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Puerto Montt

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Puerto Montt

Puerto Montt
Meli Pulli
City and Commune
Coastal stroll of Puerto Montt
Coastal stroll of Puerto Montt
Flag of Puerto Montt
Flag
Coat of arms of Puerto Montt
Coat of arms
Location of the Puerto Montt commune in Los Lagos Region
Location of the Puerto Montt commune in Los Lagos Region
Puerto Montt is located in Chile
Puerto Montt
Puerto Montt
Location in Chile
Coordinates (city):
Country Chile
Region Los Lagos
Province Llanquihue
Founded as Melipulli
Founded 12 February 1853
Government[1]
 • Type Municipality
 • Alcalde Gervoy Paredes Rojas (PS)
Area[2]
 • Total 1,673.0 km2 (645.9 sq mi)
Elevation 14 m (46 ft)
Population (2012 Census)[3]
 • Total 218,858
 • Density 130/km2 (340/sq mi)
 • Urban 192,473
 • Rural 26,385
Sex[3]
 • Men 107,748
 • Women 111,110
Time zone CLT (UTC−4)
 • Summer (DST) CLST (UTC−3)
Postal code 54800000
Area code(s) 56 + 65
Twin cities
 •  Quebec City Canada
Website Official website (Spanish)

Puerto Montt is a port city and commune in southern Chile, located at the northern end of the Reloncaví Sound in the Llanquihue Province, Los Lagos Region, 1,055 km to the south of the capital, Santiago. The commune spans an area of 1,673 km2 (646 sq mi) and had a population of 175,938 in 2002. It is bounded by the communes of Puerto Varas to the north, Cochamó to the east and southeast, Calbuco to the southwest and Maullín and Los Muermos to the west. Founded as late as 1853 during the German colonization of southern Chile, Puerto Montt soon outgrew older neighboring cities due to its strategic position at the southern end of the Chilean Central Valley being a gateway city into Chiloé Archipelago, Llanquihue and Nahuel Huapi lakes and Western Patagonia.

Puerto Montt has gained renown and grown significantly due to the rise of Chile as the second largest salmon producer of the world during the 1990s and 2000s. However, the Chilean salmon aquaculture crisis of the late 2000s resulted at least temporarily in severe unemployment and exposed weaknesses in the local economy. The city's cultural heritage mixes elements of Chiloé culture with German heritage although the city has attracted a significant number of newcomers from all over Chile in the last 30 years due to employment opportunities.

History

Originally, the site was covered by a thick forest and was called Melipulli (which means Four hills in Mapudungun). It was selected as an entrance to Lake Llanquihue when its proximity to the open sea was discovered. In the summer of 1851, an expedition arrived from Chiloé to begin the clearing of the area and the building of houses for the new inhabitants. The city itself was founded on February 12, 1853, after government-sponsored immigration from Germany that began in 1848 populated the region and integrated it politically to the rest of the country. It was named after Manuel Montt, President of Chile between 1851 and 1861, who set in motion the German immigration.

At the start of March 1969, approximately 90 landless persons received advice from Socialist member of parliament Luis Espinoza due to the local authority never granting them any land they needed to build homes. On March 4, 1969, they settled on farmland belonging to an absentee landlord. Having been denied titles by the local authorities, these families simply moved onto the empty, unoccupied land. They did so seeking squatters' rights, and without making any payment of rent. Some four or five days later, the local Police Chief Rolando Rodríguez Marbán reassured the squatters that they would not be disturbed and could proceed with their home construction. However, a change of plans by the ministry of the interior quickly led to new orders. At midnight on March 9, Luis Espinoza was charged with breaking the law, arrested, and moved to the city of Valdivia. Following direct orders from Interior Minister Edmundo Pérez Zujovic, 250 armed policemen launched an assault on the squatting families that dawn. Eight of the landless persons were shot dead. All of the newly built homes were burned to the ground. The massacre is poignantly memorialized by singer-songwriter Víctor Jara in his song Preguntas por Puerto Montt.

The massacre of Puerto Montt and the public outcry that followed were major factors contributing to the defeat of Eduardo Frei's party in the Chilean presidential election of 1970 which was succeeded by Salvador Allende's Unidad Popular.

Demographics

According to the 2002 census of the National Statistics Institute, Puerto Montt spans an area of 1,673 km2 (646 sq mi);[2] according to the 2012 census it has 218,858 inhabitants (107,748 men and 111,110 women). Of these, 192,473 (87.9%) lived in urban areas and 26,385 (12.1%) in rural areas. The population grew by 24.4% (42,920 persons) between the 2002 and 2012 censuses.[3]

Climate

Puerto Montt has a wet oceanic climate (Köppen: Cfb) with heavy rainfall throughout the year and only a very minor drying trend in the summer. Although temperatures are consistently cool, frosts are very rare and occur only a couple of times per month in the winter. For the 41st parallel south, closer to the equator than to the south pole, Puerto Montt is much cooler than areas further inland in terms of summer temperatures, due to cool ocean currents nearby. This is compounded by the lack of a sizeable landmass on those parallels in the southern hemisphere. That renders Puerto Montt to have much cooler summers than areas at similar distances from the equator in the northern hemisphere, with the only exception being the Northern California coastline, also being affected by cool Pacific currents.

