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Sivagangai

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Sivagangai

This article is about the municipality in Tamil Nadu, India. For its namesake district, see Sivagangai district.
Sivagangai
Municipality

Sivagangai Entrance Arch
Nickname(s): Land of Maruthu
Sivagangai
Sivagangai
Location in Tamil Nadu, India

Coordinates: 9°52′N 78°29′E / 9.87°N 78.48°E / 9.87; 78.48Coordinates: 9°52′N 78°29′E / 9.87°N 78.48°E / 9.87; 78.48

Country  India
State Tamil Nadu
District Sivagangai
Region Pandyan Dynasty
Division Madurai
Government
 • Body Sivagangai Municipality
 • Chairperson Mr M.Arujunan B.A.[1]
 • Vice Chairperson Mr V.Sekar.[2]
 • Commissioner of Municipality Mr R.Subramanian B.COM.[3]
Area
 • Total 18 km2 (7 sq mi)
Elevation 102 m (335 ft)
Population (2001)
 • Total 40,129
 • Density 5,770/km2 (14,900/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 630561
Telephone code 04575
Vehicle registration TN 63
Distance from Madurai 40 kilometres (25 mi) WEST (Road)
Distance from Trichirapalli 130 kilometres (81 mi) NORTH (Rail)
Website

Sivagangai, also known as Sivaganga, is a municipality in Sivaganga district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.It is also called as Land of Maruthu Pandiyar. It is the First grade Municipality and administrative headquarters of Sivagangai district.

Etymology

Sivagangai had a population of 40,129. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Sivagangai has an average literacy rate of 72.18%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 83.14%, and female literacy is 61.74%. In Sivaganga, 11.5% of the population is under 6 years of age.[4] This Municipality was constituted as third grade Municipality on 1.4.1965 and up graded as first grade Municipality from 22.5.1998 as per G.O.No 85 MA&WS dated 22.5.1998 by added the area of Ceylon Burma colony,Maruthupandiar complex,Indira nagar.[5]

History

The Kingdom of Ramnad originally comprised the territories of Ramnad, Sivagangai and Pudukottai of today. Raghunatha Sethupathy alias Kilavan Sethupathy, the 7th King of Ramnad reigned between 1674 and 1710. Kilavan Sethupathy, came to know of the bravery and valour of Peria Oodayan of Nalukottai, 4 kilometres from Sholapuram, near Sivagangai.

Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathy assigned to Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai a portion of land sufficient to maintain 1000 armed men. Vijaya Raghunatha Sethupathy became the 8th King of Ramnad in 1710 after the death of Kilavan Sethupathy. The King gave in marriage his daughter Akilandeshwari Nachiar, to Sasivarna Thevar, the son of Nalukottai Peria Oodaya Thevar. The King gave Sasivarna Thevar lands as dowry, free of taxation, sufficient to maintain 1,000 men. He placed him in charge of the fortresses of Piranmalai, Tiruppathur, Sholapuram and Tiruppuvanam as well as the harbour of Thondi. Meanwhile Bhavani Sankaran, the son of Kilavan Sethupathy conquered Ramnad territory and arrested Sundareswara Regunatha Sethupathy, the 9th King of Ramnad. Bhavani Sankaran proclaimed himself as the Rajah of Ramnad. He became the 10th king of Ramnad and he reigned from 1726 to 1729.

He quarrelled with Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar of Nalukottai and drove him out of his Nalukottai palayam. KattayaThevar, the brother of the late Sundareswara Raghunatha Sethupathy fled from Ramnad and sought refuge with the Rajah of Tanjore Tuljaji. While Sasivarna Thevar was passing through the jungles of Kalayarkoi, he met a gnani (sage) named Sattappiah, who was performing Thapas (meditation) under a jambool tree near a spring called Sivaganga . The deposed king prostrated himself before him and narrated all the previous incidents of his life. The Gnani whispered a certain mantra in his ears (Mantra Opadesam) and advised him to go to Tanjore and kill a ferocious tiger, which was kept by the Rajah especially to test the bravery of men. Sasivarna Thevar went to Tanjore. There he became acquainted with Kattaya Thevar a refugee like himself. Satisfied with the good behaviour of Sasivarna Thevar and Kattaya Thevar, the Rajah of Tanjore wanted to help them to regain the States again, ordered his Dalavoy to go with a large army to invade Bhavani Sankarathevar. Sasivarna Thevar and Kattaya Thevar at once proceeded to Ramnad with a large army furnished by the king of Tanjore. They defeated Bhavani Sankara Thevar at the battle of Uraiyur and captured Ramnad in 1730. Thus Kattaya Thevar became the 11th King of Ramnad.

