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Serbs of Croatia

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Title: Serbs of Croatia  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Timeline of Serbian history, Serbs of Zagreb, Serbs, Branimir Glavaš, History of the Serbs of Croatia
Collection: Ethnic Groups in Croatia, History of the Serbs of Croatia, Serb Minorities, Serbs of Croatia
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Serbs of Croatia

Serbs of Croatia
Srbi u Hrvatskoj
Срби у Хрватској
Total population
~ 369,000
Regions with significant populations
 Croatia 186,633 (2011)[1]
 Serbia and
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
(and some other countries):

Serbo-Croatian (Croatian and Serbian)
Serbian Orthodox Church

The Serbs of Croatia (or Croatian Serbs) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia. There has been a substantial Serb population in Croatia since the Middle Ages, although the population has been declining.


  • Overview 1
  • History 2
    • Middle Ages 2.1
    • Ottoman conquest and Habsburg Empire 2.2
    • World War II 2.3
    • Socialist Yugoslavia 2.4
    • War in Croatia 2.5
    • Modern Croatia 2.6
  • Demographics 3
    • Counties 3.1
    • Cities 3.2
    • Municipalities 3.3
  • Culture 4
    • Religion 4.1
    • Language 4.2
  • Politics 5
  • Community in Serbia 6
  • Notable people 7
    • Artists 7.1
    • Scientists 7.2
    • Athletes 7.3
    • Other 7.4
  • See also 8
  • References 9
    • Sources 9.1
  • External links 10


Traditional elements of identity are the Liberation of Yugoslavia.[3]

According to the 2011 census there were 186,633 ethnic Serbs living in Croatia, 4.4% of the total population. Their number was reduced by more than two thirds in the aftermath of the 1991–95 War in Croatia as the 1991 pre-war census had reported 581,663 Serbs living in Croatia, 12.2% of the total population.


Middle Ages

According to De Administrando Imperio (960s), the Serbs settled in parts of modern-day Croatia during the rule of Heraclius (610–626) and soon formed a Serbian state which stretched across parts of modern-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia. The lands of Pagania, Zachumlia and Travunia (which encompassed Dalmatia, roughly south of modern Split) were inhabited by Serbs.[4] According to the Royal Frankish Annals (821–822), Duke of Pannonia Ljudevit Posavski fled, during the Frankish invasion, from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs in western Bosnia, who controlled a great part of Dalmatia ("Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur").[5][6] The event would have taken place during the rule of either Radoslav or his son, Prosigoj.[7] In the 880s, the Serb Prince Mutimir exiled his two brothers due to treachery, but kept his nephew Petar at the court. Petar later fled to the Croatian principality.[8] When Mutimir's son Pribislav had ruled for a year, Petar returned and defeated him, making him flee with his brothers Bran and Stefan to Croatia.[8] In 894 Bran returned but was defeated and blinded.[9] Pavle, the son of Bran, later returned and defeated Pavle with Bulgarian aid.[9]

King Mihailo I (1050–1081) built the St. Michael's Church in Ston, which has a fresco depicting him.[10]

Beloš Vukanović, a member of the Serb Vukanović dynasty, was given the title of Ban of Croatia by the Kingdom of Hungary and ruled 1142-1158 and briefly in 1163.[11]

In 1222, the King of Serbia Mljet.[12]

The first Serbian Orthodox monastery in Croatia, Krupa, was built in 1317 by Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia, other medieval monuments include Krka (before 1345) and Dragović (late 14th century). Many monasteries and churches were damaged in the War in Croatia.[13] In 1333 the Republic of Ragusa bought the Pelješac peninsula and the coast land between Ston and Dubrovnik from Serbian King Stefan Dušan, the Ragusans promised freedom of religion to the Orthodox Serbs.[14]

Members of the Orlović Serb clan settled in Lika and Senj in 1432, they later joined the Uskoks.[15] In 22 November 1447, the Hungarian King Ladislaus V wrote a letter which mentioned "Rascians, who live in our cities of Medvedgrad, Rakovac, both Kalinik and in Koprivnica".[16]