Climate data for Puerto Montt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.7
(94.5)
30.0
(86)
30.8
(87.4)
31.1
(88)
21.6
(70.9)
18.6
(65.5)
20.5
(68.9)
19.5
(67.1)
23.9
(75)
24.0
(75.2)
28.1
(82.6)
29.9
(85.8)
34.7
(94.5)
Average high °C (°F) 19.2
(66.6)
18.9
(66)
17.4
(63.3)
14.8
(58.6)
12.4
(54.3)
10.2
(50.4)
9.9
(49.8)
10.8
(51.4)
12.4
(54.3)
14.2
(57.6)
16.0
(60.8)
18.0
(64.4)
14.5
(58.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
13.9
(57)
12.5
(54.5)
10.5
(50.9)
9.0
(48.2)
6.9
(44.4)
6.5
(43.7)
7.0
(44.6)
8.2
(46.8)
9.7
(49.5)
11.5
(52.7)
13.3
(55.9)
10.3
(50.5)
Average low °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
9.0
(48.2)
8.0
(46.4)
6.6
(43.9)
5.9
(42.6)
3.9
(39)
3.5
(38.3)
3.7
(38.7)
4.4
(39.9)
5.6
(42.1)
7.1
(44.8)
8.6
(47.5)
6.3
(43.3)
Record low °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.1
(26.4)
−5.1
(22.8)
−5.9
(21.4)
−7.1
(19.2)
−4.7
(23.5)
−5.4
(22.3)
−1.8
(28.8)
0.0
(32)
0.9
(33.6)
−7.1
(19.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 89.8
(3.535)
82.3
(3.24)
94.6
(3.724)
146.9
(5.783)
222.1
(8.744)
235.9
(9.287)
218.3
(8.594)
188.9
(7.437)
141.9
(5.587)
128.4
(5.055)
109.9
(4.327)
105.8
(4.165)
1,764.8
(69.478)
Avg. precipitation days 14 12 15 19 22 22 22 22 20 19 17 15 219
% humidity 79 81 84 88 90 91 90 88 85 83 81 80 85
Mean monthly sunshine hours 226.3 211.9 167.4 123.0 80.6 60.0 74.4 102.3 129.0 155.0 171.0 213.9 1,714.8
Source #1: Dirección Meteorológica de Chile[4]
Source #2: Universidad de Chile (sunshine hours only)[5]

Economy

Puerto Montt is the capital of the Los Lagos Region and the Llanquihue Province, and the main sea port at the lower end of Chile's western continental land. The city is the principal commercial, services, and financial hub of the of Chilean Northern PatagoniaZona Austral. As the geographic region's main port, Puerto Montt is often considered the 'capital' of Chilean Patagonia.

Puerto Montt is also the gateway to the Chiloé Archipelago and Chiloé Island across the Chacao Channel, and the many other smaller islands in Chile's inland Sea of Chiloé.

The city's economy is now based upon agriculture, cattle, and forestry on the surrounding islands, and fishing and salmon aquaculture in the fjords and nearby Pacific Ocean.

Salmon aquaculture

The city is configured as the hub of one of the largest salmon aquaculture industries in the world. Hatcheries, fisheries and packing plants are mostly located south of Puerto Montt. Fresh salmon is flown daily to world markets and frozen salmon is shipped by ocean to all destinations. The tremendous growth of the region, mainly due to the salmon industry, but also due to rapid expansion of forestry, cattle, and tourism, has proven the massive economic potential of Puerto Montt and its surrounding area.

Airports

Puerto Montt has the El Tepual Airport, where two airlines operate regular flights to and from Santiago, Punta Arenas, Balmaceda, Concepción, Temuco and Bariloche (Argentina). The airlines operating at the airport are LAN Airlines (the country's largest) and Sky Airline. The flight time to Santiago is approximately two hours.

Administration

As a commune, Puerto Montt is a third-level administrative division of Chile administered by a municipal council, headed by an alcalde who is directly elected every four years. The 2012-2016 alcalde is Gervoy Paredes Rojas

Within the electoral divisions of Chile, Puerto Montt is represented in the Chamber of Deputies by Marisol Turres (UDI) and Patricio Vallespín (PDC) as part of the 57th electoral district, (together with Cochamó and Maullín, Calbuco). The commune is represented in the Senate by Camilo Escalona Medina (PS) and Carlos Kuschel Silva (RN) as part of the 17th senatorial constituency (Los Lagos Region).

Gallery

Notable people

Anthropologist Wladimir Cárcamo Soto was born in Puerto Montt.

References

  1. ^ "Municipality of Puerto Montt" (in Español). Retrieved 1 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "National Statistics Institute" (in Español). Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c  
  4. ^ "Estadisca Climatologica Tomo II" (in Spanish). Dirección General de Aeronáutica Civil. March 2001. Retrieved December 25, 2012. 
  5. ^ "Medias mensuales de horas de sol diarias extraıdas del WRDC para las ciudades Chilenas" (PDF) (in Spanish). Universidad de Chile. September 2007. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 

External links

  • Municipality of Puerto Montt
  • Puerto Montt City Guide
  • Satellite view of Puerto Montt Google Maps
Centre of Puerto Montt

See also

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