World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ryan Phillippe

Article Id: WHEBN0000247463
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ryan Phillippe  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Gosford Park, Stop-Loss (film), The Lincoln Lawyer (film), MacGruber (film), William Fichtner
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Ryan Phillippe

Ryan Phillippe
Phillippe in April 2011
Born Matthew Ryan Phillippe
(1974-09-10) September 10, 1974
New Castle, Delaware, U.S.
Other names Ryan Phillipe
Occupation Actor, Director, Writer
Years active 1992–present
Spouse(s) Reese Witherspoon (m. 1999–2007)
Children 3

Matthew Ryan Phillippe (; born September 10, 1974), better known as Ryan Phillippe, is an American actor and director. After appearing on the soap opera One Life to Live, he came to fame in the late 1990s starring in a string of films, including I Know What You Did Last Summer, Cruel Intentions, and 54. In the 2000s, he appeared in several films, including 2001's Academy Award Best Picture nominee Gosford Park, 2005's Academy Award-winning ensemble film Crash, and the 2006 war drama Flags of Our Fathers. In 2007 he starred in Breach, a movie based on the true story of FBI operative Eric O'Neill, while in 2008 he headlined Kimberly Peirce's Iraq war film Stop-Loss. In 2010, he starred as Pulitzer Prize-winning photographer Greg Marinovich in The Bang-Bang Club.

He was married to actress Reese Witherspoon from 1999 to 2007; together, they have a daughter and a son. He also has a daughter from a relationship with actress Alexis Knapp.

Early life

Phillippe was born in New Castle, Delaware. His mother, Susan (née Thomas), ran a day care center in the family's house, and his father, Richard Phillippe, worked for DuPont.[1] Phillippe is of part French descent.[2] He has three sisters. He attended New Castle Baptist Academy, where he played basketball and soccer, as well as earned a black belt in Tae Kwon Do;[3] he was also the yearbook editor in his senior year. Ryan also attended and graduated from Barbizon Modeling and Acting in Wilmington, DE.[4]


Early career (1992–1999)

Phillippe's acting career began with an appearance in ABC daytime drama One Life to Live. His character Billy Douglas, whom he played from 1992 to 1993, was the first gay teenager on a daytime soap opera.[5] After leaving the show, Phillippe moved to Los Angeles, where he appeared in a number of small parts in various television series including Matlock, Due South, the TV mini-series The Secrets of Lake Success, and movies, including the 1995 film Crimson Tide and the 1996 film White Squall.

He was cast in the 1997 horror film, I Know What You Did Last Summer, which co-starred Sarah Michelle Gellar, Freddie Prinze, Jr. and Jennifer Love Hewitt. The film was a success, and led to Phillippe gaining wider renown and being cast in a few more high-profile films, including 54 in 1998 opposite Neve Campbell, Salma Hayek and Mike Myers. In 1999 he starred in Cruel Intentions, a modern retelling of the Choderlos de Laclos novel Les Liaisons Dangereuses, which also starred Phillippe's future wife Reese Witherspoon, as well as his I Know What You Did Last Summer co-star Sarah Michelle Gellar. It was a success among its intended teenage audience, cementing Phillippe's ability to play characters that require sex appeal. Phillippe can also be seen in the Marcy Playground music video "Comin' Up From Behind", which appears on the film's soundtrack.

Critical success and later work (2000–2011)

In the years following, he appeared in the crime drama The Way of the Gun, starred as a famed software engineer in the thriller Antitrust, and co-starred in Robert Altman's Gosford Park, which was nominated for the Oscar for Best Picture. Subsequently, Phillippe had supporting parts in the films Igby Goes Down (2002) and Crash (2005), which won the Oscar for Best Picture. His 2003 film The I Inside premiered on cable.

