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President of the Italian Republic

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President of the Italian Republic

Not to be confused with Prime Minister of Italy.
President of the Italian Republic
Presidente della Repubblica Italiana
Standard of the President
Quirinal Palace
Appointer Italian Parliament
& regional representatives
Term length Seven years
renewable optional
Inaugural holder Enrico De Nicola
1 January 1948
Formation Constitution of Italy
Salary 230,000 [1]
Website Il sito ufficiale della Presidenza della Repubblica

The President of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente della Repubblica Italiana) is the head of state of Italy and, in that role, represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution. The president's term of office lasts for seven years.[2] The current, 11th President of the Republic is Giorgio Napolitano, who was elected on the fourth round of legislative balloting, on 10 May 2006 and re-elected to a second term on the sixth round with 738 votes, much more than the 504 necessary for a simple majority on 20 April 2013.

Qualifications for office

Article 84[2] of the Constitution states that any citizen who is fifty or older on election day and enjoys civil and political rights can be elected President.

Those citizens who already hold any other office are barred from becoming President, unless they resign their previous office once they are elected.

The 1948 Italian Constitution does not have term limits although until 2013 no Italian President of the Republic had run for a second term of office.[3] On 20 April 2013 incumbent President Giorgio Napolitano, holder of the post since 2006, agreed to run for another term in an attempt to break the parliamentary deadlock in the 2013 presidential elections and was duly re-elected that same day.


The President of the Republic is elected by Parliament in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. In addition, the 20 regions of Italy appoint 58 representatives as special electors. Three representatives come from each region, save for the Aosta Valley, which appoints one, so as to guarantee representation for all localities and minorities.

According to the Constitution, the election must be held by a secret ballot, with the 315 Senators, the 630 Deputies and the 58 regional representatives all voting. A two-thirds vote is required to elect on any of the first three rounds of balloting; after that, a majority suffices. The election is presided over by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, who calls for the public counting of the votes. The vote is held in the Palazzo Montecitorio, home of the Chamber of Deputies, which is expanded and re-configured for the event.

The President assumes office after having taken an oath before Parliament and delivering a presidential address.

Presidential mandate

The President’s term lasts seven years; this prevents any President from being reelected by the same Houses, which have a five-year mandate, and grants some freedom from excessive political ties to the appointing body.

The President's term may end by:

  • voluntary resignation;
  • death;
  • permanent disability, due to serious illness;
  • dismissal, as for crimes of high treason or an attack on the Constitution.

Former Presidents of the Republic are called Presidents Emeritus of the Republic and are appointed Senator for life.

In the absence of the President of the Republic, including travel abroad, its functions have been performed by the President of the Senate.


The Constitution of Italy lays out the duties and powers of the President of the Republic, to include:

  1. In foreign affairs:
    • Accrediting and receiving diplomatic functionaries;
    • Ratifying international treaties, upon authorization of Parliament (if required according to Article 80 of the Constitution);
    • Making official visits abroad, accompanied by a member of the government; and
    • Declaring a state of war, as decided by Parliament.
  2. In parliamentary affairs:
    • Nominating up to five senators-for-life;
    • Calling the Chambers of Parliament into extraordinary session and dissolving them; and
    • Calling elections and fixing the date for the first meeting of the new Chambers.
  3. In legislative matters:
    • Authorizing the presentation of proposed governmental decrees to Parliament;
    • Promulgating the laws approved in Parliament; and
    • Remanding to the Chambers (with an explanation) and asking for reconsideration of a bill (permitted once per bill);
  4. Appertaining to popular sovereignty:
  5. In executive matters and as to official protocol:
    • Naming the Prime Minister of Italy after elections, and appointing Cabinet ministers on the advice of the PM;
    • Accepting the oath of the government;
    • Receiving the resignation of a government;
    • Promulgating laws by decree, which are proposed by the government alone. These measures, unless acted on by Parliament, expire after 60 days;
    • Naming certain high state functionaries;
    • Presiding over the Consiglio Supremo di Difesa (Supreme Defense Council), and commanding the armed forces; and
    • Decreeing the dissolution of regional councils and the removals of presidents of regions.
  6. In judicial matters:
    • Presiding over the Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura (Superior Judicial Council);
    • Naming one-third of the Constitutional Court; and
    • Granting pardons and commutations.

The Constitution provides that nearly all presidential acts must be countersigned by a member of the government (either the Prime Minister or an individual minister), as most presidential acts are only formal, and real political responsibility is upon the government. However, pardons and commutations have been recognised as autonomous powers of the President.


According to Article 86[2] of the Constitution, in all the cases in which the President is unable to perform the functions of the Office, these shall be performed by the President of the Senate.

In the event of permanent incapacity, death or resignation of the President, the President of the Chamber of Deputies shall call an election of a new President of the Republic within fifteen days, notwithstanding the longer term envisaged during dissolution of the Parliament or in the three months preceding dissolution.


The President resides in Rome at the Quirinal Palace, and also has at his disposal the presidential holdings of Castelporziano, near Rome, and Villa Rosebery, in Naples.


ImageSize = width:800 height:auto barincrement:12 PlotArea = top:10 bottom:50 right:130 left:20 AlignBars = late

DateFormat = dd/mm/yyyy Period = from:01/01/1945 till:01/01/2015 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:1945

Colors =

 id:ind   value:rgb(0.8,0.8,0.8)

BarData =



 width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till
from: 01/07/1946 till: 01/01/1948 color:blue text:"De Nicola" fontsize:10
from: 12/05/1948 till: 11/05/1955 color:blue text:"Einaudi" fontsize:10
from: 11/05/1955 till: 11/05/1962 color:yellow text:"Gronchi" fontsize:10
from: 11/05/1962 till: 06/12/1964 color:yellow text:"Segni" fontsize:10
from: 29/12/1964 till: 29/12/1971 color:pink text:"Saragat" fontsize:10
from: 29/12/1971 till: 15/06/1978 color:yellow text:"Leone" fontsize:10
from: 09/07/1978 till: 29/06/1985 color:red text:"Pertini" fontsize:10
from: 03/07/1985 till: 28/04/1992 color:yellow text:"Cossiga" fontsize:10
from: 28/05/1992 till: 15/05/1999 color:yellow text:"Scalfaro" fontsize:10
from: 18/05/1999 till: 15/05/2006 color:ind text:"Ciampi" fontsize:10
from: 15/05/2006 till: 30/10/2013 color:red text:"Napolitano" fontsize:10

See also


External links

  • Official site (in Italian)
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