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Title: Sabarimala  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Pathanamthitta district, Angamoozhy, Chettikulangara Devi Temple, Valiyakoikkal Temple, Pamba River
Collection: Hindu Holy Cities, Hindu Pilgrimage Sites, Hindu Temples in Pathanamthitta District
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Pilgrimage town
Crowd of pilgrims
Sabarimala is located in Kerala
Country India
State Kerala
District Pathanamthitta District, Ranni Tehsil
Elevation 468 m (1,535 ft)
 • Official മലയാളം, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Telephone code 0473
Vehicle registration KL-03, KL-62

Sabarimala is a Hindu pilgrimage centre located at the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the Western Ghat mountain ranges of Pathanamthitta District, Perunad grama panchayat in Kerala. It is one of the largest annual pilgrimages in the world, with an estimated 50 million devotees visiting every year.[1][2] Sabarimala is believed to be the place where the Hindu God, Ayyappan, meditated after killing the powerful demoness, Mahishi. Ayyappan's temple is situated amidst 18 hills. The temple is situated on a hilltop at an altitude of 468 m (1,535 ft) above mean sea level, and is surrounded by mountains and dense forests. The dense forest, (Periyar Tiger Reserve), around the temple is known as Poomkavanam. Temples exist in each of the hills surrounding Sabarimala. While functional and intact temples exist at many places in the surrounding areas like Nilackal, Kalaketi, and Karimala, remnants of old temples survive to this day on remaining hills.

Sabarimala is linked to Hindu pilgrimage, predominantly for men of all ages. Sabarimala pilgrims can be identified easily, as they wear black or blue dress. They do not shave until the completion of the pilgrimage, and smear Vibhuti or sandal paste on their forehead. Females who menstruate (usually between the ages of approximately 12 and 50) are not allowed to enter the temple, since the story attributed to Ayyappa prohibits the entry of the women in the menstrual age group. This is because Ayyappan is a Bramhachari (celibate). The temple is open for worship only during the days of Mandalapooja (approximately 15 November to 26 December), Makaravilakku or "Makar Sankranti" (14 January) and Maha Vishuva Sankranti (14 April), and the first five days of each Malayalam month.


  • The pilgrimage 1
  • Buddhist origins of Sabarimala temple 2
  • Post-Buddhist history 3
  • Control 4
  • Prasadams 5
  • Harivarasanam 6
  • Neyyabhishekam 7
  • Makara Vilakku 8
  • Aham Brahmasmi and Tattvamasi 9
  • Illumination and Power 10
  • The history behind the worshipping methods 11
  • Picture Gallery 12
  • Other famous temples near Sabarimala 13
  • How to reach 14
    • Airport 14.1
    • Heliport 14.2
    • Rail 14.3
    • Road 14.4
  • Major Hindu Pilgrimage in Kerala 15
  • See also 16
  • References 17
  • External links 18

The pilgrimage

A sign-board that indicates the direction to Sabarimala. The multilingual board is written in Hindi, Malayalam, Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and English (in that order, from top to bottom)
Crowd management of pilgrims

The devotees are expected to follow a Vratham (41-day fasting) prior to the pilgrimage.[3] This begins with wearing of a special Mala (a garland made of Rudraksha or Tulasi beads). In general from then they are to refrain from non-vegetarian food of any kind (except dairy) alcohol, and tobacco, engaging in sex, using foul language, hair-cut, shaving and even trimming the nails. They are expected to bath twice in a day and visit the local temples regularly and only wear plain black or blue colored traditional clothing. Saffron colored dresses are worn by Sanysis (monks) who have renunciated material life. But, many devotees still continue to wear saffron colored clothes which becomes a part of vedic culture which connects the whole Hindus worldwide.

Hundreds of devotees still follow the traditional mountainous forest path (approximately 61 km) from Erumely,12.8 km from Vandiperiyar and 8 km from Chalakayam, believed to be taken by Ayyappa himself. The Erumely route starts from Erumely to Aludha river, then crosses the Aludha mountain to reach Karivilam thodu. Now comes the sacred Karimala crossing, from there to Cheriyanavattom, Valliyanavattom and finally Pamba River. Then they have to climb neelimala and enter into the ganesh bettam, shreerama betta padam. Then comes the Aranmula kottaram, which is one of the halt places of holy journey 'thiruvabharana ghoshayatra'.

These days people use vehicles to reach the Pamba River by an alternate road. From Pamba, all the pilgrims begin trekking the steep mountain path of Neeli Mala till Sabari Mala. This route is now highly developed, with emergency shops and medical aid by the sides, and supporting aid is provided to the pilgrims while climbing the steep slope, which used to be a mere trail through dense jungle. The elderly pilgrims are lifted by men on bamboo chairs till the top, on being paid.

Buddhist origins of Sabarimala temple

The oldest historical account available about Sabarimala which at that time was known as Churulimala, can be found in the writings of Xuanzang.[4] The writings of Xuanzang reveals that idol of the buddhist shrine was that of Avalokiteśvara, who is according to the believes of Buddhism, an avatar of Bodhisattva. According to the Amarakosha, the word Sastha or Dharmasasta is one of the eighteen synonyms of Gautama Buddha. The Mudra shown by the idol of Ayyappa and the yogic position also may have a connection to Vitarka mudra and Lotus position in which Buddha is depicted generously.

