Pythagorean comma on C.
Play . The note depicted as lower on the staff (B
♯+++) is slightly higher in pitch (than C
♮).
In musical tuning, the Pythagorean comma (or ditonic comma^{[1]}), named after the ancient mathematician and philosopher Pythagoras, is the small interval (or comma) existing in Pythagorean tuning between two enharmonically equivalent notes such as C and B♯ ( Play ), or D♭ and C♯.^{[2]} It is equal to the frequency ratio 531441:524288, or approximately 23.46 cents, roughly a quarter of a semitone (in between 75:74 and 74:73^{[3]}). The comma which musical temperaments often refer to tempering is the Pythagorean comma.^{[4]}
The Pythagorean comma can be also defined as the difference between a Pythagorean apotome and a Pythagorean limma^{[5]} (i.e., between a chromatic and a diatonic semitone, as determined in Pythagorean tuning), or the difference between twelve just perfect fifths and seven octaves, or the difference between three Pythagorean ditones and one octave (this is the reason why the Pythagorean comma is also called a ditonic comma).
The diminished second, in Pythagorean tuning, is defined as the difference between limma and apotome. It coincides therefore with the opposite of a Pythagorean comma, and can be viewed as a descending Pythagorean comma (e.g. from C♯ to D♭), equal to about −23.46 cents.
Contents

Derivation 1

Size 2

Circle of fifths and enharmonic change 3

History 4

See also 5

References 6
Derivation
As described in the introduction, the Pythagorean comma may be derived in multiple ways:
A just perfect fifth has a frequency ratio of 3/2. It is used in Pythagorean tuning, together with the octave, as a yardstick to define, with respect to a given initial note, the frequency ratio of any other note.
Apotome and limma are the two kinds of semitones defined in Pythagorean tuning. Namely, the apotome (about 113.69 cents, e.g. from C to C♯) is the chromatic semitone, or augmented unison (A1), while the limma (about 90.23 cents, e.g. from C to D♭) is the diatonic semitone, or minor second (m2).
A ditone (or major third) is an interval formed by two major tones. In Pythagorean tuning, a major tone has a size of about 203.9 cents (frequency ratio 9:8), thus a Pythagorean ditone is about 407.8 cents.
Octaves (7 × 1200 = 8400) versus fifths (12 × 701.96 = 8423.52), depicted as with
Cuisenaire rods (red (2) is used for 1200, black (7) is used for 701.96).
Octaves (1 × 1200 = 1200) versus ditones (3 × 407.82 = 1223.46), depicted as with
Cuisenaire rods (red (2) is used for 1200, magenta (4) is used for 407.82).
Size
The size of a Pythagorean comma, measured in cents, is

\hbox{apotome}  \hbox{limma} \approx 113.69  90.23 \approx 23.46 ~\hbox{cents} \!
or more exactly, in terms of frequency ratios:

\frac{\hbox{apotome}}{\hbox{limma}} =\frac{3^7/2^{11}}{2^8/3^5} = \frac{3^{12}}{2^{19}} = \frac{531441}{524288} = 1.0136432647705078125 \!
The Pythagorean comma shown as the gap (on the right side) which causes a 12pointed star to fail to close, which star represents the Pythagorean scale; each line representing a just perfect fifth. That gap has a central angle of 7.038 degrees, which is 23.46% of 30 degrees.
Circle of fifths and enharmonic change
Pythagorean comma as twelve justly tuned perfect fifths.
The Pythagorean comma can also be thought of as the discrepancy between twelve justly tuned perfect fifths (ratio 3:2) ( play ) and seven octaves (ratio 2:1):

\frac{\hbox{twelve fifths}}{\hbox{seven octaves}} =\left(\tfrac32\right)^{12} \!\!\Big/\, 2^{7} = \frac{3^{12}}{2^{19}} = \frac{531441}{524288} = 1.0136432647705078125 \!
Ascending by perfect fifths
Note

Fifth

Frequency ratio

Decimal ratio

C

0

1 : 1

1

G

1

3 : 2

1.5

D

2

9 : 4

2.25

A

3

27 : 8

3.375

E

4

81 : 16

5.0625

B

5

243 : 32

7.59375

F♯

6

729 : 64

11.390625

C♯

7

2187 : 128

17.0859375

G♯

8

6561 : 256

25.62890625

D♯

9

19683 : 512

38.443359375

A♯

10

59049 : 1024

57.6650390625

E♯

11

177147 : 2048

86.49755859375

B♯ (≈ C)

