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She people

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Title: She people  
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Subject: Zhejiang, Jingning She Autonomous County, List of ethnic groups in China, Lishui, Ningde
Collection: Ethnic Groups in Fujian, Ethnic Groups Officially Recognized by China, Zhejiang
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She people

She, Sa
She traditional dance performance in Huanglongyan (黄龙岩), Heyuan, Guangdong
Total population
709,592 (2000)
Regions with significant populations
China: Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Anhui
Languages
Predominantly Hakka. A minuscule minority speak She in Zengcheng, Boluo County, Huidong County and Haifeng County in Guangdong province.
Religion
She indigenous religion (She Wuism),[1] Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Yao, Miao, Hakka Han

The She (畲) people (She Hakka: ; Cantonese: ; Fuzhou: ) are a Chinese ethnic group. They form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China.

She people
Chinese 畲族

They are the largest minority in Fujian province. They are also present in the provinces of Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Guangdong. Some descendants of the She also exist amongst the Hakka minority in Taiwan.

Contents

  • Language 1
  • History 2
  • PRC Autonomous Counties and Ethnic Townships 3
    • Zhejiang Province 3.1
      • Hangzhou Municipality 3.1.1
      • Quzhou Municipality 3.1.2
      • Jinhua Municipality 3.1.3
      • Wenzhou Municipality 3.1.4
      • Lishui Municipality 3.1.5
    • Anhui Province 3.2
      • Xuancheng Municipality 3.2.1
    • Fujian Province 3.3
      • Fuzhou Municipality 3.3.1
      • Ningde Municipality 3.3.2
      • Zhangzhou Municipality 3.3.3
      • Longyan Municipality 3.3.4
    • Jiangxi Province 3.4
      • Shangrao Municipality 3.4.1
      • Yingtan Municipality 3.4.2
      • Fuzhou Municipality 3.4.3
      • Ganzhou Municipality 3.4.4
      • Ji'an Municipality 3.4.5
    • Guangdong Province 3.5
      • Heyuan Municipality 3.5.1
  • Distribution of the She people in China 4
    • Provincial level 4.1
    • District level 4.2
  • Notes and references 5
  • External links 6

Language

The She language is a Hmong–Mien language. Most of the She today speak Chinese dialects, like Hakka. Those who retain their own language - approximately 1,200 individuals in Guangdong province - call themselves Ho Ne "mountain people" (Chinese: 活聂 huóniè). Some said they were descendants of Dongyi, Nanman or Yue peoples.[2][3]

Chinese dialects spoken by the She people as listed in You (2002) include:[4]

History

The Che people are some of the earliest known settlers of Guangdong; they are thought to have originally settled along the shallow shore for easier fishing access during the Neolithic era. Eventually, after an influx of Yuet people moved south during the Warring States period, serious competition between the two peoples for resources developed.

From the time of the Qin dynasty on, waves of migrants from northern China have had a serious impact on the Che people. Because they possessed superior tools and technology, these migrants were able to displace the Che and occupy the better land for farming. As a result of this some of the Che were forced to relocate into the hilly areas of the Jiangxi and Fujian provinces.

Following this relocation, the Che people became hillside farmers. Their methods of farming included burning grasses on the slope, casting rice seeds on those embers and then harvesting the produce following the growth season. Some of the Che people also participated in the production and trade of salt, obtained from the evaporation of local pools of salt water.

Many conflicts took place between the Han Chinese and Che peoples. For example, in one incident, Che salt producers on Lantau Island in Hong Kong attacked the city of Canton in a revolt during the Song dynasty.

The She people are not native to Zhejiang. During the Ming- Qing dynasties they moved into and settled Zhejiang's southern region and mountain districts in the Lower Yangtze region, after they left their homeland in Northern Fujian. It is theorized that the She were pushed out of their land by the Hakka, which caused them to move into Zhejiang.[5]

PRC Autonomous Counties and Ethnic Townships

Zhejiang Province

She ethnic county, townships and towns in Zhejiang

Hangzhou Municipality

Eshan She-nation Ethnic Township (莪山畲族乡) in Tonglu County

Quzhou Municipality

Muchen She-nation Ethnic Township (沐尘畲族乡) in Longyou County

Jinhua Municipality

Shuiting She-nation Ethnic Township (水亭畲族乡) in Lanxi City

Liucheng She-nation Ethnic Township (柳城畲族镇) in Wuyi County

Wenzhou Municipality

Qingjie She-nation Ethnic Township (青街畲族乡) in Pingyang County

Xikeng She-nation Ethnic Township (西坑畲族镇) in Wencheng County

Zhoushan She-nation Ethnic Township (周山畲族乡) in Wencheng County

Fengyang She-nation Ethnic Township (凤阳畲族乡) in Cangnan County

Dailing She-nation Ethnic Township (岱岭畲族乡) in Cangnan County

Siqian She-nation Ethnic Township (司前畲族镇) in Taishun County

Zhuli She-nation Ethnic Township (竹里畲族乡) in Taishun County

Lishui Municipality

Jingning She-nation Autonomous County (景宁畲族自治县)

