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Russian legislative election, 1999

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Russian legislative election, 1999

Russian legislative election, 1999

December 19, 1999

All 450 seats to the State Duma
226 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Leader Gennady Zyuganov Sergey Shoigu
Party Communist Party Unity
Last election 157
Seats won 113 73
Seat change Decrease 44 Increase 73
Popular vote 16,196,024 15,549,182
Percentage 24.29% 23.32%
Swing Increase 1.37pp
Election results

Parliamentary elections were held in Russia on December 19, 1999.[1] At stake were the 450 seats in the State Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia. According to the 1993 electoral law, 225 members of the house were allocated proportionally, using statewide party lists, while other 225 members were elected in single-member constituencies, using first past the post system. Like in the previous election, this system resulted in a large number of parties competing for the proportional seats, as well as a significant number of independent deputies elected.

Rules

To secure a place on the ballot, parties had to have registered with the Russian Ministry of Justice one year before the election (instead of six months in previous elections). As an alternative to gathering 200,000 signatures, they had the option of paying a deposit of just over two million roubles, returnable if the party won at least 3.0 percent of the list vote. In order to increase proportionality, the law provided that if parties reaching the five per cent threshold got in total 50 per cent or less of the vote, parties with at least 3.0 per cent of the vote would also win seats by declining numbers of votes up to the point at which the total share of vote exceeded 50 per cent. However, if after this procedure the parties winning seats still had less than 50 per cent of the vote, the election was to be deemed invalid. In the single-member district ballots, if votes cast against all exceeded the votes of each candidate, a repeat election had to be held within four months. As a result, repeat elections had to be held in eight districts. Finally, as an alternative to gathering signatures in support of their nomination, single-member district candidates were also given the option of paying a deposit of 83,490 roubles, returnable if she won at least 5.0 percent of the district vote.

Campaign

The early election campaign saw the initial surge in popularity of Fatherland-All Russia bloc, led by the Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov and the former Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov, which tried to capitalize upon the perceived incapacity of President Boris Yeltsin and the weakness of his administration. The tide had turned, however, when Yeltsin designated Vladimir Putin as Prime Minister and his eventual successor. On 24 November, Putin announced that "as a citizen" he will support the recently formed pro-government bloc Interregional Movement "Unity", headed by General Sergei Shoigu, a member of all Russian governments since 1994.

Results

Party PR Constituency Total
seats
+/–
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
Communist Party 16,196,024 24.29 67 8,893,547 13.73 46 113 –44
Unity 15,549,182 23.32 64 1,408,801 2.17 9 73 New
Fatherland – All Russia 8,886,753 13.33 37 5,469,389 8.43 31 68 New
Union of Rightist Forces 5,677,247 8.52 24 2,016,294 3.11 5 29 New
Zhirinovsky Bloc 3,990,038 5.98 17 1,026,690 1.58 0 17 –34
Yabloko 3,955,611 5.93 16 3,289,760 5.07 4 20 –25
Communists and Workers of Russia - for the Soviet Union 1,481,890 2.22 0 439,770 0.68 0 0 –1
Women of Russia 1,359,042 2.04 0 326,884 0.50 0 0 –3
Russian Pensioners' Party 1,298,971 1.95 0 480,087 0.74 1 1 New
Our Home – Russia 790,983 1.19 0 1,733,257 2.67 7 7 –48
Russian Party for the Protection of Women 536,022 0.8 0 0 New
Congress of Russian Communities-Yuri Boldyrev Movement 405,298 0.61 0 461,069 0.71 1 1 –4
Stalinist Bloc for the USSR 404,274 0.61 0 64,346 0.10 0 0 New
For Civil Dignity 402,754 0.6 0 147,611 0.23 0 0 New
All-Russian Political Movement in Support of the Army 384,404 0.58 0 466,176 0.72 2 2 New
Peace, Labour, May 383,332 0.57 0 126,418 0.19 0 0 New
Andreii Nikolayev and Svyatoslav Fyodorov Bloc 371,938 0.56 0 676,437 1.04 1 1 New
Party of Peace and Unity 247,041 0.37 0 0 New
Russian All-People's Union 245,266 0.37 0 700,976 1.08 2 2 New
Russian Socialist Party 156,709 0.24 0 662,030 1.02 1 1 New
Russian Cause 111,802 0.17 0 1,846 0.00 0 0 New
Conservative Movement of Russia 87,658 0.13 0 125,926 0.19 0 0 New
All-Russian People's Party 69,695 0.10 0 0 New
All-Russian Socio-Political Movement "Spiritual Heritage" 67,417 0.1 0 594,426 0.92 1 1 New
Socialist Party of Russia 61,689 0.09 0 30,085 0.05 0 0 New
Social-Democrats 50,948 0.08 0 18,618 0.03 0 0 0
Russian Ecological Party "Kedr" 112,167 0.17 0 0 0
Russian Patriotic Popular Movement 10,481 0.02 0 0 New
Russian Party 7,918 0.01 0 0 0
Russian Conservative Party of Entrepreneurs 2,647 0.00 0 0 New
Independents 27,877,095 42.98 105 105 +28
Against all 2,198,702 3.32 7,695,171 11.86 8 8
Vacant seats 1 1
Invalid/blank votes 1,296,992 1,429,779
Total 66,667,682 100 225 66,295,701 100 225 450 0
Registered voters/turnout 108,073,956 61.7 108,073,956 61.3
Source: Nohlen & Stöver, University of Essex

Further reading

  • Hesli, Vicki L. & William M. Reisinger (2003). The 1999–2000 Elections in Russia: Their Impact and Legacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81676-9
reviewed by Luke March in: Slavic Review 63.4 (Winter 2004), 897–898.
  • Russian general elections
  • Final report on the parliamentary elections in the Russian Federation, 19 December 1999, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, February 13, 2000.
  • Ad hoc Committee to observe the parliamentary elections in Russia (19 December 1999), PACE Report. January 24, 2000.

References

  1. ^ Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1642 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
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