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Ramiz Alia

Ramiz Alia
1st President of Albania
In office
30 April 1991 – 9 April 1992
Preceded by Himself as Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
Succeeded by Sali Berisha
Chairman of the Presidium of the Albanian People's Assembly
In office
22 November 1982 – 30 April 1991
Preceded by Haxhi Lleshi
Succeeded by Himself as President
First Secretary of the Party of Labor of Albania
In office
13 April 1985 – 4 May 1991
Preceded by Enver Hoxha
Succeeded by End of Communist rule
Personal details
Born (1925-10-18)18 October 1925
Shkodër, Albanian Republic (now Albania)
Died 7 October 2011(2011-10-07) (aged 85)
Tirana, Albania
Nationality Albanian
Political party Party of Labour of Albania (1961–1992)
Socialist Party of Albania (1992–2011)
Spouse(s) Semiramis Alia (1928–1986)

    (18 October 1925 – 7 October 2011) was the second and last Communist leader of Albania from 1985 to 1991, and the country's head of state from 1982 to 1992. He had been designated as successor by Enver Hoxha and took power after Hoxha died. Alia died on 7 October 2011 in Tirana due to lung disease, aged 85.[1] He was the first President of Albania from 1991 to 1992.

Contents

  • Early life and politics 1
  • Political career 2
    • First Secretary of the Albanian Labor Party 2.1
    • Transition to multi-party system and presidency 2.2
  • Arrest 3
  • Death 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Bibliography 7
  • Sources 8
  • External links 9

Early life and politics

Alia was born on 18 October 1925.[2] His parents were from

Political offices
Preceded by
Minister of Education and Culture
1955–1958
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Enver Hoxha
First Secretary of the Albanian Party of Labour
13 April 1985–4 May 1991
Succeeded by
End of Communist rule
Preceded by
Haxhi Lleshi
Chairman of the Presidium of the Albanian People's Assembly
22 November 1982–30 April 1991
Succeeded by
Himself as President
Preceded by
Himself as Chairman of the Presidium of the People's Assembly
President of Albania
30 April 1991–9 April 1992
Succeeded by
Sali Berisha

External links

  • Political Parties in Albania 1912-2006, Afrim Krasniqi, Tirana, 2007/a

Sources

  • Alia, Ramiz. Jeta ime: Kujtime, Tirana, Toena: 2010

Bibliography

  1. ^ a b Albania's last Communist leader Ramiz Alia dies, CNBC, 7 October 2011.
  2. ^ a b Dennis Kavanagh (1998). "Alia, Ramiz". A Dictionary of Political Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 9. Retrieved 31 August 2013.  – via Questia (subscription required)
  3. ^ a b c d e Ramiz Alia Biography
  4. ^ a b J.F. Brown: Background Notes to Albania's Party Congress – Special Report, Open Society Archives, 2 February 1961.
  5. ^ Eastern Christianity and the Cold War, 1945-91, p.154
  6. ^ "Ish-presidenti i Shqipërisë, Ramiz Alia boton librin "Jeta Ime"" Shqiperia, 4 May 2011

References

See also

Ramiz Alia died on 7 October 2011 in Tiranë from lung disease, shortly before his 86th birthday, according to a spokesman for President Bamir Topi.[1]

Death

A court of appeals subsequently reduced some of the sentences, notably Alia's to five years. Alia, Myftiu, Carçani, Stefani and Isai were also ordered to repay various sums to the state. On 30 November, the Court of Cassation reduced Alia's term by an additional three years. On 7 July 1995, Ramiz Alia was freed from jail. However, his freedom was short-lived and in 1996 he was charged with committing crimes against humanity during his term, and was imprisoned anew in March. The trial against him began on 18 February 1997, but he escaped from the prison following the unrest in the country and the desertion of the guards.[3] Amid the unrest he appeared on State TV in an exclusive interview with Blendi Fevziu. In the late 2000s he was sometimes seen traveling to Albania from Dubai to give interviews or publicize his books.[6]

Alia had been placed under house arrest in August 1992 and his detention was converted into imprisonment in August 1993.[3] In court he claimed he was the victim of a political show trial and demanded that the trial be broadcast on television, a request denied by the presiding judge. The trial was monitored by a Human Rights Watch/Helsinki representative and proceeded with only minor due process irregularities. The ten defendants were found guilty as charged and sentenced to between three and nine years in prison; Alia received a nine-year sentence.

On 21 May 1994, senior officials from the Communist regime, including Ramiz Alia, went to trial. Alia was charged with abuse of power and misappropriation of state funds, as was Adil Carçani, the former prime minister, Manush Myftiu, his deputy, and Rita Marko, a former vice-president.

Arrest

Alia managed to remain a key political figure throughout several political crises. Nonetheless, with Albania in the throes of a grave economic crisis, Alia had to face challenges that he could not surmount. After the collapse of a coalition government in December 1991 and the Democratic Party of Albania's (DPA) landslide victory in the spring 1992 general election, he resigned as president on 3 April 1992.[3] On 9 April the People's Assembly elected DPA leader Sali Berisha as Albania's new head of state.

Alia was a crucial figure in the peaceful political transition of the early 1990s as many believe that he helped the rise to power of the anti-communist opposition forces thus eliminating possible bloodshed.

Despite Alia's efforts to proceed with change on a limited, cautious basis, reform from above threatened to turn into reform from below, largely because of the increasingly vocal demands of Albania's youth. On 9 December 1990, student demonstrators marched from the Enver Hoxha University (now Greece. Young people motivated by economic dissatisfaction made up the bulk of the refugees.

Transition to multi-party system and presidency

Alia did not relax censorship, but he did allow public discussions of Albania's societal problems and encouraged debates among writers and artists on cultural issues. In response to international criticism of Albania's record on human rights, the new leadership loosened some political controls and ceased to apply repression on a mass scale. In 1989, general amnesties brought about the release of many long-term prisoners. He strengthened ties with Greece, Italy, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. A loosening of restrictions on travel and tourism resulted in a more promising outlook for Albania's tourist trade.

After World War II, Alia resumed his duties in the Communist Youth Organization, and at the First Congress of the Albanian Party of Labor in November 1948, he was elected to its Central Committee and was assigned to the department of agitation and propaganda.[3] When he succeeded Hoxha in 1985, the country was in grave difficulty. Political apathy and cynicism were pervasive, with large segments of the population having rejected the government's values. The economy, which suffered from low productivity and permanent shortages of the most basic foodstuffs, showed no sign of improvement. Social controls and self-discipline had eroded. The intelligentsia was beginning to resist strict party controls and to criticize the government's failure to observe international standards of human rights. Apparently recognizing the depth and extent of the societal malaise, Alia cautiously and slowly began to make changes in the system. His first target was the economic system. In an effort to improve economic efficiency, Alia introduced some economic decentralization and price reform in specific sectors.

First Secretary of the Albanian Labor Party

Political career

Hoxha chose Alia for several reasons. First, Alia had long been a militant follower of Marxism-Leninism and supported Hoxha's policy of national self-reliance. Alia also was favored by Hoxha's wife Nexhmije, who had once been his instructor at the Institute of Marxism-Leninism. His political experience was similar to that of Hoxha; and inasmuch as he appeared to share Hoxha's views on most foreign and domestic issues, he accommodated himself to the totalitarian mode of ruling.

[5]).Politburo of the Party of Labour of Albania He had risen rapidly under Hoxha's patronage and by 1961 was a full member of the ruling Political Bureau ([4].Albanian Communist Party In 1943, he became a member of the [4][3]

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