Post-Buddhist history

Until the 10th century AD, the main religion of Kerala were Buddhism and Jainism.[5] Following the attack that took place between 10th and 12th century AD, Hinduism established itself in Kerala. The legend of Hariharaputra (son of Vishnu and Siva) is probably the result of the compromise between Vaishnava and Saivas streams of Hinduism. There is no clear evidence as to when the pilgrimage to Sabarimala began. After the installation of the temple, it was mostly unreachable for about three centuries. One of the kings in a later generation rediscovered the original path to reach Sabarimala. He had many followers with him, including the descendants of the Vavar family. They refreshed their resources at Erumely and this marked the beginning of the famous Petta Thullal at Erumely. They laid down their arms at the place today known as Saramkuthy. Those who are on their maiden visits to Sabarimala thrust arrows at this place. The temple was then renovated. In 1821 AD, the kingdom of Pandalam was added to Travancore. 48 major temples including the Sabarimala temple were also added to Travancore. The idol was erected in 1910. In 1950, a fire broke out which destroyed the entire temple and had to be reconstructed.


Thazhamon Madom is the traditional priest family who has powers over the matters to be decided in Sabarimala Temple. Tantri is the highest priest and is the head of the temple. It's the privilege of the family to decide on matters relating to Sabarimala shrine. Tantris are to be present in all ceremonial poojas and functions to be held at temple premises and functions associated with temple. The installation of idols of the temple was also done by Tantri of this family. It is with the Tantri that the supreme authority is vested in each temple and in Sabarimala Temple, the Tantri is the one who decides and declares the normal worship rituals to be performed. Brahmasri Kantararu Maheshwararu Tantri is the traditional supreme priest of Sabarimala Now. The other famous family members include Kandararu Rajeevararu, Kandararu Mohanararu and Kandararu Mahesh Mohaner.


The prasadam at Sabarimala temple is Aravana payasam and Appam. These are prepared by using rice, ghee, sugar, jaggery etc. The rice needed to prepare the prasadam at Sabarimala temple is supplied by Chettikulangara Devi Temple, the second largest temple under the Travancore Devaswom Board situated at Mavelikkara. The Chief Commissioner, Travancore Devaswom Board said that the board has appointed Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore as a consultant for providing technical guidance to ensure the quality of Aravana, Appam, and other prasadam preparations at Sabarimala temple.[6]


Harivarasanam[7] is recited before closing the temple door every night. The Harivarasanam song, which is sung at Sabarimala is a lullaby (Urakkupattu) is composed by Sri Kambangudi Kulathur Srinivasa Iyer. It is said that Srinivasa Iyer used to recite the composition, after the Athazha Puja, standing in front of the shrine of Ayyappa in the main temple. With the efforts of Swami Vimochanananda, it came to be accepted as the lullaby by the Thantri and melshanthi. The composition has 352 letters, 108 words in 32 lines (8 stanzas).[8]

Though there have been many versions of this song sung by many renowned vocalists, the temple plays the rendition by K. J. Yesudas, composed by the renowned music director G. Devarajan, which is in the 'Madhyamavathi' raga of Indian Carnatic music. Harivarasanam is written in sanskrit.

Recently P. Unnikrishnan has rendered Harivarasanam song in his 2011 release of devotional songs titled 'AYYAN MALAI ENGAL MALAI'.[9]


This significant ritual involves pouring sacred ghee brought by pilgrims in their Pallikettu or Irumudi (A two compartment bag made of handwoven cotton cloth used to carry the offerings for Sabarimala Temple carried on their heads)on the idol of Lord Ayyappa. It symbolically means the merging of Jeevatma with the Paramatma.While a Red coloured Irumudi is used by a pilgrim on his first journey(Kanni Ayyappan) to Sabarimala, others use Navy Blue till third year and thereafter saffron coloured Irumudi.

Makara Vilakku

Lord Sri Rama and his brother Lakshmana met Sabari, a tribal devotee, at Sabarimala. Sabari offered the Lord fruits after tasting them. But the Lord accepted them gladly and whole-heartedly. The Lord then turned and saw a divine person doing tapas. He asked Sabari who it was. Sabari said it was Sasta. Rama walked towards Sasta and the latter stood up and welcomed the Prince of Ayodhya. The anniversary of this incident is celebrated on Makara Vilakku day. It is believed that on Makara Vilakku day, Lord Dharmasasta stops his tapas to bless his devotees.and also it is called makara shankranthi Note: there are many places with similar story of Sabari, no authentication of either exist.

Aham Brahmasmi and Tattvamasi

The important message given at the temple is the ultimate knowledge that each individual is a God unto himself/herself, Tat Tvam Asi in sanskrit meaning "That is you". Due to this pilgrims call each other Swami.