Kattaya Thevar divided Ramnad into five parts and retained three for himself. He granted the two parts to Sasivarna Thevar (1730-1750) of Nalukottai conferring on him the title of "Rajah Muthu Vijaya Regunatha Peria Oodaya Thevar ".

Sasivarna Peria Oodaya Thevar died in or about the year 1750. He was succeeded by his only son Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar (1750-1772). He was the second Rajah of Sivagangai. His wife Rani Velu Nachiar acted as "friend, philosopher and guide" to him. Tandavaraya Pillai was the able minister of Sivagangai. Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar granted commercial facilities to the Dutch only after the British rejected a similar offer, made to Colonel Heron. Further the aim of the British was to oblige the ruler of Sivaganga to serve the Nawab or to pay tribute to him or to dissuade them from establishing relations with foreign powers like the Dutch.

A two pronged offensive was made by the British. Joseph Smith from the east and Benjour from the west invaded Sivaganga Palayam in June 1772. The country was full of bushes of cockspur thorn, though there were villages and open spaces here and there. Rajah Muthu Vaduganatha Thevar, in anticipation of the invasion, erected barriers on the roads, dug trenches and established posts in the woods of Kalayarkoil. On the 21st of June 1772 the detachment of Smith and Benjour joined forces and occupied the town of Sivaganga.

The next day, the British forces marched to Kalayarkoil and captured the posts of Keeranoor and Sholapuram. Now, Benjour continuing the operations came into conflict with the main body of the troops of Sivaganga on the 25th June 1772. Muthu Vaduganatha Rajah with many of his followers fell dead in that heroic battle. The heroic activities shown in the battle field by Velu Nachiar is praised by the historians. The widow queen Velu Nachiar and daughter Vellachi Nachiar with Tandavaraya Pillai fled to Virupakshi in Dindigul. Later they were joined by the two able Servaigarars Vellai Marudhu and Chinna Marudhu.

Rani Velu Nachiar (1772–1780) and her daughter Vellachi Nachiar lived under the protection of Hyder Ali at Virupakshi near Dindigul. Frustrated by the joining of forces against him, the Nawab ordered that Velu Nachiar and the Marudhu brothers were permitted to return to Sivaganga to rule the country subject to payment of Kist to the Nawab. Abiding by this Order, Rani Velu Nachiar accompanied by the Marudhu brothers and Vellachi Nachiar entered Sivaganga. An agreement was reached whereby Rani Velu Nachiar was permitted to govern the Sivaganga Country and Chinna Marudhu, the younger was appointed her minister and the elder Vellai Marudhu as the Commander-in-chief. Thus the widow Queen Velu Nachiar succeeded her husband in 1780.

The Queen Velu Nachiar granted powers to the Marudhu brothers (1748–1801) to administer the country in 1780. Velu Nachiar died a few years later, but the exact date of her death is not known (it was about 1790). The Marudhu brothers were the sons of Udayar Servai alias Mookiah Palaniappan Servai and Anandayer alias Ponnathal. They were from Kongulu Street of Ramnad. They belonged neither to the family of the ancient poligars nor to their division of the caste.