Ottoman conquest and Habsburg Empire

Map of demographic distribution of main religious confessions in Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro in 1901:       Catholic
      Mixed Catholic and Orthodox
      Mixed Catholic and Protestant

As many former inhabitants of the Austrian-Ottoman borderland fled northwards or were captured by the Ottoman invaders, they left unpopulated areas.[17] The Austrian Empire encouraged people from the Ottoman Empire to settle as free peasant soldiers, establishing the Military Frontiers (Militärgrenze) in 1522 (hence they were known as Grenzers, Krajišnici).[18] They were mostly, not only of Orthodox faith, Serbs and Vlachs.[17] The militarized frontier would serve as a buffer against Ottoman incursions.[18] The Military frontiers had territory of modern Croatia, Serbia, Romania and Hungary. The colonists were granted small tracts of land, exempted from some obligations, and were to retain a share of all war booty.[18] The Grenzers elected their own captains (vojvode) and magistrates (knezovi). All Orthodox settlers were promised freedom of worship.[17][19] By 1538, the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontier were established.[18] Serbs acted as the cordon sanitaire against Turkish incursions from the Ottoman Empire.[20] The Military frontiers are virtually identical to the present Serbian settlements (war-time Republic of Serbian Krajina).[21]

According to Croatian writer Branimir Anzulovic, native Vlachs of Croatia adopted the Croatian language prior to the Ottoman conquest, but still identified themselves as Vlachs,[22] and the places with Vlach majority enjoyed privileges under the Statuta Valachorum.[22] Catholic Vlachs were assimilated into Croats, while the Orthodox, under the Serbian Orthodox Church, identified with Serbs.[22][23][24] Anzulovic claims that the serbianized Vlachs became the bulk of the Serbian population in Croatia.[22] According to David Kideckeln, majority of the population of the Croatian Military Frontier were Orthodox Vlachs, originating from Southern and Central Balkans, who, under assimilation, spoke South Slavic language.[25]

In 1593, Provveditore Generale Cristoforo Valier, mentions three nations constituting the Uskoks; "natives of Senj, Croatians, and Morlachs from the Turkish parts".[26] Many of the Uskoks, who fought a guerrilla war with the Ottoman Empire were Serbs (Orthodox Christians), who fled from Ottoman Turkish rule and settled in White Carniola and Zumberak.[27][28][29][30] A letter of Emperor Ferdinand, sent on November 6, 1538, to Croatian ban Petar Keglević, in which he wrote "Captains and dukes of the Rasians, or the Serbs, or the Vlachs, who are commonly called the Serbs".[31] Tihomir Đorđević points to the already known fact that the name 'Vlach' didn't only refer to genuine Vlachs or Serbs but also to cattle breeders in general.[31]

In the Venetian documents from late 16th and 17th century, was used name "Morlachs" (another term of Vlachs, first mentioned in 14th century) for immigrants from conquested territory previously of Croatian and Bosnian kingdoms by Ottoman Empire. They were of both Orthodox and Catholic faith, settled in inland of the coastal cities of Dalmatia, and enterted the military service of both Venice and Ottoman Empire.[32]

The Military Border was returned in 1881 to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, it became part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which immediately joined the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

World War II

Serbs are expelled by Ustaše

Following the Invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941 Axis powers occupied the entire territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On the territory of the present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia a puppet state called the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was created, led by the Ustaše, a fascist Croatian movement.

The Ustaše government saw Serbs as "disrupting element" and immediately embarked on program of ethnic clensing and genocide. They went on to create concentration camps in which Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, anti-fascist Croats and homosexuals perished in large numbers, the most notorious of which was the Jasenovac concentration camp. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum between 320,000 and 340,000 Serbs were killed by the Ustaše or their allies during WWII.