In 2006, Phillippe played real-life Navy corpsman John Bradley in the war film Flags of Our Fathers, directed by Clint Eastwood and following the journey of the United States Marines who lifted the flag at the Battle of Iwo Jima. Phillippe has said that the film was the "best experience" of his career because of its "personal meaning" to him,[6] and that he would have "given [his] life" to fight in World War II, noting that both of his grandfathers fought in the war.[7] His performance was positively received by film critic Richard Roeper, who thought it was Phillippe's best performance to date.[8] Phillippe's next role was in the thriller Breach, in which he played FBI investigator Eric O'Neill opposite Chris Cooper. He has since commented that he believes Cooper to be "the best actor America has to offer".[9] He then starred in Chaos, in which he plays a police officer, Five Fingers, a drama set in Morocco, Kimberly Peirce's Iraq war film Stop-Loss, and the futuristic Franklyn.

Phillippe at the premiere of The Bang Bang Club, during the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival

Next up for Phillippe was a rare comedic role as Lt. Dixon Piper in the unsuccessful film MacGruber, based on the SNL skit of the same name. It was released in the US and Canada on May 21, 2010.[10][11] As part of the film's promotion, Phillippe made his Saturday Night Live hosting debut on April 17, 2010, along with first-time musical performer Kesha.[12] Two days later, on April 19, 2010, Phillippe co-hosted WWE Raw with Jonathan Swift and Charo, also in support of MacGruber.[13]

That same year, Phillippe starred in the Canadian/South African production The Bang-Bang Club, which tells the real-life story of the Bang-Bang Club, four South African photographers whose images documented the bloody end of apartheid.[14] Phillippe stars as Pulitzer Prize-winning photographer Greg Marinovich. Filming for the movie took place in South Africa, beginning in March 2009. Phillippe described the filming process as "really run-and-gun. There were no comforts, and I actually appreciate that." He noted that the experience has impacted him, explaining that "we were shooting during the day in Soweto, and it was an endless procession of funerals—death is so common. Kids there have no quality of life. It has made me want to get more involved in Africa-based charities."[3] An early cut of the film was shown at Cannes Film Festival in May 2009,[15] with the final version shown at Cannes in May 2010.[16] The film officially premiered in September 2010 at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival. The US rights to the movie were picked up by Tribeca Film,[17] which premiered the movie at the 2011 Tribeca Film Festival and opened the movie in limited release on April 22, 2011.[18]

In the summer of 2010, Phillippe began filming the adaptation of popular crime novel The Lincoln Lawyer, taking on the role of Louis Roulet, a wealthy Los Angeles playboy accused of a crime for which his culpability is unclear. The movie, which also stars Matthew McConaughey, Marisa Tomei, and William H. Macy, opened on March 18, 2011,[19] and was generally well received by critics, scoring 82% on Rotten Tomatoes as of late March 2011.[20] Phillippe filmed his next project, heist action movie Setup, in December 2010 in Grand Rapids, Michigan.[21] Also starring Bruce Willis, Jenna Dewan, and 50 Cent, the movie focuses on a group of young men from Detroit whose attempt at a diamond heist goes awry and brings them into conflict with a mob boss.[22] The movie had a straight-to-DVD release on September 20, 2011.[23]

Phillippe next filmed the dramatic dark comedy Revenge for Jolly!, alongside Elijah Wood, Kristen Wiig, and Adam Brody, in the summer of 2011. The movie, which tells the story of a man set on finding his dog's murderer, premiered at the 2012 Tribeca Film Festival.[24][25] Phillippe subsequently began work on another movie, Straight A's, in August 2011.[26] Filmed in Shreveport, Louisiana, the movie stars Phillippe as a man who has been in and out of rehab for years and is now haunted by his mother's ghost, and also features Anna Paquin and Luke Wilson.[27]

Return to television and focus on directing and producing (2012–present)

Starting in November 2011, Phillippe spent several months filming a 10-episode arc on the fifth and final season of the critically acclaimed TV show Damages.[28][29][30] Playing Channing McClaren, a Julian Assange-like character,[31] it was his first regular TV role since his breakout part on One Life to Live.[32] The season aired from July to September 2012.[33][34][35]

In 2012, Phillippe focused on his directorial debut, Catch Hell, an upcoming indie thriller in which Phillippe will star as a fading film actor who must devise a creative escape after he is kidnapped and tortured while making a movie in Shreveport, Louisiana. In addition to directing, co-producing, and starring in the film, Phillippe also co-wrote the script with Joe Gossett.[36][37] Phillippe has said that the film is based partly on the life experiences of himself and his friends (including the filming of Straight A's in Shreveport in 2011), but is partly meant to be "a fun scary movie in the vein of Misery". Filming took place on location in Shreveport in the fall of 2012.[38] Catch Hell is set for a fall 2014 release.[39]