Servaikaran was the caste title and Marudhu the family name. The Marudhu brothers served under Muthu Vaduganathan. Later they were elevated to the position of commanders. Two forms of the boomerang were used in India. These weapons were commonly made of wood. It was crescent-shaped, one end being heavier than the other, and the outer edge was sharpened. Their name in Tamil is 'valari' stick. It is said that the Marudhu brothers were experts in the art of throwing the valari stick. It is said that Marudhus used the valari in the Poligar wars against the British. The Marudhu brothers with 12,000 armed men surrounded Sivaganga and plundered the Nawab's territories. The Nawab on the 10th of March 1789 appealed to the Madras Council for aid. On 29 April 1789, the British forces attacked Kollangudi. They were defeated by a large body of Marudhu's troops. He was in close association with Veera Pandiya Kattabomman of Panchalankurichi. Kattabomman held frequent consultations with Marudhus. After the execution of Kattabomman in 17 October 1799 at Kayattar, Chinna Marudhu gave asylum to Kattabomman's brother Oomadurai (dumb brother). He issued an epoch-making Jumboo Deweepa proclamation to the people in the island of Jamboo to fight against the British whether they were Hindus, Mussalamans or Christians. At last the Marudhu Pandiyars fell victim to the cause of liberating the motherland from the British supremacy. Marudhu Pandiyan, the popular leader of the rebels, together with his gallant brother Vellai Marudhu were executed on the ruins of the fort at Tiruppathur in Sivaganga District on 24 October 1801. They showed their determination and spirit at the outset of the final struggle of 1801 by setting their handsome village Siruvayal on fire to prevent its being made use of by the British forces.

The Marudhu brothers were not only warriors noted for bravery, but were great administrators. During the period from 1783 to 1801, they worked for the welfare of the people and the Sivaganga Seemai was reported to be fertile. They constructed many notable temples and churches in the area of Sivagangai also a few notable places like Kalayar Kovil Marudhu Temple, Pallithammam Moovarasar Church with many Ooranis and Tanks.

After so many successions of legal heirs had ruled the estate, lastly Sri D. S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah succeeded to the estate of the late Sri. D. Shanmuga Rajah and he was the Hereditary Trustee of Sivaganga. Devasthanam and Chatrams consisted of 108 temples, 22 Kattalais and 20 Chatrams.

D.S. Karthikeya Venkatachalapathy Rajah died on 30 August 1986, leaving a daughter named Tmt.. Maduranthagi Nachiyar as his heir. At present, Tmt. Maduranthagi Nachiyar administers the Sivaganga Estate, Sivaganga Devasthanam and Chatram of Sivaganga Royal Family. Based on the "District Gazette" 1990 of Ramanathapuram, and the history of Sivaganga maintained by Samasthanam, Sivaganga District has been formed mostly with an area of entire Sivaganga Zamin and part of Ramnad Zamin.The nearest towns include Ilaiyangudi, Ramanathapuram, and Sivagangai.[6]

Geography

Sivagangai has an average elevation of 102 metres (334 feet). The maximum temperature during summer is 39°C and during winter it is 28°C. The minimum temperature varies from 24.5°C to 26.0°C. The seasonal climate conditions are moderate and the weather is uniformly salubrious. The town gets major rainfall during the North East monsoon period. The Annual normal rainfall varies from 336.2 mm . The average annual rainfall being received in the town is 770 mm.[7]

Climate data for Sivagangai
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.6
(83.5)
30.3
(86.5)
32.1
(89.8)
33.8
(92.8)
34.0
(93.2)
33.0
(91.4)
33.0
(91.4)
32.6
(90.7)
32.5
(90.5)
31.7
(89.1)
30.0
(86)
28.5
(83.3)
31.68
(89.02)
Average low °C (°F) 23.9
(75)
23.8
(74.8)
24.8
(76.6)
27.1
(80.8)
27.8
(82)
27.3
(81.1)
26.7
(80.1)
26.3
(79.3)
26.0
(78.8)
25.5
(77.9)
24.7
(76.5)
24.1
(75.4)
25.67
(78.19)
Precipitation mm (inches) 3
(0.12)
1
(0.04)
2
(0.08)
3
(0.12)
2
(0.08)
0
(0)
1
(0.04)
1
(0.04)
2
(0.08)
0
(0)
12
(0.47)
10
(0.39)
37
(1.46)
Source: Climate Sivagangai
[8]

Demographics

Sivagangai Municipality is a First Grade Municipality as District Head quarters. This Municipality is situated at a distance of 40 KM from Madurai, 35 km from Thirupattur and 20 km from Manamadurai Highway. This is the District Head quarters and connected by both roads and rails. The extent of the town is 6.97 km. The population as per 2001 census is 40220.

