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Pannikhida

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Pannikhida


A memorial service (Greek: μνημόσυνον, mnemósynon, "memorial";[1] Slavic: панихида, panikhída, from Greek παννυχίς, pannychis, "vigil";[2][3] Romanian: parastas, from Greek παραστάς, parastas[4]) is a liturgical solemn service for the repose of departed in the Eastern Orthodox Church.[note 1]

The service


In the Eastern Church, the various prayers for the departed have as their purpose praying for the repose of the departed, comforting the living, and reminding the livng of their own mortality and the brevity of this earthly life. For this reason, memorial services have an air of penitence about them,[5] and tend to be served more frequently during the four fasting seasons.[note 2]

If the service is for an individual, it often held at his graveside. If it is a general commemoration of all the departed, or if the individual's grave is not close by, the service is held in a church, in front of a special small, free-standing "memorial table" which is attached an upright crucifix and with a candelabra for the faithful to put lighted candles.

The deacon (or, if there is no deacon the priest) swings the censer throughout almost the entire service, and all stand holding lighted candles. Near the end of the service, during the final troparia, all either extinguish their candles or place them in a candle holder by the memorial table. Each candle symbolizes the individual soul, which, as it were, each person holds in his own hand. The extinguishing (or giving up) of the candle at the end of the service symbolizes the fact that each person will have to surrender his soul at the end of his life.

The service is composed of Psalms, ektenias (litanies), hymns, and prayers. In its outline it follows the general order of Matins,[note 3] and is in effect a truncated funeral service. Some of the most notable portions of the service are the Kontakion of the Departed,[note 4] and the final singing of "Memory Eternal" (Slavonic: Vyechnaya Pamyat).

The memorial service is most frequently served at the end of the Divine Liturgy; however, it may also be served after Vespers, Matins, or as a separate service by itself. If the service is held separately, there are readings from the Pauline epistles and the Gospels which are assigned by the day of the week; no readings, however, are assigned to Sunday because Sunday should emphasize the resurrection of Christ rather than the departed.

Koliva


For the memorial service, koliva (a ritual food of boiled wheat) is often prepared and is placed in front of the memorial table or an icon of Christ. Afterwards, it is blessed by the priest, who sprinkles it with holy water. [note 5] The koliva is then taken to the refectory and is served to all those who attended the service.

Occasions

After an Orthodox Christian dies there are special "Prayers for the Departure of the Soul" that are said by the priest. Then the family or friends of the departed will wash and dress the body and it is placed in the casket after which a special expanded memorial service called the First Panikhida is celebrated, following which the reading of the Psalter[note 6] commences and continues uninterrupted until the funeral.

Traditionally, in addition to the service on the day of death, the memorial service is performed at the request of the relatives of an individual departed person on the following occasions:

  • Third day after death[note 7]
  • Ninth day
  • Fortieth day
  • First anniversary of death
  • Third anniversary (some will request a memorial every year on the anniversary of death)

It is also served on the numerous Soul Saturdays throughout the year.[note 8] On these days, not only is the memorial service served, but there are also special propers at Vespers, Matins, and the Divine Liturgy. These days of general memorials are:

  • Meatfare Saturday (two Saturdays before Great Lent begins)—in some traditions families and friends will offer Panikhidas for their loved ones during the preceding week, culminating in the general commemoration on Saturday
  • The second Saturday of Great Lent
  • The third Saturday of Great Lent
  • The fourth Saturday of Great Lent
  • In the Russian tradition, Radonitsa—Tuesday following Thomas Sunday; i.e., the second Tuesday after Pascha (Easter)[note 9]
  • The Saturday before Pentecost—in some traditions families and friends will offer Panikhidas for their loved ones during the preceding week, culminating in the general commemoration on Saturday
  • In the Russian tradition, Demetrius Saturday (the Saturday closest to the feast of Saint Demetrius, October 26), commemorating the soldiers who fell in the Battle of Kulikovo (1380), under the leadership of St. Demetrius of the Don.[6]

the celebration of memorial services is forbidden from Holy Thursday through Bright Week and on all Sundays throughout the year.

Lity

A very abbreviated form of the memorial service is called the Lity (or Liti or Litia), from the Greek λιτὴ τελετή, litē teletē, i.e. a plain ceremony, or λιτὸν μνημόσυνον, liton mnēmosynon, i.e. a plain mnemosynon; it consists only of the concluding portion of the regular memorial service. This is often celebrated in the narthex of the church on ordinary weekdays (i.e., when there is no higher-ranking feast day), especially during Great Lent.

See also


Notes

References

External links

  • Photo: Memorial Table
  • Photo: Ektenia during Panikhida
  • Photo: Blessing Kolyva at the end of a Panikhida
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