Laozhu She-nation Ethnic Town (老竹畲族镇) in Liandu District

Lixin She-nation Ethnic Township (丽新畲族乡) in Liandu District

Wuxi She-nation Ethnic Township (雾溪畲族乡) in Yunhe County

Anxi She-nation Ethnic Township (安溪畲族乡) in Yunhe County

Zhuyang She-nation Ethnic Township (竹垟畲族乡) in Longquan City

Sanren She-nation Ethnic Township (三仁畲族乡) in Suichang County

Banqiao She-nation Ethnic Township (板桥畲族乡) in Songyang County

Anhui Province

Xuancheng Municipality

Yunti She-nation Ethnic Township (云梯畲族乡) in Ningguo City

Fujian Province

She ethnic townships in Fujian

Fuzhou Municipality

Xiaocang She-nation Ethnic Township (小沧畲族乡) in Lianjiang County

Ningde Municipality

Muyun She-nation Ethnic Township (穆云畲族乡) in Fu'an City

Kangcuo She-nation Ethnic Township (康厝畲族乡) in Fu'an City

Banzhong She-nation Ethnic Township (坂中畲族乡) in Fu'an City

Xiamen She-nation Ethnic Township (硖门畲族乡) in Fuding City

Yantian She-nation Ethnic Township (盐田畲族乡) in Xiapu County

Shuimen She-nation Ethnic Township (水门畲族乡) in Xiapu County

Chongru She-nation Ethnic Township (崇儒畲族乡) in Xiapu County

Zhangzhou Municipality

Longjiao She-nation Ethnic Township (隆教畲族乡) in Longhai City

Huxi She-nation Ethnic Township (湖西畲族乡) in Zhangpu County

Chiling She-nation Ethnic Township (赤岭畲族乡) in Zhangpu County

Longyan Municipality

Gongzhuang She-nation Ethnic Township (宫庄畲族乡) in Shanghang County

Lufeng She-nation Ethnic Township (庐丰畲族乡) in Shanghang County

Jiangxi Province

She ethnic townships in Jiangxi

Shangrao Municipality

Taiyuan She-nation Ethnic Township (太源畲族乡) in Yanshan County

Huangbi She-nation Ethnic Township (篁碧畲族乡) in Yanshan County

Yingtan Municipality

Zhangping She-nation Ethnic Township (樟坪畲族乡) in Guixi City

Fuzhou Municipality

Jinzhu She-nation Ethnic Township (金竹畲族乡) in LeAn County

Ganzhou Municipality

Chitu She-nation Ethnic Township (赤土畲族乡) in Nankang City

Ji'an Municipality

Donggu She-nation Ethnic Township (东固畲族乡) in Qingyuan District

Longgang She-nation Ethnic Township (龙冈畲族乡) in Yongfeng County

Jinping Minority-nation Ethnic Township (金坪民族乡)[6] in Xiajiang County

Guangdong Province

Heyuan Municipality

Zhangxi She-nation Ethnic Township (漳溪畲族乡) in Dongyuan County

Distribution of the She people in China

An entire block in Beijing Niu Jie (Cow Street) is fenced with a capital wall, decorated with a block-long poster wrapping around the block and depicting all 56 "recognized" ethnic groups of China (including Han) forming "The great united family of peoples" (民族团结大家庭). The section in this photograph shows the following ethnic groups: Gelao people (仡佬) (right) and She people 畲族 (left).

The roughly 45,000 She living in Guizhou Province form a separate subgroup, the Dongjia (东家人 Dongjia ren), who differ notably in culture from the She in other areas.[7]

Provincial level

In a census in year 2000, 709,592 She have been counted in China.

Distribution of the She people in China
Administrative division Number of She relative percentage of all She in China
Fujian Province 375,193 52.87%
Zhejiang Province 170,993 24.1%
Jiangxi Province 77,650 10.94%
Guizhou Province 44,926 6.33%
Guangdong Province 28,053 3.95%
Hunan Province 2,891 0.41%
Hubei Province 2.523 0.36%
Anhui Province 1,563 0.22%
Rest Chinas Province 5,800 0.82%