Sivagangai town has grown at a rate of 25% during past two decades. Hence the overall development pattern concentrated in whole area. Population density of Sivagangai town has nearly doubled in the past three decades. Spread over area of 6.970 sqkm, the density rose to 3500 person/sqkm in 1981 and to 4800 person/sqkm in 1991. The development longly concentrated along the whole town area and Sivagangai urban population is up to 80,000.[9]

As of the census of India 2001, Sivaganga had a population of 40,220 comprising 20,251 males and 19,969 females, making the sex ratio (number of females per thousand males) of the town to 986. A total of 4,559 people were under six years of age and the child sex ratio (number of females per thousand males under six years of age) stood at 938. The town had an average literacy of 90.98%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. A total of 3,558 comprising 9.98% of the population belonged to Scheduled Castes (SC) and 12 comprising 0.03% of the population belonged to Scheduled tribes (ST). There were are total of 9,293 households in the town. As of 2001, Sivaganga had a total of 11,634 main workers: 88 cultivators, 82 agricultural labourers, 154 in house hold industries and 11,310 other workers. There was a total of 213 marginal workers: 5 marginal cultivators, 19 marginal agricultural labourers, 15 marginal workers in household industries and 174 other marginal workers.[10]

Administration


The city of Sivaganga is the district headquarters. It is bounded by Pudukkottai district on the Northeast, Tiruchirapalli district on the North, Ramanathapuram district on South East, Virudhunagar district on South West and Madurai District on the West.Sivaganga District has been carved out from composite Ramnad District as per G.O. MS. No. 1122 Rev. Dept. Dated. 6.7.84 and the District was functioning from 15.3.85 as per G.O Ms.No. 346 Rev. dept. Dated: 8.3.85.

Sivagangai is the Headquarters of Sivagangai Block. It consist of 43 Panchayat Villages. And also Sivagangai Taluk is the largest Taluk in Sivagangai District, which is consist of 130 Revenue villages. Sivaganga is the district headquarters. The district has 6 taluks in 2 revenue division. And also its having 12 Blocks as well as 12 Town Panchayat.

The District Courts of Sivaganga are presided over by a judge. They administer justice in Sivagangai at a district level. These courts are under administrative and judicial control of the Madras High Court ( Madurai Bench ) of the State to which the district concerned belongs. It consist of 6 Subordinate courts like Devakottai, Manamadurai, Karaikudi, Thirupathur, Illayankudi.

Karaikudi is a part of the Sivaganga (Lok Sabha constituency) – it has the following six assembly constituencies – Thirumayam, Tiruppattur,Karaikudi, Alangudi, Manamadurai and Sivaganga. The current Member of Parliament from the constituency is P. Chidambaram from the Indian National Congress (INC), who is also the Finance Minister of the country. From 1967, the Sivangang parliament seat was held by the Indian National Congress for eight times (during 1980, 1984, 1989, 1991, 1999, 2004 and 2009 elections), ADMK once (during 1977 elections), Tamil Maanila Congress twice (during 1996 and 1998 elections) and Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam twice (during the 1967 and 1971 elections).[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Transport


Buses that connect the nearby villages and smaller towns (e.g. Devakottai, Manamadurai, Kalayar koil, Thirupathur, Illayankudi, Thiruvadanai) terminate at the Sivagangai bus-stand. The State Transport Corporation runs long-distance buses to Coimbatore, Chennai from Sivagangai bus-stand. All mofussil buses that connect Sivagangai with towns such as Madurai, Salem, Trichy, Sivakasi, Aruppukottai, Dindigul, Palani, Pattukottai, Thanjavur, Theni, Erode, Aranthangi, Nagoor, Thiruvarur, Mannargudi, Velankanni,Rameshwaram, Ramanathapuram, Kalayar Kovil, Paramakudi, Mudukulothoor, Pudukottai, Nagapattinam, Tirupur, Coimbatore(TNSTC), terminate at the bus-stand. And 24 Hrs buses available to reach Madurai[Mattuthavani Integrated Bus Terminus].

