World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Retroflex nasal

Article Id: WHEBN0000524857
Reproduction Date:

Title: Retroflex nasal  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of consonants, Velar nasal, Palatal nasal, Nasal consonant, IPA Braille
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Retroflex nasal

Retroflex nasal
ɳ
IPA number 117
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɳ
Unicode (hex) U+0273
X-SAMPA n`
Kirshenbaum n.
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345)
Sound
 ·

The retroflex nasal is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɳ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of an en (the letter used for the corresponding alveolar consonant). It is similar to ɲ, the letter for the palatal nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the left stem, and to ŋ, the letter for the velar nasal, which has a leftward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of the right stem.

Contents

  • Features 1
  • Occurrence 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Bibliography 5

Features

Features of the retroflex nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Enindhilyagwa yingarna [jiŋaɳa] 'snake'
Hindi गणेश [ɡəɳeʃ] 'Ganesha' See Hindi phonology
Kannada ಅಣೆ [ʌɳe] 'dam'
Khanty Eastern dialects еңә [eɳə] 'large'
Some northern dialects
Malayalam[1] അണ [aɳə] 'jaw'
Marathi बा [baːɳ] 'arrow' See Marathi phonology
Marshallese Ņadikdik [ɳˠɑrʲiɯɡɯirʲiɯk] 'Knox Atoll'
Norwegian garn     'yarn' See Norwegian phonology
Oriya ବଣି [bɔɳi] 'old'
Pashto اتڼ/Ata     'Attan'
Punjabi ਪੁਰਾਣਾ / پُراڻا [pʊraːɳaː] 'old'
Swedish[2] garn     'yarn' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[3] அணல் [aɳal] 'neck' See Tamil phonology
Telugu ఒణ్ఢు [oɳɖu] 'cook'
Vietnamese[4] bạn trả [ɓaɳ˧ˀ˨ʔ ʈa˧˩˧] 'you pay' Allophone of /n/ before /ʈ/. See Vietnamese phonology
Westrobothnian eran [ɛːrɑɳ] 'errand' Allophone of [n], see Westrobothnian

See also

References

  1. ^ Ladefoged (2005:165)
  2. ^ Eliasson (1986:278–279)
  3. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  4. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)

Bibliography

  • Eliasson, Stig (1986), "Sandhi in Peninsular Scandinavian", in Anderson, Henning, Sandhi Phenomena in the Languages of Europe, Berlin: de Gruyter, pp. 271–300 
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 111–116,  
  •  
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476,  
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.