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Robert Axelrod

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Title: Robert Axelrod  
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Subject: The Evolution of Cooperation, Tit for tat, Social simulation, Cooperation, Regime theory
Collection: 1943 Births, 20Th-Century American Mathematicians, 21St-Century American Mathematicians, American Political Scientists, Council on Foreign Relations, Fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Game Theorists, International Relations Scholars, Jefferson Science Fellows, Living People, MacArthur Fellows, Members of the United States National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Sciences Laureates, University of California, Berkeley Faculty, University of Chicago Alumni, University of Michigan Faculty, Yale University Alumni
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Robert Axelrod

Robert Marshall Axelrod (born May 27, 1943) is an American political scientist. He is Professor of Political Science and Public Policy at the University of Michigan where he has been since 1974. He is best known for his interdisciplinary work on the evolution of cooperation, which has been cited in numerous articles. His current research interests include complexity theory (especially agent-based modeling), international security, and cyber security. Axelrod is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.[1]


  • Biography 1
  • Bibliography 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


Axelrod received his B.A. in mathematics from the University of Chicago in 1964. In 1969, he received his Ph.D. in political science from Yale University for thesis titled Conflict of interest: a theory of divergent goals with applications to politics. He taught at the University of California, Berkeley, from 1968 until 1974.

Among his honors and awards are membership in the National Academy of Sciences, a five-year MacArthur Prize Fellowship, the Newcomb Cleveland Prize of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences for an outstanding contribution to science. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1985.[2] In 1990 Axelrod was awarded the inaugural NAS Award for Behavior Research Relevant to the Prevention of Nuclear War from the National Academy of Sciences.[3]

Recently Axelrod has consulted and lectured on promoting cooperation and harnessing complexity for the K-12 educators.

Axelrod was the President of the American Political Science Association (APSA) for the 2006-2007 term. He focused his term on the theme of interdisciplinarity.

In May 2006, Axelrod was awarded an honorary degree by Johan Skytte Prize in Political Science. In 2014, President Barack Obama presented Axelrod with a National Medal of Science.[4] On May 28, 2015, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by Harvard University.



  • Axelrod, Robert (1970). Conflict of interest: a theory of divergent goals with applications to politics. Markham Pub. Co. Retrieved 28 April 2012. 
  • Axelrod, Robert (1976), Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Map of Political Elites, Princeton University Press,  
  • Axelrod, Robert (1984),  
  • Axelrod, Robert (1997),  
  • Axelrod, Robert (2006), The Evolution of Cooperation (Revised ed.), Perseus Books Group,  
  • Axelrod, Robert; Cohen, Michael D. (2001-08-02). Harnessing Complexity. Basic Books.  

Journal articles

  • Axelrod, Robert; Hamilton, William D. (27 March 1981). "The evolution of cooperation". Science (Highwire Press: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)) 211 (4489): 1390–1396.  
  • Axelrod, Robert (April 1997). "The dissemination of culture: a model with local convergence and global polarization". Journal of Conflict Resolution (Sage) 41 (2): 203–226.  

See also


  1. ^ Membership Roster - Council on Foreign Relations
  2. ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter A" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  3. ^ "NAS Award for Behavior Research Relevant to the Prevention of Nuclear War". National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 16 February 2011. 
  4. ^ "Remarks by the President at National Medals of Science and National Medals of Technology and Innovation Award Ceremony". White House. Retrieved 29 December 2014. 

External links

  • Robert Axelrod's Home Page
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