World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0004228259
Reproduction Date:

Title: Pneumostome  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Respiratory system of gastropods, Land snail, Banana slug, Tandonia serbica, Caryophyllidia
Collection: Articles Containing Video Clips, Gastropods, Invertebrate Respiratory System, Mollusc Anatomy
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Arion vulgaris opening its pneumostome
An individual Arion rufus with the pneumostome wide open
Drawing showing the different external anatomical features of a slug
Open and closed pneumostome
The pneumostome of Triboniophorus graeffei is on its dorsal surface.

The pneumostome (or breathing pore) is a feature (the respiratory opening) of the external body anatomy of an air-breathing land slug or land snail. It is a part of the respiratory system of gastropods.

It is an opening in the right side of the mantle of a stylommatophoran snail or slug. Air enters through the pneumostome into the animal's single lung, the air-filled mantle cavity.[1] Inside the mantle cavity the animal has a highly vascularized area of tissue that functions as a lung.

The pneumostome is often much easier to see in slugs than in snails, because of the absence of a shell which can often block the view of this area. In a land slug, when the pneumostome is wide open, it is usually very clearly visible on the right side of the animal. However, the position of the pneumostome is often not at all easy to discern when this orifice is completely closed.

The pneumostome opens and closes in a cyclical manner. The frequency of pneumostome closing and opening is typically less than 0.5 closures per minute in fully hydrated slugs and snails. The rate of closures per minute increases the more dehydrated the slug is.[2]

Position of pneumostome as a diagnostic feature

The images in the gallery below show the position of the pneumostome in three different families of slugs:


  1. ^ Fox, Richard (2006). "Invertebrate Anatomy OnLine". Lander University. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
  2. ^ Pneumostome's response to dehydration The pneumostome rhythm in slugs: a response to dehydration controlled by hemolymph osmolality and peptide hormones. Dickinson PS, Prior DJ, Avery C. Source Department of Biology, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011.

External links

  • Short clip of ariolimax columbianus displaying its pneumostome YouTube, Feb 17, 2008

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.