The main paramilitary force Serbs of Croatia were involved with was the Chetniks. In March 1942 the Chetniks formed the Dinara Division, led by Orthodox priest Momčilo Đujić. This unit had a program to create Greater Serbia with a corridor between Herzegovina, northern Dalmatia and Bosnia, Lika to Slavonia.[33] During the war, this division was involved in ethnic cleansing of this area.[33] Chetniks in Croatia collaborated with fascist Italy to achieve their goals.[33]

Socialist Yugoslavia

During the Second World War, at the Second and Third sessions of the National Anti-Fascist Council of the Peoples Liberation of Croatia (ZAVNOH) held on October 1943 and May 1944 respectively, the equality of the Serbian and Croatian nations, as constituent nations of the federal unit of Croatia, was recognized in every aspect.[34] Later, in 1963, the Croatian Constitution did not mention the Serbs in Croatia as constituent nation of SR Croatia, but with the Constitutional amendments of 1971 this was now explicitly done in order to guarantee the rights of the Serbs in Croatia. This formulation implied that Croatia was not the national state of the Croats, but stated that Croatia was the land of Croats and Serbs.[35] Then, on 22 December 1990, HDZ government of Franjo Tuđman promulgated a new Croatian constitution that changed the wording with regard to Serbs of Croatia. In the first paragraph of the Article 12, Croatian was specified as the official language and alphabet, and dual-language road signs were torn down even in Serb majority areas.[36] Furthermore, a number of Serbs were removed from the bureaucracies and the police and replaced by ethnic Croats.[36] Many Serbs in government lost their jobs, and HDZ made themselves target of Serbian propaganda by having party members attempting to rehabilitate the WWII Croatian fascist movement Ustaše, or by saying that the numbers of people killed in Jasenovac concentration camp were inflated.[37] The party representing the interests of Serbs in Croatia, the Serbian Democratic Party (SDS), which rejected the new constitution,[36] began building its own national governmental entity in order to preserve rights that Serbs saw as being stripped away and to enhance the sovereignty of the Croatian Serbs.[38]

War in Croatia

Territorial extent of Republic of Serbian Krajina, proclaimed unilaterally in 1991 and disestablished in 1995

Amid political changes during the breakup of Yugoslavia and following the Croatian Democratic Union's victory in the 1990 general election, the Croatian Parliament ratified a new constitution in December 1990 where other nations and minorities were listed alongside Serbs.[39][40][41][42][43] On a practical level, it became obvious that jobs, property rights, and even residence status depended on having Croatian citizenship, which was not an automatic right for non-Croats.[44]

The percentage of those declaring themselves as Serbs, according to the 1991 census, was 12.2% (78.1% of the population declared itself to be Croat). Although today Serbs are able to return to Croatia, in reality a majority of Serbs who left during organized evacuation[45] (citing:[46][47][48] see section "Literature")[49] in 1995 choose to remain citizens of other countries in which they gained citizenship. Consequently, today Serbs constitute 4% of Croatian population, down from the prewar population of 12%.

Before the

  • , Vjesnik, Zagreb 1991.Srbi u Hrvatskoj — od 15. stoljeća do današnjih danaD. Roksandić,
  • The Serbs in the Former SR of Croatia
  • Tradition chest adornment worn in Kninska Krajina
  • Croatian census 2001 (see "Censuses" at Crostat Database)
  • Post war life