In October 2013, Phillippe began filming the thriller Reclaim in Puerto Rico. The movie features Phillippe as an American man who travels to Puerto Rico with his wife (played by Rachelle Lefevre) to adopt an orphan from Haiti. After a confrontation with a local (played by John Cusack), the child vanishes.[40][41] Reclaim will be released on September 19, 2014.[42]

In May 2014, ABC picked up the pilot for Secrets & Lies, which was shot in Wilmington, North Carolina in early 2014.[43] The 10-episode mystery series, which will debut on Thursday nights as a midseason entry in the 2014–15 season, is based on the Australian series of the same name, and will star Phillippe as a family man who becomes a prime murder suspect after he discovers the body of a child.[44]

Phillippe has also been attached to a number of possible future film roles, including Chronicle, a film to be directed by Jay Alaimo that will see Phillippe, Justin Long, and John Hawkes in a story "about two childhood friends who reunite to launch the biggest marijuana dealership in New York City",[45] and Christopher McQuarrie's The Stanford Prison Experiment, an upcoming film about the infamous 1971 psychology experiment.[46]

Phillippe, Breckin Meyer, Seth Green, and David E. Siegal run a production company called Lucid Films.[7] In 2010, Phillippe and Meyer began "getting a show going for Showtime", serving as executive producers.[3] The comedy, Heavy and Rolling, tells the story of a Manhattan towncar driver who assumes different identities as he moves towards madness.[47] Phillippe also served as executive producer and narrator on Isolated, a documentary that follows five surfers as they travel to remote New Guinea in search of untouched waves.[48][49] The documentary premiered in January 2013 at the 2013 Santa Barbara International Film Festival.[50][51]

Personal life

In 1997, Phillippe attended a party given for actress Reese Witherspoon's 21st birthday. Upon meeting Witherspoon, Phillippe was reported to have spent all night talking to her, with Witherspoon telling Phillippe, "I think you're my birthday present."[52][53] They started dating and became engaged in December 1998.[53] The following year, the pair starred in Cruel Intentions together. Phillippe and Witherspoon married on June 5, 1999, in a small ceremony at Old Wide Awake Plantation near Charleston, South Carolina, when Witherspoon was six months pregnant.[53][54]

On September 9, 1999, a daughter named Ava Elizabeth Phillippe, after actress Ava Gardner, was born.[54][55] Their son, Deacon Reese Phillippe, was born on October 23, 2003 and named after Phillippe's ancestor, Pittsburgh Pirates pitcher Deacon Phillippe, a baseball player at the turn of the 20th century.[56]

On October 30, 2006, Phillippe and Witherspoon released a statement announcing that they had decided to formally separate.[57] After more than seven years of marriage, Witherspoon filed for divorce from her husband on November 8, 2006, citing irreconcilable differences as the cause.[58] In light of the couple's lack of a prenuptial agreement, she requested that the court refuse to grant spousal support to Phillippe, and asked for joint legal custody and sole physical custody of the pair's two children. Phillippe filed for joint physical custody of the children on May 15, 2007, and did not seek any spousal support.[59] The couple's marriage officially ended on October 5, 2007, with final divorce arrangements settled on June 13, 2008, according to court documents. Phillippe and Witherspoon share joint custody of their children.[60]

Phillippe began dating Australian actress Abbie Cornish in 2007 after meeting on the set of Stop-Loss.[61] They split up in February 2010.[62]

Phillippe subsequently dated model/actress Alexis Knapp in the summer of 2010,[63] before splitting in September 2010.[64] After the break-up, Knapp discovered that she was pregnant, and gave birth to a daughter, Kailani Merizalde Phillippe-Knapp, on July 1, 2011.[65] Phillippe was present during the birth.[66]