12

531441 : 4096

129.746337890625


Ascending by octaves
Note

Octave

Frequency ratio

C

0

1 : 1

C

1

2 : 1

C

2

4 : 1

C

3

8 : 1

C

4

16 : 1

C

5

32 : 1

C

6

64 : 1

C

7

128 : 1


In the following table of musical scales in the circle of fifths, the Pythagorean comma is visible as the small interval between e.g. F♯ and G♭.
The 6♭ and the 6♯ scales* are not identical  even though they are on the piano keyboard  but the ♭ scales are one Pythagorean comma lower. Disregarding this difference leads to enharmonic change.
* The 7♭ and 5♯, respectively 5♭ and 7♯ scales differ in the same way by one Pythagorean comma. Scales with seven accidentals are seldom used, because the enharmonic scales with five accidentals are treated as equivalent.
This interval has serious implications for the various tuning schemes of the chromatic scale, because in Western music, 12 perfect fifths and seven octaves are treated as the same interval. Equal temperament, today the most common tuning system used in the West, reconciled this by flattening each fifth by a twelfth of a Pythagorean comma (approximately 2 cents), thus producing perfect octaves.
Another way to express this is that the just fifth has a frequency ratio (compared to the tonic) of 3:2 or 1.5 to 1, whereas the seventh semitone (based on 12 equal logarithmic divisions of an octave) is the seventh power of the twelfth root of two or 1.4983... to 1, which is not quite the same (out by about 0.1%). Take the just fifth to the twelfth power, then subtract seven octaves, and you get the Pythagorean comma (about 1.4% difference).
History
The first to mention the comma's proportion of 531441:524288 was Euclid, who takes as a basis the whole tone of Pythagorean tuning with the ratio of 9:8, the octave with the ratio of 2:1, and a number A = 262144. He concludes that raising this number by six whole tones yields a value G which is larger than that yielded by raising it by an octave (two times A). He gives G to be 531441.^{[6]} The necessary calculations read:
Calculation of G:


262144 \cdot \left(\textstyle{\frac 9 8}\right)^6 = 531441
Calculation of the double of A:


262144 \cdot \left(\textstyle{\frac 2 1}\right)^1 = 524288
Chinese mathematicians had been aware of the Pythagorean comma as early as 122 BC (its calculation is detailed in the Huainanzi), and circa 50 BC, Ching Fang discovered that if the cycle of perfect fifths were continued beyond 12 all the way to 53, the difference between this 53rd pitch and the starting pitch would be much smaller than the Pythagorean comma. This much smaller interval was later named Mercator's comma (see: history of 53 equal temperament).
More recently, John Allsup^{[7]} has proposed going 665 steps around the circle of fifths rather than 12, so that the resulting comma is less than one part in 22000, so the comma will be imperceptible to the listener.
In George Russell's


Numbers in brackets are the number of semitones in the interval.
Fractional semitones are approximate.


Twelve
semitone
(Western)



Other
systems



Other
intervals

Groups






Measurement



Others





^ not to be confused with the diatonic comma, better known as syntonic comma, equal to the frequency ratio 81:80, or around 21.51 cents. See: Johnston B. (2006). "Maximum Clarity" and Other Writings on Music, edited by Bob Gilmore. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252030982.

^ Apel, Willi (1969). Harvard Dictionary of Music, p.188. ISBN 9780674375017. "...the difference between the two semitones of the Pythagorean scale..."

^ Ginsburg, Jekuthiel (2003). Scripta Mathematica, p.287. ISBN 9780766138353.

^ Coyne, Richard (2010). The Tuning of Place: Sociable Spaces and Pervasive Digital Media, p.45. ISBN 9780262013918.

^ Kottick, Edward L. (1992). The Harpsichord Owner's Guide, p.151. ISBN 0807843881.

^ Euclid: Katatome kanonos (lat. Sectio canonis). Engl. transl. in: Andrew Barker (Ed.): Greek Musical Writings. Vol. 2: Harmonic and Acoustic Theory, Cambridge Mass.: Cambridge University Press, 2004, pp. 190–208, here: p. 199.

^ http://chalisque.org/chalitones.pdf

^ Russell, George (2001) [1953]. George Russell's Lydian chromatic concept of tonal organization. Volume One: The art and science of tonal gravity (Fourth (Second printing, corrected, 2008) ed.). Brookline, Massachusetts: Concept Publishing Company. pp. 17, 5759. ISBN 0970373902.
References
See also
^{[8]}2 in his Altered Major and Minor Auxiliary Diminished Blues scales is theoretically based on the interval of a Pythagorean comma.♭
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