External links

  • Nikola Begović (1887). Život i običaji Srba-Graničara. Tiskarski zavod "Narodnih novinah". 
  • Milas, Nikodim (1901). Pravoslavna Dalmacija : istorijski pregled. Novi Sad : Izclavachka knjiarnica, A. Pajevia. 
  • Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. The Lord Byron Foundation for Balkan Studies.  
  • Ilić, J. 2006, "The Serbs in Croatia before and after the break-up of Yugoslavia", Zbornik Matice srpske za društvene nauke, no. 120, pp. 253-270.
  • Ivanović-Barišić, M.M. 2004, "Serbs in Croatia: Ethnological reflections", Teme, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 779-788.
  • Stojanović, M. 2003-2004, "Serbs in Eastern Croatia", Glasnik Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu, no. 67-68, pp. 387-390.
  • Lajić, I.& Bara, M. 2010, "Effects of the war in Croatia 1991-1995 on changes in the share of ethnic Serbs in the ethnic composition of Slavonia", Stanovništvo, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 49-73.
  • Berber, M., Grbić, B.& Pavkov, S. 2008, "Changes in the share of ethnic Croats and Serbs in Croatia by town and municipality based on the results of censuses from 1991 and 2001", Stanovništvo, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 23-62.
  • Karl Freiherr von Czoernig: "Ethnographie der österreichischen Monarchie", Vol. II, III, Wien, 1857
  • Development of Astronomy among Serbs II, Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade, Belgrade: M. S. Dimitrijević, 2002.
  • Nicholas J. Miller. Between Nation and State: Serbian Politics in Croatia before the First World War, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.
  • OSCE Report on Croatian treatment of Serbs
  • De Administrando Imperio by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, edited by Gy. Moravcsik and translated by R. J. H. Jenkins, Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington D. C., 1993
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press.  
  • John V.A. Fine. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (2006), When Ethnicity did not matter in the Balkans. A study of Identity in pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods, University of Michigan Press,  
  • Ćorović, Vladimir, Istorija srpskog naroda, Book I, (In Serbian) Electric Book, Rastko Electronic Book, Antikvarneknjige (Cyrillic)
    • Drugi Period, IV: Pokrštavanje Južnih Slovena
    • , Srbi između Vizantije, Hrvatske i BugarskeIstorija Srpskog Naroda
  • UNHCR document, The Status of the Croatian Serb Population in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: The Chetniks 1. San Francisco: Stanford University Press.  


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  35. ^ Historical Dictionary of Croatia by Robert Stallaerts, page 53, regarding the 1971 constitutional amendments says: "It stated that Croatia was the state of Croats and Serbs."
  36. ^ a b c Living Together After Ethnic Killing: Exploring the Chaim Kaufman Argument by Roy Licklider and Mia Bloom, page 158, says: Previously, a constituent nation in the Republic of Croatia, ..."
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  38. ^ Words Over War: Mediation and Arbitration to Prevent Deadly Conflict by Melanie Greenberg, John H. Barton and Margaret E. McGuinness, at page 83, says: "The new Croatian constitution ... renounced the hitherto protected status of ethnic Serbs as a separate constituent nation embedded in the old constitution,... In response, the SDS in Krajina begin building its own national governamental entity in order to preserve the rights that had been stripped away and to enhance the sovereignity of Croatian Serbs.
  39. ^ (Croatian) Dunja Bonacci Skenderović i Mario Jareb: Hrvatski nacionalni simboli između stereotipa i istine, Časopis za suvremenu povijest, y. 36, br. 2, p. 731.-760., 2004
  40. ^ Yugoslavia Through Documents: From Its Creation to Its Dissolution edited by Snežana Trifunovska, page 477
  41. ^ Integration and Stabilization: A Monetary View by George Macesich, page 24
  42. ^ The Quality of Government by Bo Rothstein, page 89
  43. ^ Soft Borders by Julie Mostov, page 67
  44. ^ David Bruce Macdonald (13 February 2003). Balkan Holocausts?: Serbian and Croatian Victim Centred Propaganda and the War in Yugoslavia. Manchester University Press. p. 188.  
  45. ^ Barić, Nikica: Srpska pobuna u Hrvatskoj 1990.-1995., Golden marketing. Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2005
  46. ^ Drago Kovačević, "Kavez - Krajina u dogovorenom ratu", Beograd 2003., p. 93.-94
  47. ^ Milisav Sekulić, "Knin je pao u Beogradu", Bad Vilbel 2001., p. 171.-246., p. 179 [3]
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  72. ^ "Europska povelja o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (in Croatian).  
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See also





Notable people

Some 350,000 Serbs were resettled in Serbia during and after the Croatian War, of which the larger part took Serbian citizenship.[76] In 2002, there were 284.334 Serbs from Croatia living in Serbia (without Kosovo). The majority lived in Vojvodina (127.884), then in Central and South Serbia (114.434). The largest part of the community stated that they wanted integration (60,6%), while only 4,3% wanted to return, while there were 27,4% who were undecided.[77] In 2013, ca. 45,000[76] from Croatia had refugee status in Serbia.[78]

Community in Serbia

There are also ethnic Serb politicians who are members of mainstream political parties, such as the centre-left Social Democratic Party's MPs and Milanović cabinet members Željko Jovanović, Branko Grčić and Milanka Opačić.