District level

Distribution of the She people by districts (as of 2000)
Only values of 0.5% and greater have been considered.
Superior provincial level Superior district level City, town, urban district Number of She Relative percentage of all She in China
Province of Fujian City of Ningde City of Fu'an 59,931 8.45%
Province of Guizhou Qiandongnan Miao and Dong Autonomous Prefecture Majiang County 35,422 4.99%
Province of Fujian City of Ningde District of Xiapu 35,071 4.94%
Province of Fujian City of Longyan District of Shanghang 30,735 4.33%
Province of Fujian City of Ningde City of Fuding 28,207 3.98%
Province of Fujian City of Ningde Urban district of Jiaocheng 22,054 3.11%
Province of Fujian City of Zhangzhou District of Zhangpu 20,729 2.92%
Province of Zhejiang City of Lishui Urban district of Liandu 19,455 2.74%
Province of Fujian City of Fuzhou District of Luoyuan 18,495 2.61%
Province of Zhejiang City of Lishui Jingning She Autonomous County 16,144 2.28%
Province of Zhejiang City of Wenzhou District of Cangnan 16,133 2.27%
Province of Zhejiang City of Wenshan District of Taishun 13,862 1.95%
Province of Zhejiang City of Lishui District of Suichang 13,658 1.92%
Province of Fujian City of Fuzhou Lianjiang County 11,918 1.68%
Province of Fujian City of Zhangzhou District of Zhao'an 11,048 1.56%
Province of Fujian City of Zhangzhou City of Longhai 9,583 1.35%
Province of Zhejiang City of Wenzhou Wencheng County 9,287 1.31%
Province of Zhejiang City of Wenzhou Pingyang County 9,137 1.29%
Province of Zhejiang City of Quzhou District of Longyou 8,934 1.26%
Province of Jiangxi City of Ganzhou City of Nankang 8,888 1.25%
Province of Zhejiang City of Lishui Yunhe County 8,884 1.25%
Province of Fujian City of Quanzhou Anxi County 8,673 1.22%
Province of Fujian City of Ningde Gutian County 7,708 1.09%
Province of Zhejiang City of Lishui City of Longquan 7,486 1.05%
Province of Zhejiang City of Jinhua Wuyi County 7,218 1.02%
Province of Fujian City of Sanming District of Ninghua 7,003 0.99%
Province of Jiangxi City of Ganzhou Xinfeng County 6,462 0.91%
Province of Fujian City of Nanping District of Shunchang 6,246 0.88%
Province of Jiangxi City of Ganzhou District of Xingguo 5,777 0.81%
Province of Fujian City of Quanzhou Urban district of Quangang 5,521 0.78%
Province of Jiangxi City of Ganzhou Dayu County 5,380 0.76%
Province of Fujian City of Fuzhou City of Fuqing 5,261 0.74%
Province of Fujian City of Quanzhou City of Nan'an 5,218 0.74%
Province of Fujian City of Sanming City of Yong'an 4,637 0.65%
Province of Guangdong City of Heyuan Dongyuan County 4,621 0.65%
Province of Zhejiang City of Hangzhou Tonglu County 4,536 0.64%
Province of Zhejiang City of Lishui District of Songyang 4,526 0.64%
Province of Guangdong City of Shaoguan City of Nanxiong 4,430 0.62%
Province of Fujian City of Zhangzhou Urban district of Xiangcheng 4,332 0.61%
Province of Fujian City of Nanping City of Jianyang 4,327 0.61%
Province of Fujian City of Fuzhou Yongtai County 4,231 0.6%
Province of Guizhou Qiannan Buyei and Miao Autonomous Prefecture City of Fuquan 4,022 0.57%
Province of Fujian City of Xiamen Urban district of Huli 4,017 0.57%
Province of Zhejiang City of Quzhou Urban district of Qujiang 4,014 0.57%
Province of Fujian City of Fuzhou Urban district of Jin'an 3,867 0.54%
Province of Jiangxi City of Ganzhou District of Huichang 3,632 0.51%
Province of Jiangxi City of Ganzhou District of Yudu 3,630 0.51%
Province of Zhejiang City of Hangzhou City of Lin'an 3,616 0.51%
Rest of China 161,626 22.78%

Notes and references

  • You, Wenliang. 2002. She zu yu yan (The Language of the She people). Fuzhou, China: Fujian ren min chu ban she. (游文良. 2002. 畲族语言. 福州: 福建人民出版社)
  1. ^ 从科仪唱本看畲族的巫术文化
  2. ^ 众说纷纭的畲族民族起源
  3. ^ 南溟網· 關於畬族研究的回顧
  4. ^ Some of the following are Han Chinese dialects.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Est. 2008, Jinping is home to eight minority nations, living in 19 designated villages (村, cun). The township as a whole cannot be said to be expressly for the She. In all, Jiangxi Province has 56 She villages in non-She-nation townships.
  7. ^ Dong Bo [董波]. 2008. From Dongjia to She [从东家人到畲族——贵州麻江县六堡村畲族的人类学考察]. M.A. dissertation, Xiamen University. http://www.docin.com/p-467133563.html

External links

  • Official Website of Jingning She Autonomous County
  • She Nationality
  • The She ethnic minority
  • Chinese Nationalities (She Minority)
  • 畲族网
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