning monarch's responsibility to ensure that no one party remain too long in government, usually by disbanding Parliament and calling for new elections. The republic's constitution added no such proviso, and the Portuguese Republican Party was able to keep the other minor republican parties (monarchic parties had been declared illegal) from winning elections. On the rare occasions when it was ousted from power, it was overtrown by force and was again by the means of a counter-coup that it returned to power, until its final fall, with the republic itself, in 1926.
  • The Party of the Right in Luxembourg (1917–1925)
  • The Ulster Unionist Party in the former devolved administration of Northern Ireland between 1921 to 1972.[6]
  • The Swedish Social Democratic Party in Sweden from 1932 to 1976 except only for some months in 1936 (1936–1939 and 1951–1957 in coalition with the Farmers' League, 1939–1945 at the head of a government of national unity) It has also held the power the vast majority of elections even after 1976, and is still the largest party in Sweden.
  • The Norwegian Labour Party ruling from 1935 to 1965, though it has been the biggest party in Norway since 1927 and has been in power many other times.
  • The Scottish Labour Party won every election in Scotland between the 1960s and the present day and controlled the Scottish Parliament until the 2007 election.
  • Convergència i Unió coalition (federated political party after 2001) in Catalonia governed the autonomous Catalan government from 1980 to 2003 under the leadership of Jordi Pujol with parliamentary absolute majority or in coalition with other smaller parties.
  • The Socialist Party of Serbia in FR Yugoslavia from 1992 to 2000.
  • Ireland's Fianna Fáil was the largest party in Dáil Éireann between 1932 to 2011 and in power for 61 of those 79 years. However, the party were heavily defeated in the Irish general election, 2011, coming third.
  • Italy's Christian Democracy dominated the politics of Italy for almost 50 years as the major party in every coalition that governed the country from 1944 until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992–1994.

Asia

Africa

See also

Footnotes

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