The major Serb party in Croatia is the Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS). In the elections of 2007 and 2011, the SDSS has won all 3 Serbian seats in the parliament. In the Cabinet of Ivo Sanader II, the party was part of the ruling coalition led by the conservative Croatian Democratic Union, and SDSS member Slobodan Uzelac held the post of Deputy Prime Minister.

Serbs are officially recognized as an autochthonous national minority, and as such, they elect three representatives to the Croatian Parliament.[75]


In April 2015 United Nations Human Rights Committee has urged Croatia to ensure the right of minorities to use their language and alphabet.[73] Committee report stated that particularly concerns the use of Serbian Cyrillic in the town of Vukovar and municipalities concerned.[73] Serbian Foreign Minister Ivica Dačić said that his country welcomes the UN Human Rights Committee's report.[74]

Serbian language is officially used in 23 cities and municipalities in Croatia.[72]


Jovan, the Metropolitan of Zagreb and Ljubljana, stated that c. 30,000 Serbs had converted to Catholicism since the Operation Oluja (1995).[71] In the 2011 census, regarding religious affiliation, c. 40,000 declared as "Serbs of the Orthodox faith", while 160,000 declared as "Orthodox".[71]

In 1695 Orthodox Eparchy of Lika-Krbava and Zrinopolje was established by metropolitan Atanasije Ljubojević and certified by Emperor Josef I in 1707. In 1735 the Serbian Orthodox protested in the Marča Monastery and became part of the Serbian Orthodox Church until 1753 when the Pope restored the Roman Catholic clergy. On June 17, 1777 the Eparchy of Križevci was permanently established by Pope Pius VI with its Episcopal see at Križevci, near Zagreb, thus forming the Croatian Greek Catholic Church which would after World War I include other people; the Rusyns and ethnic Ukrainians of Yugoslavia.[29][30]

Serbs in the Croatian Military Frontier were out of the jurisdiction of the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć and in 1611, and after demands from the community, the Pope established the Eparchy of Marča (Vratanija) with seat at the Serbian-built Marča Monastery, with a Byzantine vicar instated as bishop sub-ordinate to the Roman Catholic bishop of Zagreb - working to bring Serbian Orthodox Christians into communion with Rome, which caused struggle of power between the Catholics and the Serbs over the region.[29][30]

In the 1560s a Serbian Orthodox bishop was installed in the Metropolitanate of Požega, seated in the monastery of Remeta.[70] In the 17th century, the Eparchy of Marča was founded at Marča, in the Croatian frontier.[70] These were part of the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate of Peć, which was reestablished in 1557, and lasted under Ottoman governance until 1766.[70] Other bishoprics were founded, although their approval by the Habsburgs hinged on the belief that they would facilitate the union of these Orthodox Christians with the Catholic Church, and in fact, many, including some Orthodox bishops, did unify with Rome.[70]

Serbs of Croatia are Serbian Orthodox. There are many Orthodox monasteries across Croatia, built since the 14th century. Most notable and historically significant are the Krka monastery, Krupa monastery, Dragović monastery, Lepavina Monastery and Gomirje monastery. Many Orthodox churches were demolished during World War II and Yugoslav war, while some were rebuilt by the EU funding, Croatian government and Serbian diaspora donations.[69]


Serbs in Croatia have cultural traditions ranging from kolo dances and singing, which are kept alive today by performances by various folklore groups. Notable traditions include gusle, Ojkanje singing, Čuvari Hristovog groba.


