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Province of Carolina

Province of Carolina
Colony of England (1629–1707)
Colony of Great Britain (1707–12)


Flag Coat of arms
Capital Charles Town, South Carolina
Languages English, Tutelo, Muscogee, Catawban languages, Tuscarora, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Yuchi, Shawnee
Government Constitutional monarchy
Legislature Lords Proprietors
Historical era Colonial Era
 •  Heath charter 1629
 •  British government buy-out of Lords Proprietors 1712
Currency Pound sterling
Today part of  United States

The Province of Carolina was an Alabama, Tennessee and Mississippi, and parts of modern Florida and Louisiana.[1]

Sir Robert Heath, attorney-general of King Charles I of England, was granted the Cape Fear region of America, incorporated as the Province of Carolina, in 1629.[2] The charter was unrealized and ruled invalid, and a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, on March 24, 1663.[3] Charles II granted the land to the eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660.[4] Charles II intended for the newly created province to serve as an English bulwark to contest lands claimed by Spanish Florida and prevent their northward expansion.[5][6] Led informally by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, the Province of Carolina was controlled from 1663 to 1729 by these lords and their heirs.

In 1691, dissent over the governance of the province led to the appointment of a deputy governor to administer the northern half of Carolina.

The division between the northern and southern governments became complete in 1712, but both colonies remained in the hands of the same group of proprietors. A rebellion against the proprietors broke out in 1719 which led to the appointment of a royal governor for South Carolina in 1720. After nearly a decade in which the British government sought to locate and buy out the proprietors, both North and South Carolina became royal colonies in 1729.


  • 1629 Charter 1
  • 1663 Charter 2
    • Lords Proprietors 2.1
  • Dissent 3
  • Georgia 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

1629 Charter

On October 30, 1629,

  • Concessions and Agreements of the Lords Proprietors of the Province of Carolina, 1665
  • Sir Robert Heath's Patent
  • The Founding of North and South Carolina
  • U.S.A.-Barbadian Ties - The Barbados Tourism Encyclopaedia
  • The Buried History of America's Largest Slave Rebellion and the Man Who Led It

External links

  1. ^ Medley, Mary Louise (1976). History of Anson County, North Carolina, 1750-1976. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Company. p. 1.  
  2. ^ Sir Robert Heath's Patent 5 Charles 1st; October, 30 1629
  3. ^ a b "Charter of Carolina - March 24, 1663". Retrieved 2012-03-24. 
  4. ^ Danforth Prince (10 March 2011). Frommer's The Carolinas and Georgia. John Wiley & Sons. p. 11.  
  5. ^ Peter Charles Hoffer (14 December 2006). The Brave New World: A History of Early America. JHU Press. p. 323.  
  6. ^ Patricia Riles Wickman (2 March 1999). The Tree that Bends: Discourse, Power, and the Survival of Maskoki People. University of Alabama Press. p. 179.  
  7. ^ N. C. Board of Agriculture (1902). A sketch of North Carolina. Charleston: Lucas-Richardson Co. p. 4. Retrieved 26 May 2014. 
  8. ^, History of the Lower Cape Fear
  9. ^ "Charter of Carolina". June 30, 1665. Retrieved 13 February 2011. 
  10. ^ Crane, Vernon (1928). The Southern Frontier 1670-1732. University of North Carolina. 
  11. ^ "Part IV, Chapter 42". Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  12. ^ Verner Crane (1928). The Southern Frontier 1670-1732. University of Alabama Press. p. 6.  


See also

In 1732, a corporate charter for the George II.


Governments under proprietary rule and under crown rule were similarly organized. The primary difference was who was to appoint the governing officials: the Lords Proprietors or the Sovereign.

Some take this period as the establishment of separate colonies, but that did not officially occur until 1729, when seven of the Lords Proprietors sold their interests in Carolina to John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville. He retained ownership of a sixty-mile-wide strip of land in North Carolina adjoining the Virginia boundary, which became known as the Granville District. This district was to become the scene of many disputes, from 1729 until the American Revolutionary War, at which time it was seized by the North Carolina revolutionary government.

From 1708 to 1710, due to disquiet over attempts to establish the Anglican church in the province, the people were unable to agree on a slate of elected officials; consequently, there was no recognized and legal government for more than two years, a period which culminated in Cary's Rebellion when the Lords Proprietors finally commissioned a new governor. This circumstance, coupled with the Tuscarora War and the Yamasee War, and the inability of the Lords Proprietors to act decisively, led to separate governments for North and South Carolina.


Due to their remoteness from each other, the northern and southern sections of the colony operated more or less independently until 1691, when Philip Ludwell was appointed governor of the entire province. From that time until 1708, the northern and southern settlements remained under one government. The north continued to have its own assembly and council; the governor resided in Charles Towne and appointed a deputy-governor for the north. During this period, the two halves of the province began increasingly to be known as North Carolina and South Carolina.

The Lords Proprietors founded a sturdier new settlement when they sent 150 colonists to the province in early 1670, landing them at a location south of the other settlements, near present-day Charleston, South Carolina. Many of the settlers, who stepped off the ship in April of that year, were planters from Barbados. The "Charles Town" settlement, as it was known then, developed more rapidly than the Albemarle and Cape Fear settlements due to the advantages of a natural harbor and expanding trade with the West Indies. Charles Town was made the principal seat of government for the entire province; Lord Shaftesbury specified its street plan. The nearby Ashley and Cooper rivers are named for him.

In 1663, Captain William Hilton had noted the presence of a wooden cross erected by the Spaniards that still stood before the town meeting house of the Indians living at what later became Port Royal.[12] In 1665, Sir John Yeamans established a second short-lived English settlement on the Cape Fear River, near present-day Wilmington, North Carolina, which he named Clarendon.

Although the Albemarle County.

Within three generations of Columbus, the Spanish from their Florida base had issued up the coast permeating North Carolina. A hostile Virginia tribe drove them back to Georgia. A Scottish contingent had meanwhile settled in South Carolina only to be extirpated by the Spanish, who inhabited Parris Island, SC as late as 1655. The Spanish were again beaten back to Georgia.[10]

The Lords Proprietors, operating under their royal charter, were able to exercise their authority with nearly the independence of the king himself. The actual government consisted of a governor, a powerful council, on which half of the councillors were appointed by the Lords Proprietors themselves, and a relatively weak, popularly elected assembly.

The Lords Proprietors named in the charter were Province of New Jersey, and William Berkeley had an interest in Virginia.

Lords Proprietors

In 1665, the charter was revised slightly (see Royal Colonial Boundary of 1665), with the northerly boundary extended to 36 degrees 30 minutes north to include the lands of settlers along the Albemarle Sound who had left the Virginia Colony. Likewise, the southern boundary was moved south to 29 degrees north, just south of present-day Daytona Beach, Florida, which had the effect of including the existing Spanish settlement at St. Augustine. The charter also granted all the land, between these northerly and southerly bounds, from the Atlantic, westward to the shores of the Pacific Ocean.[9]

[3] The 1663 charter granted the Lords Proprietor title to all of the land from the southern border of the

On March 24, 1663, Charles issued a new charter to a group of eight English noblemen, granting them the land of Carolina, as a reward for their faithful support of his efforts to regain the throne of England. The eight were called Lords Proprietors or simply Proprietors.

"A New Description of Carolina", engraved by Francis Lamb (London, Tho. Basset and Richard Chiswell, 1676)

1663 Charter

ruled the claim invalid. Charles II, Heath's heirs attempted to reassert their claim to the land, but restoration of the monarchy King Charles I was executed in 1649 and Heath fled to France where he died. Following the 1660 [8]

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