Year Title Role Notes
1995 Crimson Tide Seaman Grattam
1996 White Squall Gil Martin
1996 Lifeform Private Ryan
1997 Nowhere Shad
1997 Little Boy Blue Jimmy West
1997 I Know What You Did Last Summer Barry William Cox
1998 54 Shane O'Shea
1998 Playing by Heart Keenan
1998 Homegrown Harlan Dykstra
1999 Cruel Intentions Sebastian Valmont
2000 Way of the Gun, TheThe Way of the Gun Parker
2000 Company Man Petrov
2001 Antitrust Milo Hoffman
2001 Gosford Park Henry Denton
2002 Igby Goes Down Oliver "Ollie" Slocumb
2003 I Inside, TheThe I Inside Simon Cable Credited as Ryan Phillipe
2004 Crash Officer Tommy Hansen Credited as Ryan Phillipe
2006 Flags of Our Fathers John "Doc" Bradley
2006 Five Fingers Martijn
2006 Chaos Shane Dekker
2007 Breach Eric O'Neill
2008 Stop-Loss SSgt. Brandon King
2009 Franklyn Jonathan Preest / David Esser
2010 MacGruber Lt. Dixon Piper
2011 The Bang Bang Club Greg Marinovich
2011 The Lincoln Lawyer Louis Roulet
2011 Setup Vincent
2011 Revenge for Jolly! Bachmeier
2013 Straight A's Scott
2014 Reclaim Steven
2014 Catch Hell Reagan Pearce Post-production
Also director, producer & writer
Year Title Role Notes
1992–1993 One Life to Live Billy Douglas 13 episodes
1993 Secrets of Lake Success, TheThe Secrets of Lake Success Stew Atkins Mini series
1994 Matlock Michael Episode: "The Scandal"
1994 Case of the Grimacing Governor, TheThe Case of the Grimacing Governor Robert Fowler Television film
1994 Due South Del Porter Episode: "The Gift of the Wheelman"
1995 Deadly Invasion: The Killer Bee Nightmare Tom Redman Television film
1996 Chicago Hope David Holgren Episode: "Women on the Verge"
1996 Outer Limits, TheThe Outer Limits Rusty Dobson Episode: "Straight and Narrow"
2000 King of the Hill Wally Episode: "Twas the Nut Before Christmas" (voice role)
2010 WWE Raw Lt. Dixon Piper Episode: "Monday Night Raw"
2010 Nick Swardson's Pretend Time Handsome Guy Episode: "Powdered Doughnuts Make Me Go Nuts"
2010 Saturday Night Live Host/Various Episode: "Ryan Phillippe/Ke$ha"
2012 Damages Channing McClaren Main Cast (Season 5); 10 episodes
2012 The Eric Andre Show Himself Episode: "Ryan Phillippe"
2014 Men at Work Himself Episode: "I Take Thee, Gibbs"
2014 Secrets & Lies Ben Garner Lead Role
Music videos
Year Title Role Artist
1999 "Every You Every Me" Placebo
2004 "Hey Ya!" TV Host Outkast


Year Group Award Result Notes
1998 Blockbuster Entertainment Awards Favorite Supporting Actor: Horror Nominated I Know What You Did Last Summer
1999 Golden Raspberry Awards Worst Actor Nominated 54
Teen Choice Awards Film – Choice Actor Nominated Cruel Intentions
Film – Sexiest Love Scene (Shared with Reese Witherspoon) Nominated
2000 Golden Slate (Hungary) Best Actor in a Leading Role Nominated 54
MTV Movie Awards Best Male Performance Nominated Cruel Intentions
2001 Teen Choice Awards Film – Choice Actor Nominated Antitrust
2002 Critics Choice Awards Best Acting Ensemble Won Gosford Park
Florida Film Critics Circle Awards Best Ensemble Cast Won
Online Film Critics Society Awards Best Ensemble Won
Phoenix Film Critics Society Awards Best Acting Ensemble Nominated
Satellite Awards Outstanding Motion Picture Ensemble Won
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Cast of a Theatrical Motion Picture Won
2005 Gotham Awards Best Ensemble Cast Nominated Crash
2006 Black Reel Awards Best Ensemble Won
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture Won
2008 Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Actor: Drama Nominated Stop-Loss
2009 Prism Awards Performance in a Feature Film Nominated