National Highway 85 Cochin-Munnar-Bodinayakanur-Theni-Madurai City-Sivagangai-Thondi, NH 226 Thanjavur-Pudukottai-Thirupathur-Sivagangai-Mannamadurai and State Highway SH 34 Ramanathapuram-Illayankudi-Sivagangai-Melur are the major roads passing via Sivaganga.


Sivagangai railway station is located in the east side of town, where the railway line of Trichy-Rameshwaram join and this is serving as Guard line for Virudhunagar to Tiruchirapalli Jn for southern districts trains to reach Chennai Egmore and also operating for goods service due to reduce the rush in main line ( Virudhunagar, Madurai Jn, Dindigul, Tiruchy ).[24] Several Express trains and passenger trains are passing through this city and connecting with the cities like Karaikudi, Rameshwarem, Ramanathapuram, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Erode, Tirupur, Chennai Egmore, Thanjavur, Villupuram, Cuudalore, Pudukottai, Virudachallm, Varanasi, Bhuvaneswar,etc. And Madurai is very nearest main city. So There are direct trains from Madurai connecting the important cities in Tamil Nadu like Chennai, Coimbatore, Kanyakumari, Trichy, Tirunelveli, Karaikudi, Mayiladuthurai, Rameswaram, Thanjavur and Vriddhachalam.[96] Madurai has rail connectivity with important cities and towns in India.

Madurai International Airport is 40 km away. Tiruchirapalli Airport is about 130 km away.

Education

Government Sivagangai Medical College & Hospital (SMCH) is an Educational Institution located in outskirts of Sivagangai Municipality, Tamil Nadu.

Economy

Graphite is one of the common resources in Sivagangai.[25] Graphite is used as an industrial lubricant and as a moderator in nuclear reactors. Very valuable graphite is available in Sivagangai and its surrounding areas.The Sivaganga graphite is of flaky variety with 14% average Fixed Carbon used in the manufacture of refractory bricks, expanded graphite, crucibles and carbon brushes. TAMIN has over 600 acres of graphite bearing land in Pudupatti, Kumaripatti and Senthiudayanathapuram of Sivaganga taluk, Sivagangai District, Tamil Nadu. Estimated reserve of graphite ore in leasehold area is three million tonnes.(recoverable graphite from 14% F.C is approximately 3 lakh tonnes).[26]

The majority of the workforce is dependent on agriculture (72.8%). The principal crop of Sivaganga district is paddy rice. Most of the district has red soil. The other crops grown are sugarcane, groundnuts, pulses, millet and cereals. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University plans to set up the State's first Red Soil Dryland Research Centre in Sivaganga district.

The Spices Board will be setting up a new spices park at Sivaganga on an investment of Rs.18 crores. As of December 2010 this park is expected to be operational by March 2011.[27] It will be immensely helpful to farmers of chili peppers, turmeric, medicinal plants and tamarind, as the focus would be to export their products. The proposed spices park would establish machinery for cleaning, sorting, grading, packaging, storing, sterilising and other work. The focus would be to encourage chili peppers, a leading crop in Ramanathapuram, Sivaganga and nearby districts, and turmeric crops. Medicinal plants, being raised in and around Madurai district, would also get a boost, as it was planned to patronise farmers of medicinal plants.

Sakthi sugar factory is also located in Padamathur, Sivaganga. It has the capacity to produce more than 5000 tons of sugar per day. It provides employment to more than 1000 labourers, directly and indirectly. Moser Baer Clean Energy Limited has commissioned a 5 MW grid connected solar PV project at Sivaganga, Tamil Nadu. The project was awarded to Sapphire Industrial Infrastructure Pvt. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of MBCEL, through a competitive bidding process conducted by the Tamil Nadu Renewable Development Agency. The project is implemented under the 50 MWp generation based incentive scheme of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.[28]

References

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