Municipalities with significant Serb population (10% or more):


Cities with significant Serb minority (10% or more):


County Serbs %
Vukovar-Srijem County 27,824 15.50%
Lika-Senj County 6,949 13.65%
Sisak-Moslavina County 21,002 12.18%
Šibenik-Knin County 11,518 10.53%
Karlovac County 13,408 10.40%

Counties with significant Serb minority (10% or more):[68]


Year Serbs %
1900[64] 548,302 17.35%
1910[64] 564,214 16.60%
1921[64] 584,058 16.94%
1931[64] 636,518 16.81%
1948[65] 543,795 14.47%
1953[66] 588,411 15.01%
1961[67] 624,956 15.02%
1971[64] 626,789 14.16%
1981[64] 531,502 11.55%
1991[64] 581,663 12.16%
2001 201,631 4.54%
2011 186,633 4.36%
Serbs in Croatia, 1991[63]
Serbs in Croatia, 2011
Municipalities in Croatia where Serbian language is in official use

According to the 2011 census there were 186,633 ethnic Serbs living in Croatia, 4.4% of the total population. Their number was reduced by more than two thirds in the aftermath of the 1991–95 War in Croatia as the 1991 pre-war census had reported 581,663 Serbs living in Croatia, 12.2% of the total population.


The European Court of Human Rights decided against Croatian Serb Kristina Blečić, stripped her of occupancy rights after leaving her house in 1991 in Zadar.[60] In 2009, the UN Human Rights Committee found a wartime termination of occupancy rights of a Serbian family to violate ICCPR.[61] In 2010, the European Committee on Social Rights found the treatment of Serbs in Croatia in respect of housing to be discriminatory and too slow, thus in violation of Croatia's obligations under the European Social Charter.[62]

The property laws allegedly favor Bosnian Croats refugees who took residence in houses that were left unoccupied and unguarded by Serbs after Operation Storm.[57] Amnesty International's 2005 report considers one of the greatest obstacles to the return of thousands of Croatian Serbs has been the failure of the Croatian authorities to provide adequate housing solutions to Croatian Serbs who were stripped of their occupancy rights, including where possible by reinstating occupancy rights to those who had been affected by their discriminatory termination.[57]

Tension and violence between Serbs and Croats has reduced since 2000 and has remained low to this day, however, significant problems remain.[57] The participation of the largest Serb party SDSS in the Croatian Government of Ivo Sanader has eased tensions to an extent, but the refugee situation is still politically sensitive. The main issue is high-level official and social discrimination against the Serbs.[58] At the height levels of the government, new laws are continuously being introduced in order to combat this discrimination, thus, demonstrating an effort on the part of government.[57] For example, lengthy and in some cases unfair proceedings,[57] particularly in lower level courts, remain a major problem for Serbian returnees pursuing their rights in court.[57] In addition, Serbs continue to be discriminated against in access to employment and in realizing other economic and social rights.[59] Also some cases of violence and harassment against Croatian Serbs continue to be reported.[57]

Flag of Serbs of Croatia, in official use since 2005

Modern Croatia

A small minoriry of pre-war Serb population have returned to Croatia. Today, the majority of the pre-war Serb population from Croatia settled in Serbia and Republika Srpska.[56]

The exodus of Serbs in 1995 was prompted by the advance of the Croatian troops, but was mostly self-organized rather than forced.[51][52] All Serbs were officially called upon to stay in Croatia shortly before the operation. Many Croat refugees moved to homes abandoned by Serbs during [52] At the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia at The Hague, Milan Babić was indicted, pleaded guilty and was convicted for "persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds, a crime against humanity".[53][54] Babić stated during his trial that "during the events, and in particular at the beginning of his political career, he was strongly influenced and misled by Serbian propaganda".[55]

Destroyed Serbian house in Croatia. Most Serbians fled during Operation Storm in 1995.

The war ended with a military success in Operation Storm in 1995 and subsequent peaceful reintegration of the remaining renegade territory in eastern Slavonia in 1998 as a result of the signed Erdut Agreement from 1995. Local Serbs are, on the ground that Agreement, established the Serb National Council and gained the right to establish the Joint Council of Municipalities.

The Republic of Krajina had de facto control over one third of Croatian territory during its existence between 1991 to 1995 but failed to gain international recognition.


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