  1. ^ Ryan Phillippe Film Reference biography
  2. ^ Brady, James (March 23, 2008). "In Step With...Ryan Phillippe".  : ("The surname Phillippe is French but isn't pronounced that way. 'We have French origins but ended up in Tennessee ... [S]o we pronounce it fill-uh-pee.'")
  3. ^ a b c "A Serious Man".  
  4. ^ "Barbizon Modeling and Acting - Alumni". 
  5. ^ Harris, Mark (June 26, 1992). One Life' Breaks One Taboo"'".  
  6. ^ "". Movie Focuses on Story Behind Famous WWII Photo. Retrieved October 22, 2006. 
  7. ^ a b "". Star of Eastwood film salutes heroes of World War II. Retrieved October 15, 2006. 
  8. ^ "Ebert & Roeper". Reviews for the Weekend of October 7–8, 2006. Retrieved October 15, 2006. 
  9. ^ video interview (August 2007)
  10. ^ "'"First Official Images from 'MacGruber. News in Film. Retrieved January 11, 2010. 
  11. ^ "MacGruber: The Movie Really Happening!". Cinema Blend. Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Saturday Night Live Calls on First-Time Hosts Gabourey Sidibe and Ryan Phillippe". 
  13. ^ "Upcoming Raw Guest Hosts".  
  14. ^ "The Bang Bang Club Starring Ryan Phillippe Begins Filming". A 'n' E Vibe. Retrieved April 8, 2009. 
  15. ^ "Cannes 2009: Gambit and Silk Spectre Go Bang Bang".  
  16. ^ "The Bang Bang Club makes its debut at Cannes".  
  17. ^ Cox, Gordon (November 17, 2010). "'"Tribeca goes 'Bang. Variety. Retrieved January 2, 2011. 
  18. ^ Jurgenson, John (April 15, 2011). "A Virtual Night at the Movies". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 22, 2011. 
  19. ^ "The Lincoln Lawyer Retained". IGN Movies. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  20. ^ "The Lincoln Lawyer – Rotten Tomatoes". Retrieved March 21, 2011. 
  21. ^ "'"Phillippe, Dewan Tatum get 'Set Up. Variety. December 3, 2010. 
  22. ^ "50 Cent fires machine guns, Madcap Coffee windows smashed for filming of 'Setup' in downtown Grand Rapids (photos)".  
  23. ^ "Exclusive: 50 Cent Discusses His Straight-to-DVD Film". September 19, 2011. 
  24. ^ "'"Elijah Wood, Kristen Wiig and Others Have Sought 'Revenge for Jolly. First September 8, 2011. 
  25. ^ "Revenge for Jolly: Tribeca Review". The Hollywood Reporter. April 24, 2012. 
  26. ^ "'"Luke Wilson gets 'Straight A's. Variety. August 16, 2011. 
  27. ^ "'"Stars converge on Horseshoe for 'Straight A's. Shreveport Times. September 13, 2011. 
  28. ^ "Ryan Phillippe Retained For ‘Damages’". Deadline. October 14, 2011. 
  29. ^ Damages' To Begin Filming In Clinton Hill"'". November 1, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Ryan Phillippe As Carol Channing?". Village Voice. November 4, 2011. 
  31. ^ Damages' Sets 'Spartacus' Star Opposite Ryan Phillippe (Exclusive)"'". The Hollywood Reporter. October 24, 2011. 
  32. ^ "Exclusive: Damages Retains Ryan Phillippe". TVLine. October 14, 2011. 
  33. ^ Munn, Patrick (February 10, 2012). "Exclusive: Damages To End After Season 5". TVWise. Retrieved February 10, 2012. 
  34. ^ Moore, Frazier (July 10, 2012). "Damages returns for final season". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  35. ^ Harnick, Chris (September 12, 2012). Damages' Series Finale: A Final Salute To Patty Hewes"'". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  36. ^ Sneider, Jeff (June 20, 2012). "'"Phillippe making directorial debut with 'Shreveport. Variety. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  37. ^ Kay, Jeremy (August 31, 2012). "Ryan Phillippe to make directorial debut on Chained". ScreenDaily. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 