Tat Tvam Asi, meaning "That Thou Art" is the message that is given out by the Lord. It means, in short, you are part of the Universal Soul (in Sanskrit "Paramatma") which is the quintessence of Advaita philosophy. It also means for reaching Paramatma or Universal Soul. this mahavakya suggested by swami chinnmayananda(1916–1993) in end of 70s

Illumination and Power

In this remote hill shrine the Kerala State Electricity Board (KSEB) is shouldering the task of providing sufficient illumination in base camps, trekking paths and the Sannidhanam, the shrine spot. KSEB installs and maintains around 15000 electric lamps of various types here. Power is brought here through Kochu Pampa and Thriveni Substations. Through uninterrupted supply and well maintained lights KSEB has been able to maintain good reputation in the recent years.[10]

The history behind the worshipping methods

The customs of the pilgrims to Sabarimala are based on five worshipping methods; those of Shaivites, Shaktists and Vaishnavites. At first, there were three sections of devotees – the devotees of Shakti who used meat to worship their deity, the devotees of Vishnu who followed strict penance and continence, and the devotees of Shiva who partly followed these two methods. Another name of Ayyappa is Sastha. All these can be seen merged into the beliefs of pilgrims to Sabarimala. The chain the pilgrims wear comes from the Rudraksha chain of the Shaivites. The strict fasting, penance and continence is taken out of the beliefs of the Vaishnavites. The offering of tobacco to Kaduthaswamy can be considered to be taken from the Shaktists..

Picture Gallery

[11][12] [13]

Other famous temples near Sabarimala

How to reach


Nearest airport is Thiruvananthapuram International Airport (170 km) and Cochin International Airport, at Nedumbassery, Kochi (160 km) are the nearest airports.


Sabarimala Heliport (helipad) is situated in Perunad (40 km) from pampa. Which is known as Sabarimala helipad. Chipsan Aviation Pvt Ltd, having service from various location. Most of the Sabarimala pilgrimages are using this heliport.


Chengannur Railway Station(82 km)(Declared as Gateway of Sabarimala), Tiruvalla Railway Station(92 km), Kottayam Railway Station (120 km) and Kollam Junction railway station (129 km) are the nearest railway stations. Direct Bus services to Pathanamthitta, Erumeli and Pamba are operated from Chengannur Railway Station.


The main trunk road to Sabarimala is Pathanamthitta - Pamba, which passes through, Mannarakulanji, Vadasserikara, Perunad, Laha, Nilackal > Pampa. The distance from Pathanamthitta District center to Sabarimala is about 70 km.

  • Kerala State Road Transport Corporation operates (KSRTC), regular daily bus services from Pathanamthitta, Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam and Kumili. On special days, when the temple is opened for Poojas, KSRTC operates more services to all major towns of Kerala and neighboring states

Major Hindu Pilgrimage in Kerala

  • Kottiyoor Utsavam

Kottiyoor Vadakkeshwaram Temple is located 60 km east of Thalassery. Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam is a huge religious pilgrimage attracting thousands of pilgrims. It is a festival commemorating the Daksha yaga.

  • Kodungallur Bharani

Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple is one of the oldest temples in Kerala from Sangam ages. The temple is 38 km south of Thrissur. Kodungallu Bharani is a festival commemorating Devi Kali's victory in battle over demon Darika.

  • Attukal pongala

Attukal Temple is 4.2 km from Trivandrum(Thampanoor) city. Mass preparation of the dish, Pongala for Devi, by women, in Trivandrum city is famed as Attukal pongala.

  • Makara Bharani

Kottangal Devi Temple is 25 km from Thiruvalla city. Padayani is the annual ritualistic festival celebrated in Bhadrakali temples of Central Travancore, Kottangal Padayani celebrates Malayalam month Makaram Rewati, Ashwati and Bharani is important.

See also


  1. ^ "Why millions throng Sabarimala shrine". Retrieved January 2011. 
  2. ^ "Indo-Americans shocked at Sabarimala tragedy". Retrieved 2011. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ Tsang, Hsuan. "Hsuan-Tsang reference to Sabarimala temple" (PDF). 
  5. ^ Sadasivan, S. N. (2000-01-01). A Social History of India. APH Publishing.  
  6. ^ "CFTRI to monitor quality of Sabarimala prasadom". 6 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Harivarasanam History and meaning of harivarasanam.
  8. ^ Harivarasanam by K.J Yesudas.
  9. ^ Harivarasanam by Unnikrishnan
  10. ^ Official Police Report on Temple arson in 1950-
  11. ^ "Pilgrims killed in stampede at Indian festival". Retrieved Jan 2011. 
  12. ^ "Sabarimala stampede: 102 pilgrims killed, 50 injured". Retrieved 2011. 
  13. ^ "Sabarimala stampede kills over 100; scores injured". The Times of India. 14 January 2011. 

External links

  • Official Website Of Sabarimala
  • Sabarimala Temple Opening Dates
  • Sabarimala Darshan Online Booking Virtual Queue
  • Sabarimala news and update (Non-official portal)
  • Makara Jyothi in keralas ayappa swamy temple is man-made - Hindu
  • Makara Jyothi in keralas ayappa swamy temple is man-made - temple Board president
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