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Possum

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Title: Possum  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Cinereus ringtail possum, Pseudocheiridae, Telefomin cuscus, Herbert River ringtail possum, Coppery brushtail possum
Collection: Mammals of New Guinea, Oligocene First Appearances, Possums
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Possum

Possum
Common brushtail possum
(Trichosurus vulpecula)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Diprotodontia
Suborder: Phalangeriformes
Szalay in Archer, 1982
Superfamilies and Families

Phalangeroidea

Petauroidea

A possum (plural form: possums) is any of about 70 small- to medium-sized arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea, and Sulawesi (and introduced to New Zealand and China). The name derives from their resemblance to the opossums of the Americas (the name is from Algonquian wapathemwa, not Greek or Latin, so the plural is possums, not possa).

Possums are quadrupedal diprotodont marsupials with long thick tails. The smallest possum, indeed the smallest diprotodont marsupial, is the Tasmanian pygmy possum, with an adult head-body length of 70 mm (2 3/4 in.) and a weight of 10 g (3/8 oz.). The largest is the bear cuscus that may exceed 7 kg (15lb. 6oz.). Possums are typically nocturnal and at least partially arboreal. The various species inhabit most vegetated habitats, and several species have adjusted well to urban settings. Diets range from generalist herbivores or omnivores (the common brushtail possum) to specialist browsers of eucalyptus (greater glider), insectivores (mountain pygmy possum) and nectar-feeders (honey possum).

Contents

  • Classification 1
  • In New Zealand 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5

Classification

Ringtail possum in an urban area at night
Brushtail possums in a eucalyptus tree
Ringtail possum hunched on a utility pole

About two-thirds of Australian marsupials belong to the order Diprotodontia, which is split into three suborders: the Vombatiformes (wombats and the koala, four species in total); the large and diverse Phalangeriformes (the possums and gliders) and Macropodiformes (kangaroos, potoroos, wallabies and the musky rat-kangaroo). Note: this classification is based on Ruedas & Morales 2005.

In New Zealand

The common brushtail possum was introduced to New Zealand by European settlers in an attempt to establish a fur industry. There are no native predators of the possum in New Zealand, so its numbers in New Zealand have risen to the point where it is considered a serious pest. Numerous attempts to eradicate them have been made because of the damage they do to native trees and wildlife, as well as acting as a carrier of bovine tuberculosis. By 2009, these measures had reduced the possum numbers to less than half of the 1980s levels – from around 70 million to around 30 million animals.[1]

Since 1996, possum fur, obtained from about two million wild-caught possums per year, has been used in clothing with blends of fine merino wool with brushtail possum fur – variously known as Ecopossum, Merinosilk, Merinomink, possumdown, eco fur or possum wool. Possum fur is also used for fur trim, jackets, bed throws, and possum leather gloves.

See also

References

  1. ^ "New research estimates there are about 30 million possums in New Zealand". Landcare Research. 9 December 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2011. 

Further reading

  • Possums and Gliders — Australia Zoo
  • Urban Possums — ABC (Science), Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  • Ruedas, L.A.; Morales, J.C. (2005). "Evolutionary relationships among genera of Phalangeridae (Metatheria: Diprotodontia) inferred from mitochondrial data". Journal of Mammalogy 86 (2): 353–365.  
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