  38. ^ Pace, Robert (November 29, 2012). "Would Ryan Phillippe Want His Children To Act?". Entertainment Tonight. Retrieved December 5, 2012. 
  39. ^ McNary, Dave (July 17, 2014). "Ryan Phillippe’s Thriller ‘Catch Hell’ Gets U.S. Distribution". Variety. Retrieved July 22, 2014. 
  40. ^ "AFM: John Cusack's 'Reclaim' Inks Multiple International Presales". Hollywood Reporter. November 7, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  41. ^ "'"ABC releases first look at locally-shot 'Secrets & Lies. ABC WWAY. October 30, 2013. Retrieved December 21, 2013. 
  42. ^ "John Cusack Is Out For Blood In New 'Reclaim' Trailer". Entertainment Tonight. August 5, 2014. Retrieved August 10, 2014. 
  43. ^ "'"ABC releases first look at locally-shot 'Secrets & Lies. Deadline. May 13, 2014. Retrieved May 19, 2014. 
  44. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (May 9, 2014). "ABC Picks Up ‘Secrets & Lies’ Starring Ryan Phillippe To Series". Deadline. Retrieved May 19, 2014. 
  45. ^ "Justin Long, John Hawkes & Ryan Phillippe Join Jay Alaimo’s ‘Chronicle’". The Film Stage. Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  46. ^ "'"Ryan Phillippe on Anna Faris, 'Stanford Prison Experiment' & 'MacGruber. Cinematical. Retrieved June 12, 2010. 
  47. ^ "Writers Jeremy Miller And Dan Cohn Ink Slew Of TV Deals".  
  48. ^ "Surfing a New Reality". Rolling Stone. August 6, 2009. p. 72. Retrieved February 3, 2010. 
  49. ^ "Trailer: Isolated". Retrieved January 4, 2011. 
  50. ^ "Surfers get "Isolated" in West Papua]". Surfer Today. January 28, 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Santa Barbara International Film Festival - Isolated". January 2013. Retrieved January 31, 2013. 
  52. ^ "JANE Magazine". The Nine About-to-Be Biggest Stars. Retrieved October 15, 2006. 
  53. ^ a b c "Reese Witherspoon's Hollywood history". The Daily Caller. March 27, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2011. 
  54. ^ a b Mock, Janet; Julia Wang. "Ryan Phillippe". Celebrity Central: Top 25 Celebs. People. Retrieved April 6, 2011. 
  55. ^ "Ryan Phillippe explains Ava's name, can't believe he has an 8-year-old". Moms & Babies. People. March 20, 2008. Retrieved April 6, 2011. 
  56. ^ Fuller, Bonnie (October 23, 2010). "Happy Birthday, Deacon Phillippe! You’re 7 Today, October 23!". HollyBaby. Retrieved April 7, 2011. 
  57. ^ "Reese Witherspoon & Ryan Phillippe Split". People. Retrieved August 22, 2007. 
  58. ^ "Reese Files Divorce Petition". Court Documents TMZ. Retrieved August 22, 2007. 
  59. ^ "Ryan Phillippe Seeks Joint Custody of Kids". People. Retrieved August 22, 2007. 
  60. ^ "Reese Witherspoon and Ryan Phillippe Legally Free to Wed Others". 
  61. ^ "Ryan Phillippe Steps Out with Abbie Cornish". People. June 6, 2008. 
  62. ^ "Ryan Phillippe, Abbie Cornish Split". People. February 22, 2010. 
  63. ^ "Ryan Phillippe Awaiting Pregnant Ex-Girlfriend's Paternity Test". People. March 16, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011. 
  64. ^ "Ryan Phillippe's Ex Alexis Knapp Gives Birth to Baby Girl". Us Weekly. July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011. 
  65. ^ "Ryan Phillippe's Last Name Given to Alexis Knapp's Baby". People. August 1, 2011. Retrieved August 1, 2011. 
  66. ^ "No DNA Test Needed! Ryan Phillippe Present for Birth of Ex's Baby". E Online. July 7, 2011. Retrieved July 7, 2011. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Hawaii eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.